What military reasons did Oglethorpe give King George II for founding Georgia?
Military Reasons Oglethorpe and King George II wanted Georgia to be a barrier between the Spanish in Florida and the British colony in South Carolina. They also were worried about attacks from Native Americans. They wanted towns on the Savannah and Altamaha rivers In 1737, Oglethorpe convinced King George II to appoint him as a Colonel in the Army to help defend Georgia. Oglethorpe brought a regiment of troops back to Georgia.
Who were the Worthy Poor? Why did Oglethorpe want to help them?
Worthy Poor Poor Laws in England said that if you did not pay your bills or taxes you could be thrown in jail. Oglethorpe wanted to reform the Poor laws in England because a friend died in Debtor’s prison of smallpox. Oglethorpe's became famous for his effort to correct prison abuses. Worthy Poor- people in debtors’ prison who Oglethorpe believed that if given a chance, England's "worthy poor" could be farmers and business men in Georgia. Not one formerly jailed debtor was among the first colonists selected.
The Ship Ann In November of 1732, a total of 114 men, women, and children set sail for the new colony of Georgia. Their voyage to the New World took eighty-eight days. On February 12, 1733, Oglethorpe, the Georgia colonists, militia, and African American slaves cleared the pine forest on Yamacraw Bluff.
The Ship Ann Ann carried sheep, hogs, Horaces(ugly birds), ducks, geese, and several dogs. Food was simple, mostly salted pork and peas or dried beef and sweet pudding. Bread and hard cider were served with meals. The passengers spent their days playing games, talking together, and planning what they would do when the voyage was over.
James Oglethorpe (1696-1785) In 1722, then 25 years of age, he entered Parliament. He wanted a strong military, a ban on alcohol, and help for the poor. His idea was to send debtors recently released from prison to a new colony in America, where they would have the opportunity to begin life again and indeed get a fresh start. In June 1732, he and 19 of his associates obtained the charter for the Georgia colony. Oglethorpe was named as one of twenty-one Trustees to govern the new colony. Oglethorpe laid out a plan for the new town of Savannah.
James Oglethorpe (1696-1785) After a trip to England, he returned to Georgia in 1736 and brought with him John Wesley, the founder of Methodism. In the early 1740's, Oglethorpe built the defenses of Georgia and defended the colony during a war with Spain. In 1743, Oglethorpe returned to England with a few of his friends. He never returned to Georgia.
Tomochichi Born in 1650. Chief of the Yamacraw Indians part of the Lower Creek.. He was forced to leave his home and he settled near Savannah. He spoke very little English. He agreed to give Oglethorpe the land for settlement. He wanted to trade for English goods.
Tomochichi He convinced Lower Creek tribes to give Oglethorpe more land and to trade more goods. Oglethorpe took him to England in 1734 to meet King George II. After returning to Georgia, he fought on the side of Oglethorpe at the Battle of Bloody Marsh. He later died of old age and Oglethorpe gave me a military funeral.
Mary Musgrove She was the daughter of an Englishman and Creek mother. She and her husband ran a trading post. She translated from Creek to English when Oglethorpe talked to Tomochichi.
Savannah Savannah was built on Yamacraw Bluff. Colonist used hand tools to cut down trees to build houses. Basic pattern of this first planned city was designed by Robert Castell, The town was built into squares to allow for neighborhood centers Each square had 40 house lots. Each house lot was 60 feet by 90 feet..
Savannah Colonists drank dirty water from a polluted river. 1out of 4 people died during the first 10 months of disease and malaria. At the end of 12 months, Savannah had only 50 houses and a few public buildings.
Trustees Charter of 1732 – says Oglethorpe and 20 of his associates would run the Georgia colony for a period of 21 years. Trustee – a person who is trusted to act on another’s behalf. Trustees could not: 1.Get paid for their work. 2.Own land in Georgia. 3.Take public office. Trustees did not want: 1.Slavery. 2.Large Plantations. 3.Alcohol.
Malcontents Malcontents- group of people who are angry or unhappy. Malcontents were a group of settlers who disagreed with the rules in Georgia’s Charter of 1732. They wanted: 1.Large Plantations 2.Slaves to build large plantations. 3. To legalize hard liquor.
Salzburgers German Protestants who had been forced to leave Salzburg, Germany. They asked Oglethorpe to live in Georgia. Began a town called Ebenezer, which means “the Rock of Help.” Because the land was marshy with poor soil for crops, the Salzburgers asked Oglethorpe for a better site.
Salzburgers In 1736, they moved to Red Bluff on the Savannah River. There they built another town, which they called New Ebenezer. Salzburgers created the first orphanage in Georgia.
Highland Scots Settled in Darien in 1735. For money, they cut down trees and raised cattle. Known to be good soldiers. Provided troops to Oglethorpe to defend Georgia from the Spanish.
End of the Trustee Period In 1743, Oglethorpe was called to Great Britain to answer charges that he had not acted correctly when he failed to capture St. Augustine. Oglethorpe was cleared of the charges but he did not return to Georgia. Georgia still had many problems. People were also allowed to begin buying and selling rum (alcohol) in 1742. People still wanted to own more land and slaves. By 1750 laws against land ownership (each person could only own 500 acres of land) and slavery were repealed. People were now able to own as much land and as many slaves as they could afford. In 1752, one year before the end of the Charter of 1732, the trustees returned Georgia to the authority of King George II and Georgia enters the Royal Period.
Georgia as a Royal Colony ESSENTIAL QUESTION –How did Georgia change as it transitioned from the Trustee Period to the Royal Period (i.e. land ownership, government, and slavery)? –What impact did the three Royal Governors (Reynolds, Ellis, and Wright) have on the development of Georgia?
End of the Trustee Period and a Change in Government Georgia became a Royal Colony when the Trustee Period ended in 1752. Definition: Royal Colony – Colony overseen by the crown of England. The British Parliament had to pass a charter in order for Georgia to become an official Royal Colony. This process took two years. Georgia would not get its first official royal governor until 1754. The government of Georgia would change drastically as the people, under the leadership of the Royal Governors, would have to learn to govern themselves.
Three Royal Governors: John Reynolds John Reynolds – Georgia’s first royal governor. Governed from 1754 to 1757. Governor Reynolds introduced the idea of self-government to the colonists and assisted in the creation of a bicameral (two houses) legislature and the creation of a court system. Eventually, due to a disagreement between Governor Reynolds and the legislature the legislature was sent home. Reynolds tried and failed to rule Georgia himself. The British Parliament recalled Reynolds in 1757 and said that he was ineffective.
Three Royal Governors: Henry Ellis Henry Ellis – Georgia’s second royal governor. Governed from 1757-1760. Governor Ellis tried to learn from the mistakes of John Reynolds. Ellis set up a budget and regulated trade with the Native Americans. Henry Ellis also worked to increase the size and productivity of the colony of Georgia. By 1759, the population of the colony had increased to over 10,000, including 3,600 slaves. In 1759, Henry Ellis became ill and returned to Great Britain. He was replaced as the governor of Georgia in 1760.
Three Royal Governors: James Wright James Wright – Georgia’s third (and last) royal governor. Governed from 1760-1776. During Governor Wright’s term in office the size of Georgia increased. After the French and Indian War ended in 1763, Georgia gained a large amount of land. Governor Wright believed Georgia could be even more profitable for England by allowing farmers (and their slaves) to live and work on this land. James Wright continued to serve as the Royal Governor of Georgia until the beginning of the American Revolution.
Land Ownership Settlers who came to colony of Georgia during the Trustee Period were limited in the amount of land they could own. People who came by way of the Trust’s charity were limited to 50 acres of land. People who paid their way could have up to 500 acres of land. During the Trustee Period of Georgia’s history only men could own or inherit land. Many colonists were angry about this and wanted women to be able to own/inherit land. As Georgia continued to develop as a Royal Colony citizens were given the opportunity to purchase more land (and use slaves to work the land) and women were allowed to inherit land.
Slavery During the beginning of the Trustee Period, Georgia’s state law prohibited slavery (slavery was not allowed). Wealthy colonists who could afford to buy enslaved people demanded to be allowed to bring them to Georgia. Many farmers believed that in order to compete with neighboring states (like South Carolina) they had to be allowed to own slaves. Between 1750 and 1775, the number of Africans living in slavery increased from 500 to 18,000. These slaves had no rights, were not allowed to marry, were not allowed to live where they wanted, and were not allowed to learn to read or write. Slaves who broke these rules were punished, including beatings, whippings, separation from friends and family, and even death.
Africans captured to be sold into slavery crossed the Atlantic Ocean lying pressed together in crowded ships' holds. The city of Savannah served as a major port for the Atlantic slave trade from 1750, when the Georgia colony repealed its ban on slavery, until 1798, when the state outlawed the importation of slaves.