Presentation on theme: "Moral Development Overview"— Presentation transcript:
1 Moral Development Overview Piaget on Moral DevelopmentKohlberg’s SystemHeinz DilemmaKohlberg’s StagesMoral Reasoning and BehaviorGilligan’s ModelGilligan: Gender Differences in Self-definitionGilligan: Gender Differences in Moral Reasoning
2 Piaget on Moral Development Watched boys playing marbles, asked questions about moralityTwo major levels of thinking about moralityAges 4-7: Heteronomous:Justice/rules are properties of the world, not peopleBehaviors are right / wrong because of the consequences, not intentionsAges 10 and older: Autonomous:Rules are created by peopleIntentions must be considered.11-13: boys fascinated with rulesAges 7-10: transitional period (some features of heteronomous, some of autonomous)
3 Kohlberg’s SystemMoral development is the development of a sense of justiceInterest is on moral reasoning, not behaviorStage theoryMovement across stages is a function of need to resolve conflictConflict occurs when child realizes others have a different perspective.For adolescent, involves balancing multiple perspectives at once.
4 Heinz DilemmaIn Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging 10 times what the drug cost him to make. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying, and asked him to sell it cheaper, or let him pay later. But the druggist said, "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." So Heinz gets desperate and considers breaking into the man's store to steal the drug for his wife.
5 Questions for Heinz Dilemma Should Heinz steal the drug? Why or why not?Is it a husband's duty to steal the drug for his wife if he can get it no other way?Did the druggist have the right to charge that much when there was no law setting a limit? Why?Level of moral development doesn't hinge on the answer per se, but reasoning3 levels of moral development, each with 2 stages.
6 Kohlberg’s Stages Precon- ventional Conven- tional Postcon- ventional There are six stages, each defined by a particular point of view taken by individuals in defining social reality and choosing moral values.STAGE 1: Assume everyone else sees things as they do.No trouble coming up with answers to dilemmas, because, what’s the conflict?Actions are designed to fill one’s needs, and to avoid punishment.Those in power are right, because they are in power.Heinz should not steal the drug because he could get caught. If you get caught you might have to go to jail.STAGE 2: Realize there is another perspective.But decisions based on self interest (because it feels good, rewarding—everyone has right to do their own thing).To deal with the ‘other,’ you bargain, or compromise, to get what you want. You scratch my back, I'll scratch yours’. Everyone has a right to do their own thing.Heinz was right to steal the drug because the druggist deserves it for being so greedy… should have cut a deal.STAGE 3: Conformist-- (Good boy, nice girl). Most common level among adolescents.Formal operations allows teens to see themselves as they imagine that others’ would.Be ‘good’ person so you live up to others’ expecations. Live by the ‘golden rules’: caring, generous, forgiving, helpful.View problems in interpersonal terms: get the other person to see it your way, and you will succeed. Heinz should steal the drug because that is what a good husband would do for his wife.STAGE 4: Social accord/law & order:You are part of a community, and must abide by its standards. What is good for the community? Must honor social/legal contracts with society, or there will be chaos and anarchy. if they don’t, we will have social chaos and anarchy.(This is highest stage that many people reach, acc to Kohlberg).Heinz should not steal the drug because it is against the law.STAGE 5: Requires ability to step outside society’s world view, consider multiple viewpoints, no one viewpoint is better or more valid. Societal conventions are somewhat arbitrary. One must look behind them at what function the conventions serve.Laws are important agreements between people, laws can be changed. What is the value or principle behind the law. Some values--e.g., liberty--are more important than the law. One can strive to improve the social system. e.g., equality, liberty. So, e.g., Heinz should not have stolen the drug because in doing so he violated an implicit agreement among members of society, an agreement that gives each person the freedom to pursue his/her livelihood.Or, Heinz was right to steal the drug becasue someone's life was at stake, and preserving human life is more important than preserving human freedoms.STAGE 6: Universal ethical principles (truth, justice, honor, life), beyond circumstance, beyond historical time. Arrive at one’s own principles when making moral decisions. Idealized: live in accord with one’s ethical principles, regardless of the circumstances or the conseuqences (i.e., even when conflict with society comes at a great personal price). Ghandi; Thoreau; M.L. King (followed this in civil disobedience).Precon-ventionalConven-tionalPostcon-ventional
7 Moral Reasoning and Behavior Higher levels of moral reasoning correlated with:Lower probability of antisocial behaviorLower susceptibility to peer pressureIncreased likelihood of political activityIncreased likelihood of prosocial behavior (helping others), service to others
8 Gilligan’s Model Why do women always score stage 3? For most females, morality is concerned with an “Ethic of care,” not absolute principles of justiceMoral decisions are shaped by responsiveness to others, and interdependence
9 Gilligan’s Influences:Chodorow Infant’s first intimate relationship is with a woman (mother), and sense of self develops out of this relationshipGirls can continue to identify with motherBut boys must pull away emotionally to be develop self (male identity).Thus, girls’ personalities can develop within a relationship–empathy and connection are at core.Boys must set a boundary in relationship with mother, which is the prototype of all future close relationships
10 Gilligan: Gender Differences in Self-definition Boys define self in terms of individual, separate characteristics: “I am 11 years old, I live in Boston, I am good at most school subjects, I am tall, I like sports.”Girls define self in relationship: “I want to help other people, everybody should try to help somebody else in some way.”
11 Gilligan: Gender Differences in Moral Reasoning Males:Principled moral judgmentsTend to hypothetically abstract moral problem from social situationConcern for rights of othersFemalesMoral problem involves a particular situation (contextual)Seek enough details to engage their full compassionConcern with caring for, not hurting others, take into account consequences of choices
12 Examples: Male on Heinz Dilemma Heinz should steal the drug “to save a life”Stealing is justified in life and death situation (Stage 3, ‘life norm’)Out of charity, just to save a human being (#3)“If you had a loved one, you’d want [him/her] to hold your life as sacred” [Stg 2]Never mentions the druggist
13 Women on Heinz Dilemma Heinz should not steal the drug, because: “I don’t believe in stealing…if they don’t want to give it to you I don’t think you should forcibly take it from them”“Stealing is personal…a person is more important than something material…you’re invading the person’s sphere”“Just to really persevere with [the druggist]…get other people involved, you know, doctors, other druggists, to help…as many as [Heinz] could……”there must be some other way for him to get through to the druggist”
14 Caring Dilemma Conflict between responsibility to self versus others Pre-adolescent Boys: “Most important thing in your decision should be yourself--don’t let yourself be guided totally by other people”Pre-adolescent Girls: “I don’t think your job is as important as someone you really love…like your husband or close friend
15 Q: What Does Responsibility Mean? Pre-adolescent Girls: That other people are counting on you to do something, and you can’t just decide, “Well, I’d rather do this or this.”Pre-adolescent Boys: “Like if I want to throw a rock, not throwing it at a window, because I thought of the people who would have to pay for that window…”
16 Cultural Critique of Kohlberg Postconventional level reached by few outside of Western cultures. Requires secular, humanistic basis.Principles derived on the basis of tradition or religion—i.e., not individual—are scored as ‘Conventional.’Shweder and colleagues (including Jensen), 3 ethics:Autonomy: Individual is primary moral authority, and is free as long as their behavior doesn’t hurt anyone.Community: Commitments and obligations; responsibility to family, community, other groups as basis for morality.Divinity: Divine authority (based on religious authorities and texts)