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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 1 Program for North American Mobility in Higher Education NAMP Introducing Process integration for Environmental Control in Engineering Curricula Introduction to Process Integration Tier I Module 8 PIECE

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 2 How to use this presentation This presentation contains internal links to other slides and external links to websites: Example of a link (text underlined in grey): link to a slide in the presentation or to a website : link to the tier table of contents : link to the tier table of contents : link to the last slide viewed : link to the last slide viewed : when the user has gone over the whole presentation, some multiple choice questions are given at the end of this tier. This icon takes the user back to the question statement if a wrong answer has been given : when the user has gone over the whole presentation, some multiple choice questions are given at the end of this tier. This icon takes the user back to the question statement if a wrong answer has been given

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 3 Table of contents Project Summary Project Summary Participating institutions Participating institutions Module creators Module creators Module Structure & Purpose Module Structure & Purpose Tier I Tier I Statement of Intent Statement of Intent Sections 1.1 Introduction & Definition of Process Integration (PI) 1.1 Introduction & Definition of Process Integration (PI) Brief history of PI Brief history of PI Modern context of PI Modern context of PI IEA definition of PI IEA definition of PI M. El-Halwagi definition of PI M. El-Halwagi definition of PI Nick Hallale definition of PI Nick Hallale definition of PI NAMP-PIECE definition of PI NAMP-PIECE definition of PI

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 4 Table of contents (2) Tier I Tier I 1.1 Introduction & Definition of Process Integration (PI) 1.1 Introduction & Definition of Process Integration (PI) Possible objectives of PI Possible objectives of PI Summary of PI elements Summary of PI elements Conclusion 1.2 Overview of PI tools 1.2 Overview of PI tools Overview of PI tools Overview of PI tools Process Simulation Process Simulation Data Treatment & Reconciliation Data Treatment & Reconciliation Pinch Analysis Pinch Analysis Optimization by Mathematical Programming Optimization by Mathematical Programming Stochastic Search Methods Stochastic Search Methods Life Cycle Analysis Life Cycle Analysis Data-driven Process Modeling Data-driven Process Modeling Integrated Process Design & Control Integrated Process Design & Control

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 5 Table of contents (3) Tier I Tier I 1.2 Overview of PI tools 1.2 Overview of PI tools Real Time Optimization Real Time Optimization Business Model & Supply Chain Modeling Business Model & Supply Chain Modeling 1.3 Around-the world tour of PI practitioners 1.3 Around-the world tour of PI practitioners Institutions – World Map Institutions – World Map Institutions – North & South America Institutions – North & South America Institutions – Europe Institutions – Europe Institutions – Asia, Africa & Oceania Institutions – Asia, Africa & Oceania Companies Quiz

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 6 Objectives Create web-based modules to assist universities to address the introduction to Process Integration into engineering curricula Make these modules widely available in each of the participating countries Participating institutions Two universities in each of the three countries (Canada, Mexico and the USA) Two research institutes in different industry sectors: petroleum (Mexico) and pulp and paper (Canada) Each of the six universities has sponsored 7 exchange students during the period of the grant subsidised in part by each of the three countries’ governments Project Summary

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 7 Program for North American Mobility in Higher Education NAMP Process integration for Environmental Control in Engineering Curricula PIECE University of Ottawa École Polytechnique de Montréal Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo Paprican Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí University of Texas A&M Universidad de Guanajuato North Carolina State University

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 8 Module 8 This module was created by: Carlos Alberto Miranda Alvarez Jean-Martin Brault Host Institution From Host director Paul Stuart Martin Picon-Nuñez

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 9 What is the structure of this module? All modules are divided into 3 tiers, each with a specific goal: Tier I: Background Information Tier II: Case Study Applications Tier III: Open-Ended Design Problem These tiers are intended to be completed in that particular order. Students are quizzed at various points to measure their degree of understanding, before proceeding to the next level. Each tier contains a statement of intent at the beginning and a quiz at the end. Structure of Module 8

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 10 What is the purpose of this module? It is the intent of this module to cover the basic aspects of Process Integration Methods and Tools, and to place Process Integration into a broad perspective. It is identified as a pre-requisite for other modules related to the learning of Process Integration. Purpose of Module 8

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 11 Tier I Background Information

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 12 Tier I Statement of intent The goal of this tier is to provide a general overview of Process Integration tools, with focus on their link with profitability analysis. At the end of Tier I, the student should be able to: Distinguish the key tools of Process Integration Understand the scope of each Process Integration tool Have an overview of each Process Integration tool

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 13 Tier I Contents Tier I is broken down into three sections 1.1 Introduction and definition of Process Integration (PI) 1.2 Overview of PI tools 1.3 Around-the-world tour of PI practitioners which focuses on their expertise A short multiple-choice quiz will follow at the end of this tier.

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration Introduction and definition of Process Integration 1.2 Overview of Process Integration tools 1.3 Around-the-world tour of PI practitioners which focuses on their expertise Tier I Outline 1.1 Introduction and definition of Process Integration 1.2 Overview of Process Integration tools 1.3 Around-the-world tour of PI practitioners which focuses on their expertise

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration Introduction and definition of Process Integration

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 16 The president of your company probably does not know what Process Integration can do for the company but he should. Let’s look at why... Introduction and Definition of Process Integration

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration ’s-1970’s Linnhoff started the area of Pinch (bottleneck identification) at University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST), focusing on the area of Thermal Pinch. At about the same time, the UMIST Department of Process Integration was created, shortly after the consulting firm Linnhoff-March Inc. was formed 1980’s-1990’s Concept expansion from energy to process design 1990’s-2000’s Analogies used to derive Pinch concept from heat exchanger networks to mass transfer, water treatment and hydrogen systems PI is not really easy to define… A brief history of Process Integration Introduction and Definition of Process Integration

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 18 1.Process Integration might be regarded as a set of early stage process techniques for both new and retrofit design 2.Business objectives drive the development of PI: a)Emphasis is on retrofit projects in the “new economy” driven by Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) b)PI is finding value in data, especially as real time data systems have been implemented 3.Corporations wish to make more knowledgeable decisions: 1.For operations 2.During the design process 4.A strong trend today is to move away from unit operations and focus on phenomena. We no longer look at integration between units only, but also at integration within units (Process Integration Primer, IEA) Introduction and Definition of Process Integration Modern Process Integration context

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 19 The International Energy Agency (IEA) definition of Process Integration (1993): International Energy Agency International Energy Agency “Systematic and general methods for designing integrated production systems, ranging from individual processes to total sites, with special emphasis on the efficient use of energy and reducing environmental effects” “Process Integration is the common term used for the application of methodologies developed for system-oriented and integrated approaches to industrial process plant design for both new and retrofit applications.” “Such methodologies can be mathematical, thermodynamic and economic models, methods and techniques. Examples of these methods include: Artificial Intelligence, Hierarchical Analysis, Pinch Analysis and Mathematical Programming. Process Integration refers to optimal design; examples of aspects are: capital investment, energy efficiency, emissions, operability, flexibility, controllability, safety and yields. Process Integration also refers to some aspects of operation and maintenance” Sustainable Development Introduction and Definition of Process Integration Definition of Process Integration

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 20 El-Halwagi, M. M., Pollution Prevention through Process Integration: Systematic Design Tools. Academic Press, Pollution Prevention through Process Integration: Systematic Design ToolsPollution Prevention through Process Integration: Systematic Design Tools “A chemical process is an integrated system of interconnected units and streams, and it should be treated as such. Process Integration is a holistic approach to process design, retrofitting, and operation which emphasizes the unity of the process. In light of the strong interaction among process units, streams, and objectives, Process Integration offers a unique framework for fundamentally understanding the global insights of the process, methodically determining its attainable performance targets, and systematically making decisions leading to the realization of these targets. There are three key components in any comprehensive Process Integration methodology: synthesis, analysis, and optimization.” Introduction and Definition of Process Integration Definition of Process Integration

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 21 Nick Hallale, Aspentech – CEP July 2001 – Burning Bright Trends in Process Integration “Process Integration is more than just Pinch technology and Heat Exchanger Networks. Today, it has a far wider scope and touches every area of process design. Switched-on industries are making more money from their raw materials and capital assets while becoming cleaner and more sustainable” Introduction and Definition of Process Integration Definition of Process Integration

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 22 North American Mobility Program in Higher Education (NAMP)-January 2003 “Process Integration (PI) is the synthesis of process control, process engineering and process modeling and simulation into tools that can deal with the large quantities of operating data now available from process information systems. It is an emerging area, which offers the promise of improved control and management of operating efficiencies, energy use, environmental impacts, capital effectiveness, process design, and operations management.” Introduction and Definition of Process Integration Definition of Process Integration

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 23 So What Happened? In addition to thermodynamics (the foundation of Pinch), other techniques are being drawn upon for holistic analysis, in particular: Process modeling Process statistics Process optimization Process economics Process control Process design Introduction and Definition of Process Integration Definition of Process Integration

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 24 Here are some of the design activities that these techniques and methods address today: Process modeling and simulation, and validation of the results in order to have accurate and reliable process information for both new and retrofit design Minimize total annual cost by optimal trade-off between energy, equipment and raw material. Within this trade-off: minimize energy, improve raw material usage and minimize capital cost Increase production volume by debottlenecking Reduce operating problems by correct (rather than maximum) use of Process Integration Increase plant controllability and flexibility Minimize undesirable emissions and promote pollution prevention Add to the joint efforts in the process industries and society for a sustainable development Introduction and Definition of Process Integration

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 25 – Lower capital cost, for the same design objective – Incremental production increase, from the same asset base – Marginally-reduced unit production costs by process optimization – Better energy/environmental performance, without compromising competitive position ReducingCOSTSPOLLUTIONENERGYIncreasing THROUGHPU T YIELDPROFIT Introduction and Definition of Process Integration Possible objectives

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 26 Process knowledge (models) Real-Time Process Data PI systems & Tools Improving overall plant facilities energy efficiency and productivity requires a multi- pronged analysis involving a variety of technical skills and expertise, including: Knowledge of both conventional industry practice and state-of-the-art technologies commercially available Familiarity with industry issues and trends Methodology for determining correct marginal costs Procedures and tools for energy, water, and raw material conservation audits Process information systems Summary of Process Integration elements Introduction and Definition of Process Integration

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 27 Process Integration has evolved from heat recovery methodology in the 80’s to become what a number of leading industrial companies and research groups in the 20 th century regard as the holistic analysis of processes, involving the following elements: Process data Systems and tools Process engineering principles and in-depth process sector knowledge Targeting Introduction and Definition of Process Integration Conclusion

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration Introduction and definition of Process Integration 1.2 Overview of Process Integration tools 1.3 Around-the-world tour of PI practitioners which focuses on their expertise Tier I Outline 1.1 Introduction and definition of Process Integration 1.2 Overview of Process Integration tools 1.3 Around-the-world tour of PI practitioners which focuses on their expertise

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration Overview of Process Integration Tools

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 30 Process Simulation Steady-stateSteady-state DynamicDynamic Pinch Analysis Optimization by Mathematical Programming Stochastic Search Methods Life Cycle Analysis Data-Driven Process Modeling Business Model and Supply Chain Management Integrated Process Design and Control Real Time Optimization Process Data Data Treatment and Reconciliation Overview of Process Integration Tools

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 31 Process Simulation Process Simulation Steady stateSteady state DynamicDynamic Pinch Analysis Pinch Analysis Optimization by Mathematical Programming Optimization by Mathematical Programming Stochastic Search Methods Stochastic Search Methods Life Cycle Analysis Life Cycle Analysis Data-Driven Process Modeling Data-Driven Process Modeling Business Model Business Model Supply Chain Management Supply Chain Management Integrated Process Design and Control Integrated Process Design and Control Real Time Optimization Real Time Optimization Process Data Data Treatment and Reconciliation Data Treatment and Reconciliation NEXT Overview of Process Integration Tools

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 32 Process Simulation

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 33 In the process industry, we find two levels of models: plant models, and models of unit operations such as reactors, columns, pumps, heat exchangers, tanks, etc. A model does not include everything: n>m and k>t “All models are wrong, some models are useful” George Box, PhD, University of Wisconsin PROCESS MODEL Input Output InputOutput X 1,..., X n X 1,..., X m Y 1,..., Y k Y 1,..., Y t There are two types of simulation: steady-state and dynamic Simulation: “what if” experimentation with a model Simulation involves performing a series of experiments with a process model Simulation involves performing a series of experiments with a process model Figure 1 Process simulation

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 34 What is a model used for? A model is an abstraction of a process operation used to build, change, improve, control, and answer questions about that process A model is an abstraction of a process operation used to build, change, improve, control, and answer questions about that process A model can be used for different basic problem formulations: simulation, identification, estimation and design A model can be used for different basic problem formulations: simulation, identification, estimation and design A model can be used to solve problems in the areas of the process design, control and optimization, risk analysis, operator training, risk assessment, and software engineering for computer aided engineering environments A model can be used to solve problems in the areas of the process design, control and optimization, risk analysis, operator training, risk assessment, and software engineering for computer aided engineering environments Process Modeling is an understanding of the phenomena of a given process and the transformation of this understanding into a model. Process simulation – Process modeling

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 35 Why is steady-state simulation important? Better understanding of the process Consistent set of typical plant/facility data Objective comparative evaluation of options for Return On Investment (ROI) etc. Identification of bottlenecks, instabilities, etc. Performs many experiments cheaply once the model is built Avoids implementing ineffective solutions MODELInputOutput X 1,..., X m Y 1,..., Y t ADVANCEMENT of plant operations/ OPERATIONAL SUPPORT OPTIMIZATION OPTIMIZATION of plant operations Onlinesystem EDUCATION, TRAINING CONTROL SYSTEM Quasi-onlinesystem PROCESS DESIGN / ANALYSIS Off-linesystem Why is dynamic simulation important? MODEL(t) InputOutput X(t) 1,..., X(t) m Y(t) 1,..., Y(t) t Next Tool Figure 3 Figure 2 Process simulation – Steady-state & Dynamic

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 36 Data Treatment and Reconciliation

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 37 Objectives of Data Treatment Provide reliable information and knowledge of complete data for validation of process simulation and analysis Perform instrument maintenance Detect operating problems Estimate unmeasured values Reduce random and gross errors in measurements Detect steady states Objectives of Data Reconciliation Optimally adjust measured values within given process constraints Improve consistency of data to calibrate and validate process simulation Estimate unmeasured process values Detect gross errors to further investigate operation/instrument problems Data Treatment & Reconciliation

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 38 Data Reconciliation Data Reconciliation is the validation of process data using knowledge of plant structure and of the plant measurement system Figure 4 Data Treatment & Reconciliation

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 39 DATA RECONCILIATION Measurement Errors? Gross Error Detection Unclosed Balances? Closed Balances Unidentified Losses? Identified Losses Efficiency? Monitored Efficiency Performance? Quantified Performance Next Tool Data Treatment & Reconciliation - Benefits

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 40 Pinch Analysis

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 41 In the process industries, the prime objective of Pinch Analysis is to optimize the ways in which process utilities (particularly energy, mass, water, and hydrogen) are applied for a wide variety of purposes In the process industries, the prime objective of Pinch Analysis is to optimize the ways in which process utilities (particularly energy, mass, water, and hydrogen) are applied for a wide variety of purposes Pinch Analysis does this by creating an inventory of all producers and consumers of these utilities and then systematically designing an optimal scheme of utility exchange between these producers and consumers. Energy, mass, and water re-use are at the heart of Pinch Analysis activities Pinch Analysis does this by creating an inventory of all producers and consumers of these utilities and then systematically designing an optimal scheme of utility exchange between these producers and consumers. Energy, mass, and water re-use are at the heart of Pinch Analysis activities With the application of Pinch Analysis, savings can be achieved in both capital investment and operating cost. Emissions can be minimized and throughput maximized With the application of Pinch Analysis, savings can be achieved in both capital investment and operating cost. Emissions can be minimized and throughput maximized What is Pinch Analysis? Pinch Analysis

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 42 The basis of Pinch Analysis: The basis of Pinch Analysis: The use of thermodynamic principles (first and second law) The use of thermodynamic principles (first and second law) The use of design and economy heuristics The use of design and economy heuristics Pinch Analysis is a technique to design: Pinch Analysis is a technique to design: Heat Exchanger Networks (HEN) & Mass Exchange Networks (MEN) Heat Exchanger Networks (HEN) & Mass Exchange Networks (MEN) Utility Networks Utility Networks Pinch Analysis makes extensive use of various graphical representations Pinch Analysis makes extensive use of various graphical representations In Pinch Analysis, the engineer controls the design procedure (interactive method) In Pinch Analysis, the engineer controls the design procedure (interactive method) Pinch Analysis integrates economic parameters Pinch Analysis integrates economic parameters Features Pinch Analysis

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 43 Possible Benefits One of the main advantages of Pinch Analysis over conventional design methods is the ability to set a target energy consumption for an individual process or for an entire production site before designing the processes Pinch Analysis quickly identifies where energy, water, hydrogen and other material savings are likely to be found Reduction of emissions Pinch Analysis enables the engineer to find the best way to change a process, if the process allows it In addition, Pinch Analysis allows you to Update or develop process flow diagrams Identify process bottlenecks Run both departmental and full plant facilities simulations Determine minimal heating (steam) and cooling requirements Identify cogeneration opportunities Estimate costs of projects to achieve energy savings Evaluate new equipment configurations for the most economical installation Substitute past energy studies with a live study that can be easily updated using simulation Next Tool Pinch Analysis

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 44 Optimization by Mathematical Programming

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 45 A Mathematical Model of a system is a set of mathematical relationships (e.g., equalities, inequalities, logical conditions) which represents an abstraction of the real world system under consideration A Mathematical Model can be developed using: Fundamental approaches Empirical methods Methods based on analogy A Mathematical Model of a system consists of four key elements: VariablesParametersConstraints Mathematical relations Mathematical Model Optimization of Mathematical Programming

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 46 What is Optimization? An optimization problem is a mathematical model which in addition to the key elements stated in the previous slide contains one or more performance criteria The performance criteria are represented by an objective function. This function can be the minimization of costs, the maximization of profit or yield of a process, for example If we have multiple performance criteria, the problem is then classified as a multi-objective optimization problem There are different classes of optimization problems: linear and non-linear programming, LP and NLP, mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) and mixed-integer non-linear programming (MINLP) Whenever possible, linear programs (LP or MILP) are used because they guarantee global solutions. MINLP problems also feature many applications in engineering. Optimization of Mathematical Programming

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 47 Applications Process Synthesis Heat Exchanger Networks (HEN) Mass Exchanger Networks (MEN) Distillation sequencing Reactor-based systems Utility systems Total process systems Design, scheduling, and planning of process Design and retrofit of multiproduct plants Design and scheduling of multiproduct plants Interaction of design and control Molecular product design Facility location and allocation Facility planning and scheduling Topology of transport networks Next Tool Optimization of Mathematical Programming

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 48 Stochastic Search Methods

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 49 Why Stochastic Search Methods? All of the model formulations that you have encountered thus far in the Optimization section have assumed that the data for the given problem are known accurately. However, for many actual problems, the problem data cannot be known accurately for a variety of reasons. The first reason is due to simple measurement error. The second and more fundamental reason is that some data represent information about the future (e.g., product demand or price for a future time period) and simply cannot be known with certainty. Stochastic Search Methods

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 50 There are different types of stochastic algorithms Simulated Annealing (SA) Genetic Algorithms (GAs) Tabu Search These algorithms are suitable for problems that deal with uncertainty. These computer algorithms or procedure models do not guarantee global optima but are successful and widely known to come very close to the global optimal solution. SA takes one solution and efficiently moves it around in the search space, avoiding local optima GAs have the capability of collectively searching for multiple optimal solutions for the same optimal cost Tabu Search is an iterative procedure that explores the search space of all feasible solutions by a sequence of moves Next Tool Stochastic Search Methods

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 51 Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 52 Technique for assessing the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated with a product by: – Establishing an inventory of relevant inputs and outputs of a system – Evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated with those inputs and outputs – Interpreting the results of the inventory and impact phases in relation with the objectives of the study – Evaluation of some aspects of a product system through all stages of its life cycle What is Life Cycle Analysis? Life Cycle Analysis

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 53 Recycling and Disposal as Waste at the end of its useful life Extraction and Processing of Raw Materials Manufacturing Packaging Marketing Use, Reuse and Maintenance of the product Figure 5 Life Cycle Analysis

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 54 Improves overall environmental performance and compliance Provides a framework for using pollution prevention practices to meet LCA objectives Increases efficiency and potential cost savings when managing environmental obligations Promotes predictability and consistency in managing environmental obligations Measures scarce environmental resources more effectively Possible Benefits Next Tool Life Cycle Analysis

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 55 Data-Driven Process Modeling

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 56 Drowning in data! Interesting, useful patterns and relationships not intuitively obvious lie hidden inside enormous, unwieldy databases. Also, many variables are correlated Data mining techniques: Neural Networks, Multiple Regression, Decision Trees, Genetic Algorithms, Clustering, MVA, etc. Data-Rich but Knowledge-Poor Data-Driven Process Modeling Process Integration challenge Make sense of masses of data Necessity to work on bigger samples if full advantage is to be taken of all accessible information

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 57 Theoretical model uses First Principles to mimic the inner workings of a process Empirical model uses the plant process data directly to establish mathematical correlations Unlike the theoretical models, empirical models do NOT take the process fundamentals into account. They only use pure mathematical and statistical techniques. Multivariate Analysis (MVA) is one such method, because it reveals patterns and correlations between variables independently of any pre- conceived notions Theoretical vs. Empirical Model Data-Driven Process Modeling

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 58 Multivariate Analysis” (> 5 variables) MVA uses ALL available data to capture information as much as possible Principle: boil down hundreds of variables down to a mere handful What is MVA? MVA Explore inter-relationships « What-if » exercises Software sensors Feed-forward control Benefits Next Tool Data-Driven Process Modeling

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 59 Integrated Process Design & Control

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 60 Safety issues, energy costs, environmental concerns have increased complexity and sensitivity of processes Plants become highly integrated in terms of mass and energy and therefore, process dynamics are often difficult to control Objectives Product specifications variability should be kept at a minimum process variability (to control product quality) Control is essential to operate a process in the best conditions Context Integrated Process Control & Control

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 61 Controllability is the property of a process that accounts for the ease with which a continuous plant can be held at a specified operating regime despite bounded external disturbances and uncertainties and regardless of the control system imposed on such a process Controllability Integrated Process Control & Control

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 62 Stability and better performance of control loops and structures System relatively insensitive to perturbations Efficient management of interacting networks Improvement of current dynamics Flexibility Why is Controllability important? Smoother operation of process closer to operating limits Smoother operation of process closer to operating limits Next Tool Integrated Process Control & Control

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 63 Real-Time Optimization (RTO)

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 64 The process industries are increasingly compelled to operate profitably in a very dynamic and global market. The increasing competition in the international area and stringent product requirements mean decreasing profit margins unless plant operations are optimized dynamically to adapt to the changing market conditions and to reduce the operating cost. Context Importance of real-time or on-line optimization! Real Time Optimization

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 65 Real-Time Optimization is a model-based steady- state technology that determines the economically optimal operating regime for a process in the near term The system optimizes a process simulation, not the process directly Performance measured in terms of economic benefit Is an active field of research model accuracy, error transmission, performance evaluation What is Real-Time Optimization (RTO)? Real Time Optimization

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 66 Reconciliation & gross error detection Updating process model (Steady-state dynamic simulation) Steady-state detection Optimization (objective functions) Business objectives; Economic data; Product specification Cost, process, Environmental & product Data Plant facility RTO - Schematically Next Tool Figure 6 Real Time Optimization

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 67 Business Model and Supply Chain Modeling (BM-SCM)

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 68 Integrated Business & Process Model Cost, Process, Cost, Process, Environmental & Environmental & Product Data Product Data Cost, Process, Environmental & Product Outcomes ProcessDesignAnalysis And Synthesis ProcessOperationAnalysis and Optimization Back to PI Tools Business Model and Supply Chain Modeling (BM-SCM)

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 69 The double arrows mean that the data set is consistent throughout the plant facilities Plant Facilities Integrated Business & Process Model Process (P) & Environmental (E) Data Accounting Data Product Data Market Data Data Processing Processed P&E Data Data Reconciliation Reconciled P&E Data Data Validation & Reconciliation Once the model is built, it can be used to validate and reconcile data Cost, Process, Environmental and Product Data BM-SCM – Cost, Process, Environmental & Product Data

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 70 1 st Principles Models Cost Accounting Model Supply Chain(SC) and Env. SC Models Cost accounting model Model that deals with the classification, recording, allocation, and summarization of data for the purpose of management decision making and financial reporting Cost, Process, E & P Data Environmental Data Market Data Accounting Data Process Data Product Data Supply Chain (SC) and Env. SC models Click here Data Driven Models Process Simulation Models Integrated Business and Process Model BM-SCM – Integrated Business & Process Model

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 71 Supply Chain (SC) is a network of organizations that are involved, through upstream and downstream linkages, in the different processes and activities that produce value in the form of products and services in the hands of the ultimate customer (Waste) Environmental Supply Chain (ESC) holds all the elements a traditional Supply Chain has, but is extended to a semi-closed loop in order to also account for the environmental impact of the Supply Chain and for recycling, re-use and collection of used material (Beamon 1999) BM-SCM – Supply Chain & Environmental Supply Chain

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 72 Objectives of the SC and ESC models To integrate inter-organizational units along a SC and coordinate materials, information and financial flows in order to fulfill customer demands and to improve SC profitability and responsiveness To gain insight on the total environmental impact of the production process (from supplier to customer and back to the facility by recycling) and all the products that are manufactured (closely linked to LCA) Back to PI Tools BM-SCM BM-SCM – Supply Chain & Environmental Supply Chain

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration Introduction and definition of Process Integration 1.2 Overview of Process Integration tools 1.3 Around-the-world tour of PI practitioners which focuses on their expertise Tier I Outline 1.1 Introduction and definition of Process Integration 1.2 Overview of Process Integration tools 1.3 Around-the-world tour of PI practitioners which focuses on their expertise

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration Around-the-world tour of PI practitioners which focuses on their expertise

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 75 Courtesy mainly of the World Wide Web to capture the flavour of the evolution of Process Integration PI is relatively new Researchers build on their strengths Many of the ground-breaking techniques are coming from universities When techniques become practical, the private sector generally capitalizes and techniques advance more rapidly InstitutionsCompanies END Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 76 Institutions Click on a continent to view institutions from that continent North and South America Europe Africa, Middle-East, Asia and Oceania Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 77 Institutions-North and South America Canada (2) USA (8) Brazil (1) Mexico (1) Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners To view institutions from a particular country, click on the flag of the country of choice Back to World Map

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 78 Institutions-Europe Belgium (1) Denmark (1) Finland (3) France (1) Germany (2) UK (5) Hungary (1) Greece (1) Norway (1) Portugal (2) Slovenia (1) Spain (1) Sweden (1) Switzerland (1) Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners To view institutions from a particular country, click on the flag of the country of choice Back to World Map

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 79 Institutions-Africa, Middle-East, Asia and Oceania India (1) Israel (1) South Africa (1) Australia (3) Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners To view institutions from a particular country, click on the flag of the country of choice Back to World Map

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 80 Canada École Polytechnique de Montréal, Department of Chemical Engineering, Montréal NEXT Major Contact: Professor Paul Stuart Web: Research areas: the application of Process Integration in the pulp and paper industry, with emphasis on pollution prevention techniques and profitability analysis, the efficient use of energy and raw materials (including water), process control, and plant sustainability Consortium: "Process Integration in the Pulp and Paper Industry Research Consortium" with 13 members (2003) including operating companies, engineering & contracting companies, consulting companies and software vendors in pulp and paper industry Current research in Process Integration Process Simulation Process Simulation Data Reconciliation Data Reconciliation Process Control Process Control Networks Analysis (HEN and MEN) Networks Analysis (HEN and MEN) Environmental technologies (e.g. LCA) Environmental technologies (e.g. LCA) Business model Business model Date-Driven Modeling Date-Driven Modeling Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners Back to Americas Institutions

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 81 Canada University of Ottawa, Department of Chemical Engineering, Ottawa Major Contact: Professor Jules Thibault Web: Brazil Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro Major Contact: Professor Eduardo Mach Queiroz Web: Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners Back to Americas Institutions

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 82 Mexico Universidad de Guanajuato, Department of Chemical Engineering, Guanajuato Major Contact: Dr Martín-Picón-Núñez Web: Web: Research areas: hosts the only course Masters Program in Process Integration in North America. Analysis of processes, Power Systems, and development of environmentally benign technology Current research in Process Integration Synthesis of processes; modeling, simulation, control and optimization of processes; new processes and materials Synthesis of processes; modeling, simulation, control and optimization of processes; new processes and materials Heat recovery systems; renewable sources of energy; thermodynamic optimization Heat recovery systems; renewable sources of energy; thermodynamic optimization Contaminated atmosphere rehabilitation; treatment of effluents; environmental processes Contaminated atmosphere rehabilitation; treatment of effluents; environmental processes Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners Back to Americas Institutions

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 83 USA Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Pittsburgh NEXT Major Contact: Professor Ignacio E. Grossmann Web: Research areas: recognized as one of the major research groups in the area of Computer Aided Process Design. In Process Integration, the group is recognized for its work in Mathematical Programming, Optimization, reactor systems, separation systems (especially distillation), Heat Exchanger Networks, operability and the synthesis of operating procedures Consortium: (Centre for Advanced Process Decision-making, founded 1986, 20 members (2001)) including operating companies, engineering & contracting companies, consulting companies and software vendors Consortium: CAPD (Centre for Advanced Process Decision-making, founded 1986, 20 members (2001)) including operating companies, engineering & contracting companies, consulting companies and software vendors Current research in Process Integration Insights to aid and automate synthesis (invention) Insights to aid and automate synthesis (invention) Structural optimization of process flowsheets Structural optimization of process flowsheets Synthesis of reactor systems and separation systems Synthesis of reactor systems and separation systems Synthesis of Heat Exchanger Networks Synthesis of Heat Exchanger Networks Global optimization techniques relevant to Process Integration Global optimization techniques relevant to Process Integration Integrated Design and Scheduling of batch plants Integrated Design and Scheduling of batch plants Supply chain dynamics and optimization Supply chain dynamics and optimization Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners Back to Americas Institutions

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 84 USA Texas A&M University, Department of Chemical Engineering, College Station NEXT Major Contact: Professor Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi Web: and Research areas: Recognized as a leading research group in the areas of Mass Integration and Pollution Prevention through Process Integration Current research in Process Integration Global allocation of mass and energy Global allocation of mass and energy Synthesis of waste allocation and species interception networks Synthesis of waste allocation and species interception networks Physical and reactive Mass Pinch Analysis Physical and reactive Mass Pinch Analysis Synthesis of Heat-Induced Networks Synthesis of Heat-Induced Networks Design of membrane-hybrid systems Design of membrane-hybrid systems Design of environmentally acceptable reactions Design of environmentally acceptable reactions Integration of reaction and separation systems Integration of reaction and separation systems Flexibility and scheduling systems Flexibility and scheduling systems Simultaneous design and control Simultaneous design and control Global optimization via interval analysis Global optimization via interval analysis Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners Back to Americas Institutions

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 85 Back to Americas Institutions USA Auburn University, Auburn Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Chemical Engineering, Cambridge NEXT Major Contact: Professor Christopher Roberts Web: Major Contact: Professor George Stephanopoulos Web: Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 86 USA Princeton University, Princeton Purdue University, West Lafayette NEXT Major Contact: Professor Christodoulos A. Floudas Web: Major Contact: Professor G.V. Rex Reklaitis Web: https://engineering.purdue.edu/ChE/index.html and https://engineering.purdue.edu/ECN/ https://engineering.purdue.edu/ChE/index.html https://engineering.purdue.edu/ECN/https://engineering.purdue.edu/ChE/index.html https://engineering.purdue.edu/ECN/ Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners Back to Americas Institutions

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 87 USA University of Massachusetts, Amherst University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Major Contact: Professor J. M. Douglas Web: Major Contact: Professor Warren D. Seider Web: Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners Back to Americas Institutions

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 88 Belgium Université de Liège, Laboratory for Analysis and Synthesis of Chemical Systems (LASSC), Liège Denmark Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby Major Contact: Professor Boris Kalitventzeff Web: Major Contact: Professor Bjørn Qvale Web: Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners Back to Europe Institutions

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 89 Finland Åbo Akademi University, Process Design Laboratory, Åbo Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta Helsinki University of Technology, Laboratory of Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection, Helsinki Major Contact: Professor Tapio Westerlund Web: Major Contact: Professor Lars Nyström Web: Major Contact: Professor Carl-Johan Fogelholm Web: Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners Back to Europe Institutions

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 90 France INPT-ENSIGC, Chemical Engineering Laboratory, Toulouse Greece Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute, Hellas Major Contact: Professor Xavier Joulia Web: Major Contact: Professor I. Vasalos Web: Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners Back to Europe Institutions

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 91 Germany Universität Dortmund, Dortmund Technische Universität Hamburg, Harburg Major Contact: Professor A. Behr Web: Major Contact: Professor Günter Gruhn Web: Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners Back to Europe Institutions

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 92 Norway Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Process Systems Engineering in Trondheim (PROST), Trondheim Hungary Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest Major Contact: Professor Zsolt Fonyo Web: Major Contact: Professor Sigurd Skogestad Web: Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners Back to Europe Institutions

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 93 Back to Europe Institutions Portugal Universidade do Porto, Porto Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisboa Major Contact: Professor Manuel A.N. Coelho Web: Major Contact: Professor Clemente Pedro Nunes Web: Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 94 Slovenia University of Maribor, Maribor Switzerland Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne Major Contact: Professor Peter Glavič Web: Major Contact: Professor Daniel Favrat Web: Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners Back to Europe Institutions

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 95 Back to Europe Institutions Spain Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Chemical Engineering Department, Barcelona Major Contact: Professor Luis Puigjaner Web: Research areas: pioneering work in Computer Aided Process Operations. In Process Integration, the group is recognized for its contributions in time-dependent processes, such as Combined Heat and Power, Combined Energy-Waste and Waste Minimization, Integrated Process Monitoring, Diagnosis and Control and Process Uncertainty Consortium: "Manufacturing Reference Centre" with 12 members (1966) including Conselleria d'Indústria and associated operating companies, engineering and contracting companies, consultants and software vendors. Also the TQG (General Chemical Technology) research group has grown steadily with research related to kinetics, process design and operation Current research in Process Integration Evolutionary modeling and optimization Evolutionary modeling and optimization Multi-objective optimization in time-dependent systems Multi-objective optimization in time-dependent systems Combined energy and water use minimization Combined energy and water use minimization Integration of thermally coupled distillation columns Integration of thermally coupled distillation columns Hot-gas recovery and cleaning systems Hot-gas recovery and cleaning systems Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 96 Sweden Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Heat and Power, Göteborg Major Contact: Thore Berntsson Web: Research areas: methodology development and applied research based on Pinch Technology. Emphasis on new retrofit methods including realistic treatment of geographical distances, pressure drops, varying fixed costs, etc. Important new concepts include the Cost Matrix for Retrofit Screening and new Grand Composite thermodynamic diagrams for heat and power applications (including gas turbines and heat pumps). Research in pulp and paper with focus on energy and environment Industry: Close cooperation with some of the major pulp and paper industry groups, including training courses and consulting Current research in Process Integration Retrofit design of Heat Exchanger Networks Retrofit design of Heat Exchanger Networks Process Integration of heat pumps in grassroots and retrofits Process Integration of heat pumps in grassroots and retrofits Gas turbine based CHP plants in retrofit situations Gas turbine based CHP plants in retrofit situations Applied research in pulp and paper industry, such as black liquor gasification and closing the bleaching plant Applied research in pulp and paper industry, such as black liquor gasification and closing the bleaching plant Environmental aspects of Process Integration, especially greenhouse gas emissions Environmental aspects of Process Integration, especially greenhouse gas emissions Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners Back to Europe Institutions

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 97 UK Imperial College, Centre for Process Systems Engineering, London NEXT Major Contact: Professor Efstratios N. Pistikopoulos Web: and Research areas: recognized as the largest research group in the area of Process Systems Engineering (PSE), which includes Synthesis/Design, Operations, Control and Modeling. The group is recognized as a world-wide centre of excellence in Process Modeling, Numerical Techniques/Optimization and Integrated Process Design (includes simultaneous consideration of Process Integration and Control). The Centre is also an important contributor in the area of integration and operation of batch processes Consortium: Process Systems Engineering (PSE) with 17 members (2003) including operating, engineering & contracting companies, software vendors Current research in Process Integration Integrated batch processing Integrated batch processing Design and management of integrated Supply Chain processes Design and management of integrated Supply Chain processes Uncertainty and operability in process design Uncertainty and operability in process design Formulation of mathematical programming models to address problems in process synthesis and integration Formulation of mathematical programming models to address problems in process synthesis and integration Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners Back to Europe Institutions

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 98 Back to Europe Institutions UK UMIST, Department of Process Integration, Manchester NEXT Major Contact: Professor Robin Smith Web: Research areas: recognized as the pioneering and major research group in the area of Pinch Analysis. Previous research includes targets and design methods for Heat Exchanger Networks (grassroots and retrofits), Heat and Power systems, Heat driven Separation Systems, Flexibility, Total Sites, Pressure Drop considerations, Batch Process Integration, Water and Waste Minimization and Distributed Effluent Treatment Industry: Research Consortium in Process Integration created in 1984 and now formed by 26 major companies representing different aspects of the process and utility industries Current research in Process Integration Efficient use of raw materials (including water) Efficient use of raw materials (including water) Energy efficiency Energy efficiency Emissions reduction Emissions reduction E fficient use of capital E fficient use of capital Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 99 UK University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh University College, London University of Ulster, Coleraine Major Contact: Dr. David Bogle Web: Major Contact: Professor Jack W. Ponton Web: Major Contact: Professor J.T. McMullan Web: Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners Back to Europe Institutions

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 100 Israel Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa Major Contact: Professor Daniel R. Lewin Web: India Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Major Contact: Dr. Uday V. Shenoy Web: Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners Back to Asia Institutions

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 101 South Africa University of the Witwatersrand, Process & Materials Engineering, Johannesburg Major Contact: Professor David Glasser Web: Research areas: recognized as the major research group in the development of the Attainable Region (AR) method for Reactor and Process Synthesis. The Attainable Region concept has been expanded to systems where mass transfer, heat transfer and separation take place. In its generalized form (reaction, mixing, separation, heat transfer and mass transfer), the Attainable Region concept provides a Synthesis tool that will provide targets for "optimal" designs against which more practical solutions can be judged Has founded its own consultancy enterprise called Wits Enterprise ac.za/ ac.za/ ac.za/ Current research in Process Integration Systems involving reaction, mixing and separation (e.g. reactive distillation) Systems involving reaction, mixing and separation (e.g. reactive distillation) Non-isothermal chemical reactor systems Non-isothermal chemical reactor systems Optimization of dynamic systems Optimization of dynamic systems Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners Back to Africa Institutions

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 102 Australia University of Adelaide, Adelaide Murdoch University, Rockingham University of Queensland, Brisbane Major Contact: Dr. B.K. O'Neill Web: Major Contact: Professor Peter Lee Web: Major Contact: Professor Ian Cameron Web: Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners Back to Oceania Institutions

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 103 Companies Linnhoff March Limited, Northwich, Cheshire, UK Web: and List of Services in the area of Process Integration Project execution and consulting Project execution and consulting Software development and support Software development and support Training assistance Training assistance Typical Projects: 1200 assignments over 18 years Typical Projects: 1200 assignments over 18 years PI Technologies Pinch Technology (analysis and HEN Design,Total Site Analysis) Pinch Technology (analysis and HEN Design,Total Site Analysis) Water Pinch™ for wastewater minimization Water Pinch™ for wastewater minimization Combined thermal and hydraulic analysis of distillation columns PI software: extensively proven state-of- the-art software including SuperTarget, PinchExpress, WaterTarget and Steam97 Combined thermal and hydraulic analysis of distillation columns PI software: extensively proven state-of- the-art software including SuperTarget, PinchExpress, WaterTarget and Steam97 Linnhoff March is the pioneering company of Pinch Technology and is now a division of KBC Process Technology Limited since KBC Advanced Technologies is the leading independent process engineering consultancy, improving operational efficiency and profitability in the hydrocarbon processing industry worldwide NEXT Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners Back to Companies

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 104 Companies NEXT Process Systems Enterprise Limited, London, UK Web: List of Services in the area of Process Integration Dynamic process modeling Dynamic process modeling Dynamic optimization Dynamic optimization Enterprise modeling Enterprise modeling Extensive training for all its products Extensive training for all its products PI Technologies gPROMS ®, for general PROcess Modeling System Steady-state and dynamic process simulation, optimization (MINLP) and parameter estimation software, packaged for different users gPROMS ®, for general PROcess Modeling System Steady-state and dynamic process simulation, optimization (MINLP) and parameter estimation software, packaged for different users Model Enterprise ® supply chain modeling and execution environment Model Enterprise ® supply chain modeling and execution environment Model Care ® business model Model Care ® business model “Process Systems Enterprise Limited (PSE) is a provider of advanced model-based technology and services to the process industries. These technologies address pressing needs in fast-growing engineering and automation market segments of the chemicals, petrochemicals, oil & gas, pulp & paper, power, fine chemicals, food, pharmaceuticals and biotech industries.” Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners Back to Companies

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 105 Companies Industrial and Power Association-National Engineering Laboratory (NEL), UK Web: QuantiSci Limited, UK Web: NEXT Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners Back to Companies

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 106 Companies American Process Inc., Atlanta, USA Web: List of Services in the area of Process Integration Energy Targeting Using Pinch Analysis Energy Targeting Using Pinch Analysis Simulation modeling Simulation modeling Linear optimization Linear optimization Over 150 studies completed Over 150 studies completed PI Technologies PARIS™ (Production Analysis for Rate and Inventories Strategies) Decision-Making tool for optimizing pulp and paper mill operations) PARIS™ (Production Analysis for Rate and Inventories Strategies) Decision-Making tool for optimizing pulp and paper mill operations) O-Pinch™ (Operational Pinch) O-Pinch™ (Operational Pinch) SPARTA™ real-time steam and power cost optimizer SPARTA™ real-time steam and power cost optimizer Water Close™ water pinch Water Close™ water pinch “Founded in 1994, American Process Inc is the premier consulting engineering specialist firm dedicated to energy cost minimization in pulp and paper and other industries. Our success is largely due to offering custom tailored solutions for our customers, understanding that each mill is a unique operation, thereby optimizing the potential for savings” NEXT Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners Back to Companies

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 107 Companies Advanced Process Combinatorics (APC), USA Web: Aspen Technology Inc. (AspenTech), USA Web: and Around-the-world tour of PI Practitioners Back to Companies

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 108 This is the end of Tier I. At this point, we assume that you have done all the reading. Some of this information might still seem confusing but remember that we are still trying to set all the pieces in the Process Integration puzzle. Prior to advancing to Tier II, a short multiple choice quiz will follow. End of Tier I

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 109 QUIZ

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 110 Where was the concept of Process Integration first developed? Atlanta, USA Montreal, Canada Guanajuato, Mexico Manchester, UK Question 1 Tier I - Quiz

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 111 Question 2 1. Costs2. Pollution3. Throughput 4. Energy Use5. Yield6. Profit 7. Data Use8. Production Volume9. Water Use 10. Operating Problems 1,4,6,7 and 9 ; 2,3,5,8 and 10 3,4,5,7 and 8 ; 1,2,6,9 and 10 2,3,6,8 and 10 ; 1,4,5,7 and 9 1,2,4,9 and 10 ; 3,5,6,7 and 8 Using PI techniques and methods allows you to observe different variations in a process, a plant or a company. Use each one of the following and indicate if they would be reduced or increased in a Process Integration context. Tier I - Quiz

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 112 Question 3 Which of the following statements are false? 1.Steady-state simulations enable the process engineer to study strategies for start-up and shut down 2.In the process industry, we find two levels of models: models of unit operations and plant models 3.A model can represent exactly what goes on in a process 4.Generally, dynamic simulations are used to estimate the sizes and costs of process units 1 and 2 1,2 and 3 1 and 3 2 and 4 2 and 3 All of the above 3 and 4 1,3 and 4 Tier I - Quiz

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 113 Question 4 What are plant measurements usually corrupted by? 1.Random power supply fluctuations 2.Ambient conditions 3.Sensor miscalibration 4.Computer calculation capacity and speed 5.Hostile process environment 6.Sampling frequency 1,2 and 3 1,2,3 and 5 1,2 and 5 2 and 4 1,3 and 6 All of the above 2,3,5 and 6 1,2,3 and 4 Tier I - Quiz

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 114 Question 5 What was Pinch Analysis originally conceived for? 1.Oil refinery emissions reduction 2.Capital investment and operating costs savings 3.Heat Exchanger Network design 4.Better use of hydrogen in refineries 5.Utility Network design 2 and 3 1,2,3 and and 4 All of the above 3 1,2,3 and 4 Tier I - Quiz

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 115 Question 6 What does an objective function represent in an optimization problem? 1.Interactions among variables 2.Performance criteria 3.Parameters 4.Mass and energy balances 5.Equalities or inequalities 2 and 3 1,2,3 and and 4 All of the above 3 1,2,3 and 4 Tier I - Quiz

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 116 Question 7 1.Solve problems over a long period of time, through processes such as reproduction, mutation, and natural selection 2.Each generation of the program improves upon the quality of the solution (each new generation is better than the previous one) 3.Generate and evaluate thousands of generations in seconds 2 and 3 1,2 and and 2 3 The entire research area of Genetic Algorithms was inspired by Darwin's theory of natural selection and survival of the fittest. Unlike natural evolution, a Genetic Algorithm program is usually able to do what? Tier I - Quiz

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 117 Question 8 Which of the following statements are false? 1.The need for capital investment savings has led to the creation of data- mining techniques 2.A “black-box” model using the plant process data directly takes the process fundamentals into account 3.Multivariate analysis is defined as the simultaneous analysis of more than five variables 4.Multivariate Analysis methods are used to replace the physical analysis of a process 1,2 and 3 1 1,2 and 4 All of the above 4 1,3 and 4 Tier I - Quiz

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 118 Question 9 With a Real-Time Optimization system: 1.The process is optimized directly 2.Up-to date decisions on plant operations and maintenance to maximize plant profitability can be made 3.Decisions can be made before complete information about the data is available 4.It is possible to determine the economically optimal operating regime for a process in the near term 1,2 and 3 1 2,3 and 4 All of the above 1 and 3 1,3 and 4 Tier I - Quiz

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PIECENAMP Module 8 – Introduction to Process Integration 119 Answers Question 1Manchester, UK Question 2 1,2,4,9 and 10 ; 3,5,6,7 and 8 Question 31,3 and 4 Question 41,2,3 and 5 Question 53 Question 62 Question 73 Question 81,2 and 4 Question 92,3 and 4 Tier I - Quiz

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