2Sex v. Gender Sex: the biological differences between male and female Genetic (chromosomes), anatomical (organs, structures)Gender: the social classification of masculine and feminineRefers to the way members of the two sexes are perceived, evaluated, and expected to behaveLearned, not born
3Sex is biologically determined characteristic, while gender is a socially constructed characteristic All societies use anatomical differences to assign gender roles
4Sex and the BodyDifferences in the body distinguish males and females apart.Primary sex characteristics: the genitals, organs used for reproduction.Secondary sex characteristics-body development apart from the genitals, that distinguishes biologically mature females from males. (Facial hair for men, larger breasts for women)Hermaphrodites: a human being with some combination of female and male genitalia.
5Sex: A Cultural Issue Sexuality is very much a cultural issue. Cultural VariationsThe simple practice of showing affection has extensive cultural variation. Most people in the U.S. kiss in public, the Chinese kiss only in private. The French kiss publicly often two times (once on each cheek). Belgians kiss three times starting with one cheek. The Maoris of New Zealand, rub noses, and most people in Nigeria don’t kiss at all.
6GenderGender refers to the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being male and femaleGender: the social classification of masculine and feminineRefers to the way members of the two sexes are perceived, evaluated, and expected to behaveLearned, not born
7How do we form our gender identities? Gender identity--how we come to think of ourselves as male or female--is formed from1) BiologyPrenatal differentiationChromosomes, internal reproductive structures, external genitals, hormones, brain development2) SocializationHow the family and the culture in which we grow up influence our sense of femaleness or maleness.
8Cultural Construction of Gender The idea that gender characteristics are not inborn but rather constructed within each culture.All cultures recognize:Two sexes:MaleFemaleTwo genders:MasculineFeminineSome cultures recognize a combined male/female genderTo say gender is ‘constructed’ is to say that masculine and feminine have different meanings (and associated behaviors) in different cultures.
9Gender Roles Masculine and feminine traits are differ across cultures Margaret Mead,Landmark 1935 book studied gender roles in three cultures in New GuineaArapesh culture: both men and women appeared to be mild-mannered, lacking in libido (i.e. “feminine”)Mundugumor culture: both sexes seemed aggressive and ‘highly sexed.’ (i.e. “masculine”)Tchambuli culture: women dominant, men emotionally dependent (approximate reversal of our gender roles)
10Gender in the U.S. Breadwinner Housewife A traditional gender role found in the United States that views males as being responsible for the economic support and protection of the family.HousewifeA traditional gender role found in the United States that views females as responsible for child-rearing and domestic activities.
11Change Over Time Gender Roles can change over time within a culture Dad staying home w/kids & mom working may have been ridiculed in 1950s, not considered odd today.More women are entering formerly male- dominated occupations
12Gender RolesIn the United States, it is estimated that approximately 20% of all preschool children are cared for primarily by their fathers.
13Alternative Gender Roles Genders that are neither man nor woman have been described in many societies.Two-Spirit: a man living as a woman and considered to have supernatural powers in Native American society.Hijra: an alternative gender role in India conceptualized as neither man nor woman.
14GenderThis Hijra man, who presents himself as being “like a woman,” is an excellent example of the socially constructed basis for sexuality.
15Development of Social Gender Identity 2-3 years old: children can “name” their gender, but most don’t really know what it means.Don’t know that gender is constant (i.e. that a little boy can’t grow up and have a baby one day)Around 4-5 years old: children embrace gender, start experimenting with stereotypical objects and behaviors.This is part of how kids try to grasp gender constancy--by behaving as expected for their gender, so that their gender doesn’t “change.”By 7-8 years old: children can accept that gender roles are not rigid if they’ve been previously exposed to nonstereotypical ideas about gender.
16Social-Learning Influences on Gender Identity Parents and people in general have preconceived ideas about how boys and girls behave even before a baby is born.
17Social-Learning Influences on Gender Identity Social-Learning theory: suggests that identification with masculine, feminine, or androgynous roles results primarily from the socio-cultural influences we are exposed to during our early development.Gender role expectations strongly influence the environment in which the child is raised.Color of the room, toy selection, etc.How parents respond to childrenboy encouraged to suppress tears, be independent, even aggressive“boys will be boys”girl may be encouraged to be nurturing and cooperative
18How do we learn gender roles? Socialization: the process by which our society conveys behavioral expectations to the individual.Five agents of socializationparental expectationspeers influence how child playsschool teachers and textbookstelevision and gender-based stereotypesreligious training
19Parents as shapers of gender roles Encouragement of gender-typed play activities and household chores.Modeling gender-typed behaviors.or
20Parents as shapers of gender roles Baby girls often receive more attention than baby boys do.Baby girls often treated as fragile.Girls may be comforted when they cry; boys may be told that “boys don’t cry.”Parents are more protective and restrictive of girls; boys receive more freedom.Boys receive parental encouragement for being assertive and limiting emotional expression; girls are rewarded for positively interacting with others.
21Schools & Educational Environment Research suggests that girls and boys receive different treatment in the classroom.Teachers call on and encourage boys more.Boys who call out answers w/o being recognized aren’t usually punished, but girls are.Teachers tolerate bad behavior in elementary school boys more than girls.Boys are more likely to receive attention, help, and praise from teachers.Teachers give girls more attention when they act dependently, but give boys more attention for acting independently or assertively.Girls frequently suffer a loss of confidence in their math and science abilities in middle school years (around adolescence/puberty).
22Media & gender stereotypes Men appear as active, intelligent, adventurous, in charge.More emphasis placed on the character’s abilities.Women appear as passive, less competent, more domestic.More emphasis placed on the character’s appearance.Television industry is gradually improvingBetter than it was in the 1950sStill far from gender-neutral.
26Organized Religion & Gender Roles Jewish, Christian, and Islamic traditionsEmphasis on male supremacyGod presented as male using language as Father, He, or King.Ex: biblical concept of Eve as created from Adam’s rib shows endorsement that females are secondary to males.Leadership of most religious organizations in the U.S. is mostly maleNo female Protestant clergy until 1970.No female rabbis until 1972.Roman Catholic church still does not allow female priests.There are current movements to change traditional patriarchal nature of organized religion in U.S.More females becoming religious leaders.Efforts to reduce sexist language in religious writings (I.e. replace “God the Father” w/“Creator;” replace “mankind” with “humanity;” replace “sons of God” w/”children of God.”
27Impact of gender role expectations on our sexuality Men as initiators, women as recipientsIdea that men should initiate sex (could be the first time, or even after years together).Men as “sexperts”Idea that men know what to do, that they don’t need to ask women, and that women shouldn’t make suggestions.Women as controllers, men as moversEspecially in adolescent years, women are “supposed” to pay more attention to regulating “how far the guy gets” than to her own sexual enjoyment.Men as unemotional and strong, women as nurturing and supportive (“men lust, women love”)
28Boys will be Girls Girls will be Boys Gender RolesBoys will be Girls Girls will be Boys
29Transcending gender roles: Androgyny Androgyny: a blending of typically male and typically female behaviors in one individual.Describes flexibility in gender roles, integration of different aspects of masculinity and femininity into one’s personality.Don’t need to limit behaviors and interests to those considered gender appropriate.Research suggests that androgynous peopleHave higher self-esteemExhibit more social competenceMore independentHave more positive attitudes toward sexuality
30Transsexualism and Transgenderism Transgendered: general term applied to people who have gender identities, gender expressions or gendered behaviors not traditionally associated with their birth sex.Cross-dresser, TransvestieTranssexual: person whose gender identity is opposite to his or her biological sex to the extent that he/she will seek hormonal and surgical sex reassignment.Exhibit gender dysphoria: feel that he/she is trapped in the body of the “wrong” sex.Main difference between the two:transgendered person does not want to change his or her physical body to agree with their gender identity,whereas a transsexual person does want to change their body to fit their gender identity.
31Billy TiptonBorn in 1914.Started dressing like a man to get into and play at jazz clubs.Began living as a man full-time by 1940 at age 26, had a career as a jazz and swing pianist and entertainerHad a common law marriage (unregistered but publicly accepted), and three sons by adoption.He was discovered to have been female-bodied after he died in 1989 due to a hemorrhaging ulcer (that he refused to have treated).Like many female-to-male transsexuals of his day he did not have genital surgery.
32Sexual OrientationAll human activities, including sexual preferences are to some extent learned and malleable.Sexual orientation refers to a person’s habitual sexual attractions and activities.Heterosexuality refers to the sexual preference for members of the opposite sex.Norm around the worldHomosexuality refers to the sexual preference for members of the same sex.Bisexuality refers to the sexual preference for members of both sexes.Asexuality refers to indifference toward or lack of attraction to either sex.
33Sexual Attitudes in the United States Our cultural orientation toward sexuality has always been inconsistent. European immigrants arrived with rigid notions about “correct” sexuality, which meant that sex was only for the purpose of reproduction within marriage.As late as the 1960’s some states legally banned the sale of condoms. Even today some states have laws on books banning homosexuality as “unnatural” acts.
34Our culture is also very individualistic, and many believe in giving people freedom to do pretty much as they please, as long as they cause no direct harm to others. This thinking makes sex a matter of individual freedom and personal choice.
35Incest TabooOne cultural universal—an element found in every society the world over—is the incest taboo, a norm forbidding sexual relations or marriages between certain relatives.In the U.S., law and cultural mores prohibit close relatives (including brothers and sisters, parents and children) from having sex or marrying. But exactly which family members are prohibited are different in every culture.
37The Sexual RevolutionProfound changes occurred during the twentieth century.In the 1920’s millions of people migrated from farms and small towns to the large cities.“Roaring Twenties.”Cars were rooms on wheels
38Sexual RevolutionTechnology also played a part in the sexual revolution.“The Pill,” was introduced in 1960 not only making preventing pregnancy but making sex more convenient.Double Standard-society allows men to be sexually active while expecting women to remain chaste before marriage and faithful to their husbands afterward.The sexual revolution increased sexual activity overall, but it changed behavior among women more than men.
39The Sexual Counter Revolution— was a political call from the conservatives to return to “family values.”Cohabitation brings children into the world where their parents are not married.This simply did not change the minds of the general public, what happened was the increased number of sexually transmitted diseases (STD).Herpes is incurable and AIDS is a deadly disease.
40The Sexual RevolutionProfound changes occurred during the twentieth century.In the 1920’s millions of people migrated from farms and small towns to the large cities.“Roaring Twenties.”Cars were rooms on wheels
41Sexual ControversiesTeen Pregnancy— Being sexually active— especially having intercourse— demands a high level of responsibility because pregnancy can result.Pornography— is sexually explicit material that causes sexual arousal.What exactly is or is not pornographic has long been a matter of debate.Prostitution— is the selling of sexual services.Often called the “world’s oldest profession.”
42Street walkers are women and men who work the streets of large cities. Call girls are elite prostitutes, typically women who are young, attractive and well educated and arrange their own appointments with clients by telephone.These women offer companionship and sex for a fee.Sex workers in the middle category are employed in “massage parlors” or brothels under the control of managers.These people have less choice about their clients and receive less money for their services, getting to keep more than half of what they make.Street walkers are women and men who work the streets of large cities.Females workers are often under the control of pimps who take most of their earnings.
43Sexual Violence and Abuse Rape— an expression of power, a violent act that uses sex to hurt, humiliate, or control another person.The official definition of rape is “the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly against her will.”Date Rape— involves people who know one another, and the incident usually occurs in familiar surroundings especially in the home.
44Patriarchy and SexismPatriarchy is a form of social organization in which males dominate femalesIn general, women fare better in rich nations than in poor countriesMatriarchy is a form of social organization in which females dominate malesNo matriarchal societies are known to exist or to have existedSexism is the belief one sex is innately superior to the otherIt underlies patriarchy and harms men, women, and the society as a wholePatriarchy is not inevitable because modern technology has eliminated most of the historic justification for itSexism operates at both an individual and institutional level
45Violence Against Women Family violence is frequently directed against womenFemale genital mutilation is practiced extensively in parts of Africa and the Middle EastSexual harassment refers to comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature that is deliberate, repeated, and unwelcomedWomen are more likely to be sexually harassed then menSome harassment is blatant but much of it is subtleFeminists define pornography as a form of sexual violence against women, arguing that it demeans women and promotes rape
46Theoretical Analysis of Sexuality Structural-Functional AnalysisThe structural-functional approach highlights the contributions of any social pattern to the overall operation of society.Because sexuality is an important dimension of social life, society regulates sexual behavior.
47Symbolic-Interaction Analysis Symbolic interaction paradigm highlights how, as people interact, they construct everyday reality. The process for constructing reality is highly variable.One groups view of sexuality is very different from another group.In the same way how people understand sexuality can and does change over time.
48The Social Construction of Sexuality A century ago, our society’s norm—for women— was virginity before marriage. This norm was strong because, without effective birth control, virginity was the only assurance a man had that his bride to be was not carrying another man’s child.
49Conflict AnalysisThe Conflict Paradigm highlights dimensions of inequality. This paradigm shows how sexuality both reflects patterns of social inequality and helps create them.
50Gender and InequalityGender Stratification refers to the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and womenA division in society where all members are hierarchically ranked according to gender.Men and women differ in their access to privilege, prestige, and power.Traditionally, men have been first in line when it comes to who get what, when, and how
51Gender and Social Stratification In industrial societies, women working for income is now the rule rather than the exception62% of US married couples depend on two incomesWomen continue to enter a narrow range of occupationsAlmost half in clerical or service workThe greater a job’s income and prestige, the more likely it is that the position will be held by a maleWorking has not substantially reduced women’s dominance in housework as men have failed to increase helping more at home
52The average female full-time worker earns about 76 cents for every dollar earned by a male full-time employeeMost of this results from the different kinds of jobs held by men v. womenThe greater responsibility for family and childcare tasks that our society has traditionally assigned to women is another factor explaining the earning differentialDiscrimination is a third critical factorOur society still defines high-paying professions as masculine; this helps to explain why an equal number of men and women begin most professional graduate programs, but women are less likely to complete their degreeFemale involvement in politics is also increasing, although very slow at the highest levelsAs technology blurs the distinction between combat and noncombat personnel, women are taking on more military assignments, though equality has not yet been achieved
55Sociological Perspectives on Gender Stratification Functionalists suggest that families are organized along instrumental-expressive lines, with men specializing in instrumental tasks and women in expressive tasksConflict Theorists contend that a sexual division of labor is a social vehicle devised by men to ensure themselves of privilege, prestige, and power in their relationships with womenSymbolic Interactionists argue that gender inequality persists because of the way we define men and women and their appropriate roles in societyLanguage helps perpetuate inequalityFeminists argue that women are disadvantaged because society is patriarchal
56Source: Curry et al Sociology For The Twenty-First Century, Fifth Edition, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River,200856
57Examples of Gender Stratification Apartheid of Gender2/3rds of all illiterate people around the world today are womenMore then 75% of women, aged 25 and older, in Sub-Sahara Africa, Asia, Southern and Western Asia are illiterateLiteracy has risen faster for men then womenThe world’s women are concentrated in the lowest-paid occupations/fewer benefits.Women are more likely to work part time/have less seniority, occupy positions with little or no upward mobility.
61The Feminization of Poverty Phenomenon in which women represent disproportionate percentages of world’s poorConcept is not only a consequence of lack of income, but is also the result of the deprivation of capabilities and gender biases present in both societies and governmentsThe number of single-parent, female headed households has doubled since 1959, with the largest proportion of these being minorities.The combination of dual responsibilities (parenting and work) and poorer employment opportunities means that these households are increasingly poverty stricken.
62Sexuality & Culture Sexual norms affect sexual behavior. Cultures differ in:Age that sexuality begins and endsWays people make themselves attractiveImportance of sexual activity
63Rituals What you do on a regular basis, repeated over time. Binds people togetherShared beliefsSupport social order and roles and a shared set of values holds people together.Create social solidarity
64Rites of PassageA rite of passage is a ritual event that marks a person's progress from one status to another.
65Rites of PassageRites of passage are often ceremonies surrounding events such as other milestones within puberty, coming of age, marriage, and death. Initiation ceremonies such as baptism, confirmation, and Bar Mitzvahs are considered important rites of passage for people of their respective religions
66Turner’s Three Stages (1967) SeparationCharacterized by individual or group movement away from a fixed point in social structure towards something unknownLiminalityPlaced ‘outside of society’‘Clean off’ earlier status of individualReintegrationCandidate returns as virtually a new personNew status, rights, duties
67Modern Western Rites of Passage In Western European societies, four major rites of passage have traditionally been importantBaptismConfirmation / First CommunionMarriageFuneralHave become less widespread because…Rituals associated with religion, whose role in daily life has diminishedNo longer socially important for individuals to mark transition from one status to another
68Fulani Female Tattooing Fulani Tribe have a tradition of Tattooing their young women who they feel are ready to move on into adulthood.These girls will endure the pain of this slow process for anything over 3 hours without moving, flinching or even crying as this is the Fulani way.
69Fulani Whip MatchThe Fulani people, from Benin, have been living nomadically in West Africa for years.For their boys to be considered men, they must endure a tormenting bloody whip match that will test their strength, self-control and bravery.His goal is to hit his opponent the hardest, and wince the least when he’s struck. Three blows are exchanged between each boy.The crowd decides who has shown the most courage through the ordeal, and he is the winner of the match.
70Vanhatu Land DiversVanuatu, a small island nation in the middle of the South Pacific.Men take place in a yearly harvest ritual called Land Diving around April / MayDive from platform headfirst and can reach speeds of up 45mphGoal of the jump for their head to touch the groundPurpose of ritual:Performed as a sacrifice to their gods to ensure a good yam harvestInitiates the tribe’s boys into manhoodThe higher a man goes, the manlier he is considered by the tribe
71Xhosa Male Circumcision Around their teen years, Xhosa boys are traditionally initiated into adulthood.The initiation includes a period of separation from family, during which older men mentor the younger ones.Initiation ends with the rite of circumcision.Xhosa boys are shown wearing the white clay painted on their bodies that signifies transition period to manhood.
72Satere-Mawe Bullet Ant Glove The Brazilian Satere-Mawe tradition, that makes young boys into warriors.Bullet ant has the worst known insect sting.. The intense pain lasts a full 24 hours, and can lead to vomiting, nausea and cardiac dysrhythmia.Employing natural sedatives, more than thirty bullet ants are submerged in the liquid drug until they are unconscious.A glove weaved from leaves is fashioned and then completed by placing the ants in the tight openings, stingers pointed inward.He must endure their stings for ten minutes.Goal is to keep from screaming or showing signs of weakness. He and the tribe members present chant and dance to take his mind off the pain.Once the ritual is complete, he will suffer from the stings for days but he’s one step closer to being a warrior.
73Sambia of Papa New Guinea The Matausa believe that if a boy doesn’t complete the blood initiation, he may suffer the consequences his entire life.He will never be seen as a real man, and he won’t experience the vigor and strength that the others have.Must cleanse themselves of any remaining female influences left in them from their mothers.First, they must slide two thin wooden canes down their throats to induce vomiting several times to empty their stomachs.Afterward, a collection of reeds are inserted into the initiate’s nose to further expel bad influence.Finally, they must endure repeated stabbings to the tongue.This bloody ritual thus purifies them, and they are truly men afterward.
74Mandan Indian Hook-Hanging Ritual to transform their young men into warriors.The ceremony began with the bison dance, then the men wouldn’t eat, drink or sleep for 4 days.They were then led into a hut where they would endure the pain of having wooden skewers pushed through their chest muscles, all the time maintaining a smile on their faces.They would then be suspended from the hut ceiling by hooks until they fainted.After they woke they would proceed to chop off their little fingers as an offering to the spirits.Then they would dance and the wooden skewers would be pulled out by others Only then would they be known as mighty warriors.
75Female Rites of Passage Apache Ceremony for WomenThe sacred rituals performed in Na ii ees, or the Sunrise Ceremony, celebrate the transition into womanhood
76Mentawai of Sumatra Teeth Chiseling Using careful strikes, the blade carves the corners of the teeth, leaving behind pointed ends similar to shark teeth.To finish the process, her teeth are filed to achieve the desired shape.Done to young girls because it is believed to make them more attractive.Also believed that sharpened teeth please the spirits the tribes believe in, and bring balance to a female’s life.Today, it’s up to the girl to decide if she wants her teeth chiseled to become beautiful.
77Female Circumcison Also known as female genital mutilation Defined by World Health Organization (WHO) as "all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non- medical reasons.”
80Tattoo Hunter: Papua New Guinea Tattoo anthropologist Lars Krutak visits the Kaningara, or "crocodile people," and participates in their crocodile ceremony.Filmed near the Sepik River in Papua New Guinea.