Presentation on theme: "What Lives in or Near Our Water?. Fish Catfish Shiners and chubs Bluegill."— Presentation transcript:
What Lives in or Near Our Water?
Fish Catfish Shiners and chubs Bluegill
Amphibians Leopard Frog Tadpoles Bull Frog
Amphibians Salamanders – Larvae have gills, legs Mudpuppy – retains gills throughout life
Red-eared slider Adult Snapper Reptiles
Queen Snake – common in our area - non-venomous Northern Water Snake – aggressive but non- venomous
Birds Eastern Kingfisher Green Heron Red-winged Blackbird
Mammals Raccoon Mink Beaver Muskrat
None of the previous animals are used to indicate the quality of water in an area – they are nice to find, but are often the first to go if the water is not good.
Indicators of Water Quality Macroinvertebrates – without backbones, large enough to be seen Many of the macroinvertebrates are insect larvae that spend part of their life cycle as aquatic organism.
The macroinvertebrates are divided into groups based on their tolerance of poor water conditions. Group I – indicators of good water quality. These have low tolerance of pollutants. Group II – indicators of fair water quality. These have moderate tolerance of pollutants. Group III – indicators of poor water quality. These have high tolerance of pollutants and low oxygen levels.
Stonefly adult 1 Food for many fish Stonefly nymph
1 Food for many fish Mayfly nymph Mayfly adult Adult only lives for a day or so to mate.
Dobsonfly adult 1 Dobsonfly larva Also called a hellgrammite. Food for many fish – good bait too! Adults only live for a few days to mate.
1 Found in little cases of sand and sticks on the bottom of rocks. Caddisfly larva Caddisfly adult
1 Type of beetle - found on the bottom of rocks. Water penny larva
2 Adults look like giant mosquitoes – they do not bite and are lousy fliers. These are not the water striders that might also be found. Horsefly and deerfly larvae are similar. Crane fly larva Crane fly adult
2 Adults hold wings together when resting. Adults hold wings parallel when resting. Dragonfly nymph Damselfly nymph Larvae are voracious predators – often catching fish and tadpoles!
2 Crustacean – shell on the outside. Look like small lobsters Crayfish or Crawdads - Decapods Holes in the banks or “chimneys” in the fields near the stream are made by some species of crayfish
2 Crustaceans– related to the “roly-polys” found under rocks on land. Crustaceans – shell on the outside. Look like tiny shrimp Sow bugs - Isopods Scuds or side swimmers - Amphipods
2 Beetle larvae Alderfly larva
2 Clams and Mussels – Mollusks These are filter feeders – siphons bring water into the animal and nutrients are removed
3 Segmented worms – only some are blood suckers. Good bait too! Leeches Aquatic worms Flat worms - Planaria Simple organisms – look carefully on the bottom of rocks
3 Blackfly larva This insect larva has a suction cup on one end to anchor it to rocks. Midge larva This insect larva lives in the silt and on leaves. Some are called a “blood worms” due to red color.
1 3 Right hand snails – have gills and need water with higher oxygen levels Left hand snails – have lung- like organs and breathe air - can live in polluted water
The key to a healthy stream is its BIODIVERSITY – finding a wide variety of macroinvertebrates is best. If only Group III organisms are found, you should be concerned about the health of the stream. The Tally Sheet helps you to determine the biodiversity and health of the stream.
Macroinvertebrate Tally Group I TaxaTallyGroup II TaxaTallyGroup III TaxaTally Water Penny LarvaeDamselfly NymphsBlackfly Larvae Mayfly NymphsDragonfly NymphsAquatic Worm, Planaria Dobsonfly LarvaeCranefly LarvaeMidge Larvae Caddisfly LarvaeBeetle LarvaeLeft-hand Snails Right-hand SnailsCrayfishLeeches Riffle Beetle AdultsScuds (sideswimmers) Clams/Mussels Sowbugs (isopods) Alderfly Larvae Number of Taxa present Times Index value of (3):Times Index value of (2):Times Index value of (1): Total Index Value: Biological Quality Assessment Scale Poor Fair Good Excellent 23+
You may download, copy, or distribute this guide for educational purposes but not for resale. For more information contact Kentucky WaterWatch: Sources of line drawings: Other sites for guides: Pictures A Golden Guide – Pond Life St. Martin’s Press