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ECE 5320 Mechatronics Assignment #01: Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Timothy J Shuck Department of Mechanical Engineering E:

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Presentation on theme: "ECE 5320 Mechatronics Assignment #01: Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Timothy J Shuck Department of Mechanical Engineering E:"— Presentation transcript:

1 ECE 5320 Mechatronics Assignment #01: Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Timothy J Shuck Department of Mechanical Engineering E: ©2009 Topic: Particulate Sensors/ Deep Brain Stimulator Actuator

2 OUTLINE References\To Explore Further Why Measure Particulate Matter Major Applications The Concept The Most Common Devices Today Manufacturers and Specifications Conclusion ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators Slide-2

3 REFERENCS\TO EXPLORE FURTHER Allen, PhD Terence. Particle Size Measurement. 2nd. Thetford Great Britain: Lowe & Brydone Ltd, “Basic Information.” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 Feb Feb “County Air Quality Report-Criteria Air Pollutants” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 26 Feb Feb Evans, Tim. "Opacity meter for monitoring exhaust emissions from non-stationary sources." Free Patents Online 15 Feb Feb Hall, Matthew J.. "Particulate Matter Emission Sensors." University of Texas at Austin Feb 2009 ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators Slide-3

4 REFERENCES CONTINUED “National Ambient Air Quality Standards.” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 20 Feb Feb “Particulate.” Wikipedia 18 Feb Feb "Particulate Matter Sensors." Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 27 Feb Pope III, C. Arden, Richard T. Burnett, Michael J. Thune et. al. “Lung Cancer, Cardiopulmonary Mortality and Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Air Pollution.” JAMA. 287(9)(2002):1-11 "Airborne Particulates." Queensland Government EPA 07 Arp Feb ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators Slide-4

5 Why Measure Particulate Matter Studies indicate that for every ten micrograms per meter cubed of particulate matter a person is exposed to regularly they increase the risk of death by lung cancer by 8% and cardiopulmonary mortality by 6% (Pope III et al. 1-11) To protect the public health the Environmental Protection Agency has established national limits for particulate matter as follows: –PM 10 : 150 (micrograms/meter cubed) not to exceed more then once per year averaged over three years –PM 2.5 : 15 (micrograms/meter cubed) not to exceed as a three year average of the mean measured value –PM 2.5 : 35 (micrograms/meter cubed) not to be exceed as the three year average of the 98 percentile of 24 hour concentrations (National) ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators Slide-5

6 Why Measure Particulate Matter Continued As of 2007 there are 86.4 million people living in areas that exceed the recommended level of air quality in the world (Basic) In 2008 in Cache County (the county we live in!) exceeded the limit for the 24 hour PM 2.5 regulations Image Source: Utah-Air-Quality-Improves/bHyS3iuL30auoeZt5OLqBw.cspx ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators Slide-6

7 Most Importantly Why Measure Particulate Matter: With Out Measurement there is No Control!! Image source: ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators Slide-7

8 Major Applications This presentation focuses on the application of PM sensors for air quality sampling. PM sensors are also commonly used as part of monitoring/ controlling industrial stack output and designing/ testing emissions of internal combustion engines, ect. Image Source: ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators Slide-8

9 THE CONCEPT There are four major ways of measuring particulate matter: 1.Inertial techniques and sedimentation 2.Electrostatic precipitation 3.Thermal precipitation 4.Light scattering ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators Slide-9

10 Inertial Techniques & Sedimentation Earliest method for sampling atmospheric particulate matter Devices are designed to use the mass of the particle and conscious directing of air to have the PM come out of suspension Can be used to detect PM as small as.5micrometers in diameter These methods do not give a good estimation of the how the PM is actually distributed in suspension Source for image and information: (Allen 55-67) ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators Slide-10

11 Electrostatic Precipitation Techniques With 100% collection of sampled PM in the air stream this is an accurate but not common technique The static charge of a particle is excited by a cathode causing the particle to move in the direction electric field to an anode There is a correlation of the voltage drawn and the PM size and count The problem with this technique is complexity and cost (Allen 55-67) ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators Slide-11

12 Thermal Precipitation Techniques This technique uses a heated wire and directed air flow to collect PM on a glass slide that can then be examined by microscope This technique is good for examining the actual particles but not common for large sampling due to the manual inspection required Source for image and information: (Allen 55-67) ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators Slide-12

13 Light Scattering Techniques This image is a self descriptive diagram of the most common device used to measure PM in the atmosphere for a fixed arrangement. This arrangement can typically sense PM that is.3 micrometers in diameter. Source for image and information: (Allen 55-67) ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators Slide-13

14 This HIAC automatic portable counter arrangement can sense PM from micrometers in diameter An advantage of this device is that it is portable and can handle high flow rates Disadvantage is that the accuracy of this method is not high Source for image and information: (Allen 55-67) Light Scattering Techniques Continued ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators Slide-14

15 The Most Common Devices Today Most of the particulate matter sensors in production today use light in a focused beam through an air sample to a collection devise that measures the loss or refraction. The following are the sensors arrangement that this presentation involves: Nephelometer (Gas form is also known as an aspirated smoke detector) –Strength: Accuracy –Weakness: Only Partial Stream Testing Opacity meter –Strength: Test the Whole Stream –Weakness: Less Accuracy Miniaturized System for Particle Exposure Assessment (MSPEA) –Strength: Portable, Less Expensive –Weakness: In Development/ Experimental Research only for availability ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators Slide-15

16 NEPHELOMETER Source: Queensland EPA (whole slide is one image) ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators Slide-16

17 OPACITY METER This sensor is similar to the Nephelometer in that a focus beam of light is directed through an air sample which is then detected by various devices such as a photodiode. How much light is refracted or deflected is then used to determine how much particulate matter is in the sample. Typically this type of sensor is used for whole stream sampling instead of the method of a Nephelometer which only test a sample of the stream. (Evans) ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators Slide-17

18 MSPEA Source: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory “ MSPEA sensor fixture with heating wire shown in yellow. Components not shown include the collection crystal which rests on the posts that hold the wire, the quartz slide that is held by the notches below the wire, and the optical reflectance probe which passes through the hole centered beneath the wire.” The refraction of the light from the optical reflectance probe is measured by the collection crystal indicating the presence of particulate matter. Image Source: ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators Slide-18

19 Manufactures Company Air Sense Technology –http://www.airsense.us/Products/products_overviewhttp://www.airsense.us/Products/products_overview –Product Specifications: Sensitivity Range: to 10 microns Powered by 24 Volt DC battery PC interface Built in Remote communications 4000ft range between devices Replaceable filter (lasts 3-5 years) Image Source: ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators Slide-19

20 Company Xtralis –http://www.xtralis.com/product_view.cfm?product_id=1 (Source for Image also)http://www.xtralis.com/product_view.cfm?product_id=1 –Product Specifications: Powered by 24 Volt DC battery PC interface Built in Display 5000 sqr ft range between devices Replaceable two stage filter Sensitivity Range: % obs/ft Manufactures ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators Slide-20

21 Company Lawrence Berkeley National Labs –http://industrial-innov.lbl.gov/II- contact.htmlhttp://industrial-innov.lbl.gov/II- contact.html –Product Specifications: Available only for licensing or collaborative research Portable and small Sensitivity Range: 2.5 micrometers to 10 micrometers Can directly measure particle mass and source Manufactures Image Source: ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators Slide-21

22 Conclusion In an ever increasingly environmentally consciences world and the realization of the consequences to health of particulate matter, sensing air pollution is important. PM sensors are the tool that allow us to measure and there for regulate the air quality around us. This is still a developing field that has current research being conducted. ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators Slide-22


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