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Agriculture and Forestry, Bioeconomy Views Klaus Ammann, University of Bern, Switzerland Bioeconomy Dublin February 14, 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "Agriculture and Forestry, Bioeconomy Views Klaus Ammann, University of Bern, Switzerland Bioeconomy Dublin February 14, 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 Agriculture and Forestry, Bioeconomy Views Klaus Ammann, University of Bern, Switzerland Bioeconomy Dublin February 14, 2013

2 The four points I want to talk about 1.Regulation too expensive, one of the main reasons : Wrong focus on transgenic Crops: Genomic Misconception: Natural Mutation (ie. Conventional breeding) and Transgenesis are the same on the molecular process level 2.Yield in Agriculture, a mixed bag, climate mitigation, towards a better Ag Economy 3.Forestry at the crossroads, realistic view on climate cooling and warming, adaptation to modern forestry and nature protection 4.The consequences: Stop the propaganda and trade wars, it is dialogue, collaboration and free trade which will bring European agriculture forward

3 1. Regulation too expensive, one of the main reasons : Wrong focus on transgenic Crops: Genomic Misconception: Natural Mutation (ie. Conventional breeding) and Transgenesis are the same on the molecular process level

4 In the European Union (and the Cartagena Protocol decision making process is too complex, obscure and politically inefficient The Canadian product oriented regulation would solve many problems, big obstacle: Unscientific focus on transgenesis Ammann, K. ( ), Genomic Misconception: A fresh look at the biosafety of transgenic and conventional crops, a plea for a process agnostic regulation New Biotechnology, in press, pp. 32,

5 System map of the principal issues, challenges and feedback loops in the risk management component of the legislation EPEC-SANCO (2011) Evaluation of the EU legislative framework in the field of cultivation of GMOs under Directive 2001/18/EC and Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003, and the placing on the market of GMOs as or in products under Directive 2001/18/EC Final Report, pp European Commission DG Sanco biotechnology/evaluation/docs/ gmo_cultivation_report_en.pdf

6 Undue delays in Europe for the approval of GM crops, status November 5, 2012

7 Innovation in agbiotech. (a) Location and sector of organizations conducting R&D for the 558 transgenic product quality innovations identified. Private sector consists of corporate and privately held firms. Public sector consists of government research laboratories, universities and nonprofit research institutes. (b) Annual entry, exit and the numbers of innovations active in the R&D pipeline were calculated from observations of the 558 innovations tracked in the primary survey. The number of active innovations stopped growing in 1998, after which those new innovations that entered were more likely to be published and less likely to move toward commercialization. Fig.1 from (Graff et al., 2009b). Graff, G.D., Zilberman, D., & Bennett, A.B. (2009) The contraction of Ag-biotech product quality innovation. Nature Biotechnology, 27, 8, pp

8 One of the main reasons for the regulatory stall and the difficult innovation climate in modern Agrivculture in Europe: the Genomic Misconception Natural Mutation (ie. Conventional breeding) and Transgenesis (i.e. GM crops) are the same on the molecular process level Ammann, K. ( ), Genomic Misconception: A fresh look at the biosafety of transgenic and conventional crops, a plea for a process agnostic regulation New Biotechnology, in press, pp. 32,

9 European Biosafety and the Cartagena Protocol The biosafety protocol is based on the wrong premises: See Genomic Misconception in this slides: Natural Mutation and transgenesis are the same on the molecular level.

10 The time has come for the scientific community to advance a new generation of international organizations that expressly promote scientific cooperation — agencies that can help foster technological cooperation for Africa’s economic transformation. Juma, C. (2011) The New Harvest: Agricultural Innovation in Africa Preprint 3 Chapters Oxford University Press (14. Januar 2011) IS: ISBN-10: ISBN-13: , pp 296 and Ch pdf and AND https://www.amazon.de/New-Harvest-Agricultural- Innovation-Africa/dp/ /ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid= &sr=8-1 Juma, C. (2011) Preventing hunger: Biotechnology is key. Nature, 479, 7374, pp AND Juma, C. (2011) Science Meets Farming in Africa. Science, 334, 6061, pp AND

11 2. Yield in Agriculture, a mixed bag, climate mitigation, towards a better Ag Economy

12 Type:GIF Slavo Mac ( ) Complexity Theorists Predict Food Crisis, Riots and Civil Unrest By April In SHTFplan.com

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14 Galvao, A. and Celeres ( ), Celeres, Biotechnology Report 2010, Celeres, No. pp. 7, Uberlandia, Matto Grosso, force.org/web/Brazil/ Celeres-Brazil- Biotechnology- Report-2010.pdf force.org/web/Brazil/ Celeres-Brazil- Biotechnology- Report-2010.pdf AND om.br/1/english/inde x.html om.br/1/english/inde x.html

15 Mercosur consolidates as leading soybean region with 52% of world’s production Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Bolivia harvest 136 million tons annually, compared to the 83 from the United States and the world’s 260 million tons (2011)

16 It is wrong to blame all mishap with GM crops to Genetic Engineering See a typical debate between scientists on this topic Broer, I., R. J. Busch, C. Jung, F. Ordon, M. Qaim, B. Reinhold-Hurek, U. Sonnewald, A. von Tiedemann, C. Moehring, P. Schmitz-Moeller and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (2009), Gruene Gentechnik, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, No. ISBN , pp. 56, Taube, F., M. Krawinkel, A. Susenbeth and W. Theobald (2011), The booklet "Genetically modified crops" published from the German Research Foundation, does not meet the given claim Environmental Sciences Europe, 23, 1, pp. 1, AND Broer, I., C. Jung, F. Ordon, M. Qaim, B. Reinhold-Hurek, U. Sonnewald and A. von Tiedemann (2011), Response to the criticism by Taube et al. in ESE 23:1, 2011, on the booklet "Green Genetic Engineering" published by the German Research Foundation (DFG) Environmental Sciences Europe, 23, 1, pp. 16, AND

17 Development of resistant weeds with herbicide use

18 Fig. 2. Relationship between nsecticide use and crop losses with and without Bt technology.Curves are predictions based on econometric estimation of a logistic damage-control function. See table S1 for details and results of the estimation procedure.Data was obtained from 2001 trials. Qaim, M. & Zilberman, D. (2003) Yield effects of genetically modified crops in developing countries. Science, 299, 5608, pp AND

19 Figure 2. Relationship between insecticide use and crop losses with and without Bt technology. Curves are predictions based on econometric estimation of a logistic damage-control function. See table S1 for details and results of the estimation procedure. Data was obtained from 2001 trials Qaim, M. & Zilberman, D. (2003) Yield effects of genetically modified crops in developing countries. Science, 299, 5608, pp ://WOS: AND Effects-2003.pdf AND

20 Royal-Society (2009), Reaping the benefits: science and the sustainable intensification of global agriculture, Royal Socienty, No. 11/09, pp. 89, London, AND Ammann, K. ( ), Chapter 27: Advancing the cause in emerging economies in Successful Agricultural Innovation in Emerging Economies, ed. Bennett David and Jennings Richard, Vol., pp. 27 Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Cause-Emerging pdf Cause-Emerging pdf

21 3. Forestry at the crossroads, realistic view on climate cooling and warming, adaptation to modern forestry and nature protection

22 Nepstad, D., B. S. Soares-Filho, F. Merry, A. Lima, P. Moutinho, J. Carter, M. Bowman, A. Cattaneo, H. Rodrigues, S. Schwartzman, D. G. McGrath, C. M. Stickler, R. Lubowski, P. Piris-Cabezas, S. Rivero, A. Alencar, O. Almeida and O. Stella (2009), The End of Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, Science, 326, 5958, pp , ://WOS: AND force.org/web/Brazil/Brazil-Amazon- Deforestation-Ends-2009.pdf force.org/web/Brazil/Brazil-Amazon- Deforestation-Ends-2009.pdf

23 Multiple-use forest management, which includes timber, non-timber forest products, and environmental conservation services, is considered a promising tropical conservation and development strategy Western Amazonas Duchelle, A. E., M. R. Guariguata, G. Less, M. A. Albornoz, A. Chavez and T. Melo (2012), Evaluating the opportunities and limitations to multiple use of Brazil nuts and timber in Western Amazonia Forest Ecology and Management, 268, pp , ://WOS: AND force.org/web/Economics /Duchelle-Evaluating- Opportunities-Brazil-Nut- W-Amazon-2012.pdf

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25 Vogelpohl, T. and F. Aggestam (2012), Public policies as institutions for sustainability: potentials of the concept and findings from assessing sustainability in the European forest-based sector European Journal of Forest Research, 131, 1, pp , Sustain/Vogelpohl-Public-Policies-Institutions-2011.pdfhttp://www.ask-force.org/web/Forestry- Sustain/Vogelpohl-Public-Policies-Institutions-2011.pdf

26 IPCC, Metz B., Davidson O., Bosch P., Rutu D. and Meyer L. (2007b), Climate Change Mitigation of Climate Change: Working Group III contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC edn. IPCC, IS: IS: ISBN-10: ISBN-13: pp. 862, AND

27 Sheppard, A.W., Raghu, S., Begley, C., & Richardson, D.M. (2011) Biosecurity in the new bioeconomy. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 3, 1-2, pp 1-3 ://WOS: AND force.org/web/BioEconomy/Sheppard-Biosecurity-Sustainability- Bioeconomy-2011.pdfhttp://www.ask- force.org/web/BioEconomy/Sheppard-Biosecurity-Sustainability- Bioeconomy-2011.pdf

28 Optimal Centralized Kim, J., M. J. Realff, J. H. Lee, C. Whittaker and L. Furtner (2011), Design of biomass processing network for biofuel production using an MILP model Biomass & Bioenergy, 35, 2, pp , ://WOS: AND force.org/web/Economics/Kim- Design-Biomass-Processing-MILP pdf Design of biomass processing network for biofuel production using an MILP model 1 Biomass production Forestry

29 Optimal Distributed Kim, J., M. J. Realff, J. H. Lee, C. Whittaker and L. Furtner (2011), Design of biomass processing network for biofuel production using an MILP model Biomass & Bioenergy, 35, 2, pp , ://WOS: AND force.org/web/Economics/Kim- Design-Biomass-Processing-MILP pdf Design of biomass processing network for biofuel production using an MILP model 2 Biomass production Forestry

30 Kim, J., M. J. Realff, J. H. Lee, C. Whittaker and L. Furtner (2011), Design of biomass processing network for biofuel production using an MILP model Biomass & Bioenergy, 35, 2, pp , ://WOS: AND force.org/web/Economics/Kim- Design-Biomass-Processing- MILP-2011.pdf Design of biomass processing network for biofuel production using an MILP model 3 Biomass production Forestry

31 A decade ago, the World Bank Group shifted its approach in the forest sector by putting poverty alleviation and sustainable economic development on equal footing with conservation. It was a bold move given the risks and trade-offs involved in balancing these three aims. A decade into its implementation, the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) evaluated the progress made and results of this approach. The evaluation involved a review of the Bank Group strategy and the complete portfolio of nearly 350 operations during the decade. Field-based case studies were conducted in Brazil, Chile, China, the Democratic Republic of Congo, India, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Liberia, Mexico, Peru, the Russian Federation, South Sudan, Uruguay and a desk study of small island states. Worldbank-IEG ( ), Managing Forest Resources for Sustainable Development, An Evaluation of World Bank Group Experience, World Bank, No. pp. AND

32 Worldbank-IEG ( ), Managing Forest Resources for Sustainable Development, An Evaluation of World Bank Group Experience, World Bank, No. pp. AND

33 Worldbank-IEG ( ), Managing Forest Resources for Sustainable Development, An Evaluation of World Bank Group Experience, World Bank, No. pp. AND

34 Worldbank-IEG ( ), Managing Forest Resources for Sustainable Development, An Evaluation of World Bank Group Experience, World Bank, No. pp. AND

35 Herring, R.J. & Rao Chandrasekhara N. (2012) On the ‘Failure of Bt Cotton’, Analysing a Decade of Experience. Economic and Political Weekly, XLVII, 18, pp AND

36 Antle, J. M. and S. M. Capalbo (2002), Agriculture as a managed ecosystem: Policy implications Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 27, 1, pp. 1-15, ://WOS: AND force.org/web/Econo mics/Antle- Agriculture-Managed- Ecosystem-2002.pdf

37 4. The consequences: Stop the propaganda and trade wars, it is dialogue, collaboration and free trade which will bring European agriculture forward

38 Genepeace, Not Greenpeace

39 Ammann, K. (2008) Feature: Integrated farming: Why organic farmers should use transgenic crops, open source citations. New Biotechnology, 25, 2, pp wBiotech/Ammann-Opinion- Integrated-Farming names-links-edited.pdf Ammann, K. (2009) Feature: Why farming with high tech methods should integrate elements of organic agriculture. accepted, corrected proof, open links. New Biotechnology, 4, pp wBiotech/Integrated-Farming- Biotech-Org openlink.pdf Why high tech farmers should adopt Organic management

40 Ronald, P.C. & Adamchak, R.W. (2008) Tomorrow's Table: Organic Farming, Genetics, and the Future of Food Oxford University Press, USA (April 18, 2008) IS: ISBN-10: ISBN-13: pp 232 Book review by J. Gressel Ronald-2009.pdf Ronald-2009.pdf

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42 Amish farmers in biotech-debate: subsequent partial adoption of transgenic crops: 1999, see:

43 Reed, M. S., E. D. G. Fraser and A. J. Dougill (2006), An adaptive learning process for developing and applying sustainability indicators with local communities Ecological Economics, 59, 4, pp , force.org/web/Sustainability/ Reed-Adaptive-Learning- Process-2006.pdf

44 Ammann, K. ( ), Chapter 27: Advancing the cause in emerging economies in Successful Agricultural Innovation in Emerging Economies, ed. Bennett David and Jennings Richard, Vol., pp. 27 Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, AND

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46 Forgot what we are Protesting We are programmed in millions of years of evolution to be alarmed and act accordingly Common protest engines: Constant framing through Protest-corporates and moral self- licensing Merritt, A.C., Effron, D.A., & Monin, B. (2010) Moral Self-Licensing: When Being Good Frees Us to Be Bad. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4, 5, pp Moral-Self-Licensing-2010.pdf

47 bye bye Heliotis bye bye pesticides Percentage GM cotton in the USA Bt-toxin may be hazardous to your health, don‘t swallow and keep away from children The Euro-Bills are made out of transgenic Bt - cotton


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