Presentation on theme: ". RITES OF PASSAGE FROM EAST AFRICA Birth, adolescence, leaving home, marriage, death Learning appropriate behavior for new phase being entered Participant."— Presentation transcript:
. RITES OF PASSAGE FROM EAST AFRICA Birth, adolescence, leaving home, marriage, death Learning appropriate behavior for new phase being entered Participant is formally admitted into the new role
Boys belonging to the Masai tribes of East Africa become warriors between the ages of 12 and 16 after a ritual in which a group of initiates is isolated, their heads shaved, and then circumcised. Age ceremonies for girls were traditionally associated with the onset of menstruation.However, in contrast to males, young women were generally isolated individually (usually for about one week), after which they often participated in activities literally or symbolically related to their future status as homemakers. I Rituals tell children when they become adults and what is expected of them as adults Eshira girls painated white and wearing red adornments for Mabandji rite.
Different cultures have different rites of passages. In Africa when women menstruate, they are sent away and taught by the older women about womanhood. The Zulus and the Lesse tribe in Zaire girls are secluded during the beginning of puberty. The Ndembus of Zambia seclude the girls for 3 months and can communicate with the outside only by messages played on a harp- like instrument. In Gabon, Africa the Eshira girls are painted white and wear red adornments for Mabandji rite. The red means life force and the white means strength and good reproductive health. The Massai shave their heads and their skin is painted with ochre which is a color lighter than skin color, in preparation for marriage. In Lome, West Africa girls are initialed into the Vodun religion which is voodoo. They are secluded, then taught and then returned to their family. They are full participants in their society.
Masai tribes Masaii of modern East Africa (eatablished today in south-western Kenya and north- western Tanzania) belong to the group of nilotica which in the following two-three centuries have migrated from their native (curent Sudan).Some of this groups,among the masaii, have adopted the pastoral lifestyle almost exclusively.
Fiecare in clanul sau Viata masailor, asemenea totoror societatilor traditionale, este supusa unor reguli foarte precise. Pana la varsta de 6 ani, copiii de ambele sexe cresc sub obladuirea mamelor. Apoi, baietii se alatura sectiunii (clanului) barbatilor, iar fetele raman in continuare sub supravegherea femeilor. In acest moment de separatie, atat baietilor, cat si fetelor li se fac daruri.Baietii primesc in dar miei, capre si chiar vitei, o data cu semnul distinctiv al pastorilor ce vor deveni - batul sau toiagul cu ce vor mana vitele. A rite of passage, which marks a time when a person reaches a new and significant change in his/her life, is something that nearly all societies recognize and often hold ceremonies for. These ceremonies are held to observe a person's entry into a new stage of life and can be anything from a high school graduation ceremony or a birthday party, to a funeral. Most rites help people to understand their new roles in society. They can also help others learn to treat people in new ways after they experience certain rites of passage.
THE RUINS OF THE TEMPLE OF MINERVA AT SBEITLA
Adultii ii invata pe baieti cum sa le pazeasca si sa aiba grija de fete. Iar fetele invata cum sa coasa si sa mulga, sa scoata apa din puturi sau sa-si ajute mamele la adunatul vreascurilor. Fiind la varsta primelor podoabe, lor li se vor oferi bratari si coliere din perle, aratandu-li-se cum sa se picteze cu ocru pentru a fi cat mai atragatoare. De altfel, preocuparea pentru vestimentatie si aspect exterior este comuna ambelor sexe
Most rites of passage fall into three main phases: separation, transition, and incorporation. In the separation phase, the participant is taken away from his/her familiar environment and former role and enters a very different and sometimes foreign routine that they are forced to adjust to and become familiar with. A rite that would fall into this category would be birth. The infant leaves a very safe and secure environment in their mother's womb to an extremely different one in the real world. Death can also be a separation rite, depending on a person's belief about what happens after someone dies. Societies have devised ways to mark these separations and aid in the transitions that will take place. For instance, the naming of babies marks the significant event of birth. Funerals and the many different funeral customs mark the separation that takes place when a death occurs. Funerals can also help those left behind to make the necessary changes needed to adjust to being separated from loved ones.
Dogon people moved to the Bandiagara Escarpment in the 15th century, successfully escaping Muslim expansion and preserving their traditions and culture. Dogon farmers have created green oases around their cliffside villages by constructing irrigation channels. The contain are the Dogon ancestral burial caves, which span over a thousand miles of the escarpment. A Dogon Dance Mask
The Dogon have an ancient and complex cosmology based on a single god, Amma, who created the sun, moon, and the stars. Interestingly, the Dogon always believed that the Earth was round and circled the Sun. It has also been found that they believed there are eleven planets in the solar system, and that they originally came from the star cluster Sirius. Their artistic designs in woodcarvings and masks had a major influence on modern art, including Picasso. Their dances include over 80 varieties of masks, depending on the type of celebration.
Every three years, the Dogon round up all the boys over the age of 12 who have not yet been circumcized, and begin the ritual of passage to manhood. High in the cliffs, there is a special place where boys are seated on a special stone where chop! and a week-long tradition of teachings and exercizses prepares the young men for adulthood. It is here where they are taught ancient rules for social and all other forms of conduct in the village. They also perform tasks, such as playing musical instruments, throwing stones, and not crying during the big snip