2Behavioral Adaptation in Water A behavioral adaptation in the oceans is the use of loud, low-frequency calls by fin whales to communicate with other whales over great distances.fin whaleRay fishOne of the ways for sea creatures to deception their selves is digging themselves in the sand. Fully cover their physique with silt as well as gravel and customarily their eyes
3Behavioral Adaptation in Water Some fish can enter a sleep-like state, but they do not hibernate. During the coldest parts of winter, pupfish burrow into the muddy bottom and become dormant until the weather warms up. Aquatic frogs and toads such as the leopard frog and American bullfrog usually hibernate underwater. They don’t, however, dig into the mud like turtles. They lie just above the mud, or only partially buried in the mud.pupfishtunaMany types of fish , (like tuna, sharks, dolphins, sailfish, swordfish, etc.) migrate on a regular basis, on time scales ranging from daily to annually or longer, and over distances ranging from a few metres to thousands of kilometres.
4Behavioral Adaptation in Water A group of fish that stay together for social reasons are shoaling, and if the group is swimming in the same direction in a coordinated manner, they are schooling. Fish derive many benefits from shoaling behavior including defense against predators and increased hydrodynamic efficiency.
5Structural Adaptation in Water MimicryCamouflageRock fishpygmy seahorse
6Protection from predator Porcupine fishAttracting preyScientists have discovered more than 180 species of biofluorescent fish that glow in neon shades.Some of the fish glow just around their eyes. Others have intricate fluorescent patterns on their bellies or backs. And some of the fish glow all the way through their bodies.
7Special features starfish cuttlefish If a starfish loses an arm, an organ or even most of his body, he can re-grow whatever part he needs as long as part of the central ring is intact. Thanks to this ability, if a predator attacks and manages to take a bite, a starfish won't bleed to death, get an infection or be permanently crippled. In fact, one starfish may become two if part of the central ring is attached to the part separated from the main bodyThe cuttlefish, actually a cephalopod relative of octopuses and squid, can shift shape and change its skin color to hide from danger by impersonating its surroundings—like a chunk of a coral, a clump of algae, or simply a patch of sand.cuttlefish
10Streamlined body shape Most aquatic animals have a streamlined body shape that reduces water resistance to enable the animal to move faster in water, e.g. dolphin.
11Modified limbsMany aquatic animals have modified limbs to help them propel their bodies forward and control their movement in water, e.g. fish have fins,frogs and ducks have webbed feet,seals and turtles have flippers
12Modified limbs water boatman has oar-like legs. Most jellyfish use a form of jet propulsion to move through seawater. They squeeze their bodies in order to push jets of water from the bottom of their bodies to propel the jellyfish forward.
13BlubberSome aquatic animals have a layer of blubber or fat which helps them to stay buoyant in water.manateeSwim bladdersMost fish have swim bladders to help them stay afloat or buoyant in water.
14Adaptations for moving in water • Most aquatic animals have a streamlined body shape that reduces water resistance to enable the animal to move faster in water, e.g. dolphin.• Some aquatic animals have a layer of blubber or fat which helps them to stay buoyant in water.• Many aquatic animals have modified limbs to help them propel their bodies forward and control their movement in water, e.g. fish have fins, seals and turtles have flippers, frogs and ducks have webbed feet, water boatman has oar-like legs.• Most fish have swim bladders to help them stay afloat or buoyant in water.Explain that:• Adaptations are important for animals to survive, move and protect themselves.
15Throughout the oceans, marine organisms must deal with several things that are less of a problem for life on land:Regulating salt intakeObtaining oxygenAdapting to water pressureDealing with wind, waves and changing temperaturesGetting enough light
16Fish can drink salt water, and eliminate the salt through their gills. Salt RegulationFish can drink salt water, and eliminate the salt through their gills.
17Salt RegulationSeabirds also drink salt water, and the excess salt is eliminated via the nasal, or “salt glands” into the nasal cavity, and then is shaken, or sneezed out by the bird.
18Salt RegulationWhales don’t drink salt water, instead getting the water they need from the organisms they eat.
20TemperaturesMany ocean animals are cold-blooded and their internal body temperature is the same as their surrounding environment.Marine mammals, however, have special considerations because they are warm-blooded, meaning they need to keep their internal body temperature constant no matter the water temperature.Marine mammals have an insulating layer of blubber (made up of fat and connective tissue) under their skin. This blubber layer allows them to keep their internal body temperature about the same as ours, even in the cold ocean. The bowhead whale, an arctic species, has a blubber layer that is 2 feet thick
21Water PressureIn the oceans, water pressure increases 15 pounds per square inch for every 33 feet of water. While some ocean animals do not change water depths very often, far-ranging animals such as whales, sea turtles and seals sometimes travel from shallow waters to great depths several times in a single day. How can they do it?
22Water PressureThe sperm whale is thought to be able to dive over 1 ½ miles below the ocean surface. One adaptation is that lungs and rib cages collapse when diving to deep depths.sperm whaleThe leatherback sea turtle can dive to over 3,000 feet. Its collapsible lungs and flexible shell help it stand the high water pressure.leatherback sea turtle
23Wind and WavesAnimals in the intertidal zone do not have to deal with high water pressure, but need to withstand the high pressure of wind and waves. Many marine invertebrates and plants in this habitat have the ability to cling on to rocks or other substrates so they are not washed away, and have hard shells for protection.
24One physical adaptation used in the intertidal zone is a crab's hard shell, which protects it from predators, drying out and being crushed by waves.
25LightOrganisms that need light, such as tropical coral reefs and their associated algae, are found in shallow, clear waters that can be easily penetrated by sunlight.Since underwater visibility and light levels can change, whales do not rely on sight to find their food. Instead, they locate prey using echolocation and their hearing.In the depths of the ocean abyss, some fish have lost their eyes or pigmentation because they are just not necessary. Other organisms are bioluminescent, using light-giving bacteria or their own light-producing organs to attract prey or mates.
26Oxygen Adaptations for breathing atmospheric oxygen Adaptations for breathing oxygen dissolved in water• Blowholes located on top of their heads to help them breathe when they are swimming near the water surface, e.g. whale, dolphin• Nostrils at the tip of their snouts; the nostrils are shut when underwater and breathing occurs only when the nostrils are out of the water, e.g. seal, walrus• Breathing tubes that stick out of the water surface to take in atmospheric oxygen, e.g. water scorpion, mosquito larva, mosquito pupa• Carry air bubbles in their adapted wings, legs or hairy bodies, e.g. water spider, water beetle• Gills that help to extract oxygen from the water and release carbon dioxide back into the water, e.g. fish, prawn, tadpole• Special thin layer of skin to help them breathe in the water, e.g. frog, flatworm, salamander• Gill chambers to store water and keep the gills wet all the time so the animal can use oxygen from the water in the gill chambers, e.g. mudskipper, hermit crab
27OxygenAll living things need oxygen. Land animals take in oxygen from the atmosphere, while aquatic animals can either make use of oxygen from the atmosphere or oxygen dissolved in the water.
28Adaptations for breathing atmospheric oxygen Marine mammals need to come to the water surface to breathe, which is why the deep-diving whales have blowholes on top of their heads, so they can surface to breathe while keeping most of their body underwater.
29Adaptations for breathing atmospheric oxygen Nostrils at the tip of their snouts; the nostrils are shut when underwater and breathing occurs only when the nostrils are out of the water, e.g. seal, walrus
30Adaptations for breathing atmospheric oxygen Whales can stay underwater without breathing for an hour or more because they make very efficient use of their lungs, exchanging up to 90% of their lung volume with each breath, and also store unusually high amounts of oxygen in their blood and muscles when diving
31Adaptations for breathing atmospheric oxygen Breathing tubes that stick out of the water surface to take in atmospheric oxygen, e.g. water scorpion, mosquito larva, mosquito pupamosquito larva
32Adaptations for breathing atmospheric oxygen Carry air bubbles in their adapted wings, legs or hairy bodies, e.g. water spider, water beetlewater beetle
33Adaptations for breathing oxygen dissolved in water Gills that help to extract oxygen from the water and release carbon dioxide back into the water, e.g. fish, prawn, tadpole
34Adaptations for breathing oxygen dissolved in water flatwormfrogSalamanderSpecial thin layer of skin to help them breathe in the water, e.g. frog, flatworm, salamander
35Adaptations for breathing oxygen dissolved in water Gill chambers to store water and keep the gills wet all the time so the animal can use oxygen from the water in the gill chambers, e.g. mudskipper, hermit crab