2Rites of PassageA rite of passage is a ceremony or ritual that marks an individual’s transition from one status to another.Most rites of passage focus on the transition to adult status.In many cultures, rites of passage often involve dramatic practices and are the avenue through which adolescents gain access to adult practices, knowledge, and sexuality.
3Rites of passage in pre-industrial societies Four stepsSeparation.Training.Initiation.Induction.Functions:Sense of adult responsibility.Lessen ambiguity.Bond.
4Rites of Passage in North America We do not have universal formal ceremonies that mark the passage from adolescence to adulthood.Certain religious and social groups have initiation ceremonies that indicate an advance in maturity has been reached.School graduation ceremonies come the closest to being culture-wide rites of passage in North America
5Growth spurt - occurs about 2 years earlier for girls. Height and WeightGrowth spurt - occurs about 2 years earlier for girls.Mean beginning of the growth spurt - age 9 for girls, age 11 for boys.Peak rate of pubertal change - age 11.5 for girls, age 13.5 for boys.Increase in height - about 3 inches per year for girls, about 4 inches for boys.The rate at which adolescents gain weight follows approximately the same timetable as height.
6Sexual Maturation in Boys Increase in penis and testicle sizeAppearance of straight pubic hairMinor voice changeFirst ejaculationAppearance of kinky pubic hairOnset of maximum growthGrowth of hair in armpitsMore detectable voice changeGrowth of facial hair
7Sexual Maturation in Girls Breasts enlargePubic hair appearsHair appears in the armpitsGrowth in heightHips become wider than shouldersFirst menstruation comes rather late in pubertyMenstrual cycles are often highly irregularSome girls aren’t fertile until 2 years laterBreasts are fully rounded by the end of puberty
8Pinpointing its beginning and its end is difficult. Definition of PubertyPuberty is a period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that occur primarily during early adolescence.Pinpointing its beginning and its end is difficult.The average adolescent is a statistical abstraction, a tool designed to simplify very complex issues.
9Early and Late Maturation in Boys Recent research confirms that during adolescence, it is advantageous to be an early-maturing rather than late-maturing boy.Early maturing boys appear to perceive themselves more positively and have more successful peer relations than their late-maturing counterparts.
10Early and Late Maturation in Girls Findings are less consistent for girls.Early maturation is a disadvantage in the very early grades (fifth or sixth) – it puts the adolescent out of step with peers.Early-maturing girls may well be four or more years in advance of like-aged boys.Initial disadvantages of early maturation for girls may disappear later.
11Adolescent SexualityAdolescence is a time of sexual exploration and experimentation.Sexual development and interest are normal aspects of adolescent development.The role of social experience: Harry Harlow.
12Sexuality as a Scripted Activity Scripts describe a sequence -> coping with the unknown.Peer group experiences, observations of adults, cultural knowledge -> a rough idea of the scripts boys and girls are supposed to follow and the roles they are supposed to play.Studies also show that first dates are highly scripted along gender lines.Males were found to follow a proactive dating script, while females followed a reactive one.Another study showed males and females bring different motivations to the dating experience.Girls were more likely to describe romance in terms of interpersonal qualities, while boys described it in terms of physical attraction.
13The Progression of Adolescent Sexual Behaviors Adolescents engage in a consistent progression of sexual behaviors:NeckingPettingIntercourse/Oral sexEight in 10 girls are virgins at age 15.Seven in 10 boys are virgins at age 15.The probability that adolescents will have sexual intercourse increases steadily with age.
14Sexual expectationsGagnon and Simon: “Dating and courtship may well be considered processes in which persons train members of the opposite sex in the meaning and content of their respective commitments”Most teenagers today believe that it is acceptable to have intercourse before marriage as long as it takes place within the context of a loving, intimate relationship.
15Changing sexual habits More teenagers are sexually active at an earlier age.Early sexual activity does not carry the psychological risks that many adults associate with it.Adolescents are poor users of contraception.Teenage pregnancies.Sex education programs.Boys and girls differ in the ways they approach and respond to sexual intercourse (survey results).
16Cognitive Development Daniel Keating on adolescent thought processes:Thinking about possibilities.Thinking ahead.Thinking through hypotheses.Thinking about thought.Thinking beyond conventional limits.
17Adolescent thought is at the formal operational stage. Piaget’s TheoryAdolescent thought is at the formal operational stage.Concrete: Operations relate directly to tangible objects and thoughts about objectsFormal: Operations relate to abstract propositions or possible future states of affairs. All possible combinations are considered systematically.Thought is abstract and logical and characterized by logic and hypothetical-deductive reasoning. Adolescents have the cognitive ability to develop hypotheses about ways to solve problems. They systematically deduce, or conclude, which is the best path to follow in solving a problem.
18Reasoning by manipulating variables Inhelder and Piaget's studies of formal operational thinking: Combination-of-chemicals problem.Four large bottles, one indicator bottle, and two beakers are arrayed on a table in front of the child.Each bottle contains a clear liquid.The liquids are chosen so that when liquid from bottles 1 and 3 are combined in a beaker and then a drop of the chemical from the indicator bottle (g) is added, the mixture turns yellow.The task of the subject is to reproduce the coloring by using the four liquids and the indicator solution (g). The complete solution consists of the finding that 1 and 3 together with g produce the yellow coloring, that 2 has no effect and that 4 removes the coloration.The child is invited to try out various combinations in an attempt to determine which combination of chemicals will transform the color of the liquid.
19Reasoning by logical necessity Syllogism:General premise: All trains to Toronto stop in Barrie.Specific premise: The train on track 2 goes to Toronto.Conclusion: Therefore, the train on track 2 stops in Barrie.
20Isolation of variables: The pendulum task. Other tasksIsolation of variables: The pendulum task.Correlational reasoning: Cards with pictures of mice. The animals have the same shape and same expression. The color of fur and eye varies dichotomously: dark versus light.Are formal operations universal?Results suggest that children on the threshold of adolescence are capable of the systematic, logical manipulation of variables that is the characteristic of formal operations (Piaget) if they are given proper instruction and if the benefits of the systematic manipulation are made clear.
21Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg stressed that moral development is based primarily on moral reasoning and unfolds in stages.Cognitive-developmental theory: longitudinal research studied children (American boys) from age 10/13/16 over 20 years.Kohlberg used a unique interview in which participants are presented with a series of stories in which characters face moral dilemmas.
22Heinz DilemmaIn Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. He paid $400 for the radium and charged $4,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money and tried every legal means, but he could only get together about $2,000, which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying, and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said, "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." So, having tried every legal means, Heinz gets desperate and considers breaking into the man's store to steal the drug for his wife.Should Heinz steal the drug? Why or why not?
23Judy DilemmaJudy was a twelve-year-old girl. Her mother promised her that she could go to a special rock concert coming to their town if she saved up from baby-sitting and lunch money to buy a ticket to the concert. She managed to save up the fifteen dollars the ticket cost plus another five dollars. But then her mother changed her mind and told Judy that she had to spend the money on new clothes for school. Judy was disappointed and decided to go to the concert anyway. She bought a ticket and told her mother that she had only been able to save five dollars. That Saturday she went to the performance and told her mother that she was spending the day with a friend. A week passed without her mother finding out. Judy then told her older sister, Louise, that she had gone to the performance and had lied to her mother about it. Louise wonders whether to tell their mother what Judy did.Should Louise, the older sister, tell their mother that Judy lied about the money or should she keep quiet? Why or why not?
24Moral growth progresses through an invariant sequence. Kohlberg: A PiagetianKohlberg was actually less interested in the subject's decision (that is, what Heinz should have done) than in the underlying rationale, or "thought structures," that the subject used to justify his decision.Moral growth progresses through an invariant sequence.Kohlberg argued that each stage derives form the previous stage, incorporates and transforms that stage, and prepares for the next change.Kohlberg believed that moral stages are universal.
25Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral Development Level 1: Preconventional LevelStage 1: Heteronomous MoralityStage 2: Individualism, Purpose, and ExchangeLevel 2: Conventional LevelStage 3: Mutual Interpersonal Expectations, Relationships, and Interpersonal ConformityStage 4: Social System MoralityLevel 3: Postconventional LevelStage 5: Social Contract or Utility and Individual RightsStage 6: Universal Ethical Principles
26ResultsMoral reasoning developed very gradually, with use of preconventional reasoning (Stages 1 and 2) declining sharply in adolescence--the same period in which conventional reasoning (Stages 3 and 4) is on the rise.Conventional reasoning remained the dominant form of moral expression in young adulthood with very few subjects ever moving beyond it to postconventional morality (Stage 5).Stage 3 or 4 is the end of the developmental journey for most individuals worldwide.
27Moral Thought and Moral Behavior Kohlberg’s theory has been criticized for placing too much emphasis on moral thought and not enough emphasis on moral behavior.Moral reasons can sometimes be a shelter for immoral behavior.Cheaters and thieves may know what is right yet still do what is wrong.
28Culture and Moral Development Kohlberg’s theory has been criticized for being culturally biased.Moral reasoning is more culture-specific than Kohlberg envisioned.Many psychological studies of adolescence have emerged in the context of Western industrialized society, with the practical needs and social norms of this culture dominating thinking about all adolescents.
29Gender and the Care Perspective Kohlberg’s theory is a justice perspective that focuses on the rights of the individual; individuals stand alone and independently make moral decisions.The care perspective is a moral perspective that views people in terms of their connectedness with others and emphasizes interpersonal communication, relationships with others, and concern for others.
30Gender and the Care Perspective (con’t) Carol Gilligan believed Kohlberg greatly under-played the care perspective in moral development, due to being male, using males for his research, and basing his theory on male responses.Gilligan’s research found that girls interpret moral dilemmas in terms of human relationships.Other research has found that the gender differences in moral reasoning are not existent.
31IdentityErikson termed the period of adolescence a psychological moratorium, a gap between the security of childhood and autonomy of adulthood.His fifth stage of development is characterized by the dilemma of identity versus identity confusion.Adolescents experiment with the numerous roles and identities they draw from the surrounding culture.Either they successfully cope with conflicting identities or they don’t resolve their identity crisis.
32EriksonAdolescents must rework four earlier developmental crises.1. Establishing trust.2. Establishing autonomy.3. Taking initiative.4. Industry takes on a new meaning toward the end of adolescence.In order to forge a secure sense of self, adolescents must resolve their identities in both the individual and the social spheres. Adolescents engage in an identity-forming process that depends on:How they judge others.How others judge them.How they judge the judgment processes of others.Keep in mind social categories ("typologies") available in the culture.
33Identity Statuses and Development James Marcia concluded that four identity statuses, or modes of resolution, appear in Erikson’s theory.The extent of an adolescent’s commitment and crisis is used to classify him or her according to one of the four statuses.
34Crisis and CommitmentCrisis - a period of identity development during which the adolescent is choosing among meaningful alternativesCommitment - the part of identity development in which adolescents show a personal investment in what they are going to do
35Marcia’s Identity Statuses Identity AchievementIdentity ForeclosureIdentity MoratoriumIdentity DiffusionStatus: Crisis Commitment1. Identity achievement Yes Yes2. Foreclosure No Yes3. Moratorium Yes No4. Identity diffusion No No
36The Elements of Identity Vocational/Career IdentityPolitical IdentityReligious IdentityRelationship IdentityAchievement/Intellectual IdentitySexual IdentityCultural/Ethnic IdentityInterestsPersonalityPhysical Identity
37The Development of Identity Young adolescents are primarily in identity diffusion, foreclosure, or moratorium status.Some researchers believe the most important identity changes take place during college.Identity formation neither begins nor ends with adolescence.Resolution of the identity issue at adolescence doesn’t mean that identity will remain stable throughout life.
38Ethnic identity increases with age. Ethnic identity is an enduring, basic aspect of the self that includes a sense of membership in an ethnic group and the attitudes and feelings related to that membership.Most ethnic minority individuals consciously confront their ethnicity for the first time in adolescence.Ethnic identity increases with age.
39Gender and Identity Development Erikson asserted that males’ aspirations were mainly oriented toward career and ideological commitments.He asserted that females’ aspirations were centered around marriage and child bearing.Researchers in the 1960s and 1970s found support for these gender differences.In the past 20 years, females have developed stronger vocational interests and thus the differences are turning into similarities.
40Stage Reversal and Gender Differences Some researchers believe that the order of stages Erikson proposed is different for females and males.Some have proposed that for males, identity formation precedes the stage of intimacy, while for females, intimacy precedes identity.This is consistent with the belief that relationships and emotional bonds are more important concerns of females, while autonomy and achievement are more important concerns of males.
41Homosexual identityDevelopment of a homosexual identity (Troiden, 1988)Stage I: Sensitization; feeling different. Middle childhood: Feeling different from other children; assumption at the time: that one is heterosexual.Stage 2: Self-recognition; identity confusion. Puberty: Attracted to members of the same sex; inner turmoil; and identity confusion; one can no longer take heterosexual identity as given, and one knows that homosexuals are stigmatized.Stage 3: Identity assumption. Although homosexual identity is assumed during the early stages of this process, it often is not fully accepted.Stage 4: Commitment; identity integration: One adopts homosexuality as a way of life. Fusion of one's sexuality and emotional commitments; public disclosure of one's homosexual identity.
42Harry Stack Sullivan’s Perspective on Friendship Sullivan believed that all people have a number of basic social needs that must be fulfilled for our emotional well-being.Developmentally, friends become increasingly depended on to satisfy these needs during adolescence.The need for intimacy intensifies during early adolescence, motivating teenagers to seek out close friends.If teens fail to forge such close friendships, they experience painful feelings of loneliness, and reduced sense of self-worth.
43Findings on Friendship Adolescents report disclosing intimate and personal information to their friends more often than younger children.Adolescents say they depend more on friends than on parents to satisfy their needs for intimacy, companionship, and reassurance of worth.The quality of friendship is more strongly linked to feelings of well-being during adolescence than during childhood.
44DepressionDepression is more likely to occur in adolescence than in childhood.Adolescent girls have higher rates of depression:Females’ self-images are more negative than males.Females face more discrimination than males.Family factors can create a risk for depression.Poor peer relations are associated with depression.Experiencing difficult changes can result in depressive symptoms.
45Suicide is now the third leading cause of death in 15-24 year olds. Males are about three times as likely to commit suicide.Females attempt suicide more frequently.The gender difference is thought to be due to the fact that boys tend to use more active methods, while girls resort to passive methods.Homosexual adolescents are especially vulnerable to suicide, as they are six to seven times more likely to attempt suicide than their heterosexual counterparts.