Presentation on theme: "Recognition and Control of Respiratory Hazards in the Flavoring Industry Training Developed by: Photo by National Jewish Health used with written permission."— Presentation transcript:
Recognition and Control of Respiratory Hazards in the Flavoring Industry Training Developed by: Photo by National Jewish Health used with written permission.
Disclaimers This presentation was produced under grant number SH F-8 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. 2
Why are we here? Provide information to workers: 1.Signs and symptoms of potential flavor-related lung disease 2.Ways to detect lung disease that may be related to flavoring exposure 3.Methods to reduce exposure to flavorings associated with lung disease accessed 3/28/2012 3
Outline Introduction to OSHA Overview of flavoring exposures Health effects of flavorings Medical surveillance (testing) for possible flavoring-related health effects Recognizing and controlling flavoring exposures 4
Definitions Part per million (ppm) –Small unit of concentration –1 ppm = 1 drop in 13 gallon gas tank Flavoring exposure –Inhalation of flavoring vapors or particles Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (BOS) –An uncommon lung disease where scars form in the small airways 5
Introduction to OSHA Training Goals Understand the role of OSHA in occupational safety and health Describe employer responsibilities and employee rights provided by OSHA Understand specific OSHA and industry standards for handling flavorings 6
What is OSHA? Occupational Safety and Health Administration Government agency within the U.S. Department of Labor Responsible for worker safety and health protection Created in 1970 by the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act OSH Act allows states to take responsibility for implementing OSH Act providing their regulations are at least as stringent as Federal OSHA 7
What does OSHA do? Requires employers to implement programs to reduce workplace safety and health hazards Investigates workplace fatalities or catastrophic accidents Enforces safety and health standards through workplace inspections by compliance officers Monitors job-related injuries and illnesses through required record-keeping Provides assistance, training, and other support programs to help employers and workers 8
What are employers’ responsibilities under OSHA? Provide employment and a workplace that is: 1.In compliance with established OSHA standards. 2.Free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to employees. 9
What are employees’ rights under OSHA? 1.Get training from your employer as required by OSHA standards 2.Request information from your employer about OSHA standards, worker injuries/illnesses, and job hazards 3.Request action from your employer to correct hazards or violations of OSHA standards 4.File a complaint with OSHA if you believe there are violations of OSHA standards or serious hazards Must be submitted in writing, signed by a current employee or employee representative, and state the reason for the inspection request Forms and more information available at 10
What are employees’ rights under OSHA? 5.Be involved in OSHA’s inspection of your workplace 6.Find out results of an OSHA inspection 7.Get involved in meetings or file a formal appeal concerning your employer’s timely abatement of OSHA citations 8.File a discrimination complaint 9.Request a research investigation by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 10.Provide comments and testimony to OSHA during rulemaking on new standards 11
Are there specific OSHA standards that apply to my workplace? Recordkeeping Housekeeping Medical & First Aid Walking/Work Surfaces Emergency Action Noise Hazardous materials –Compressed gases –Flammable liquids Personal protective equipment Confined spaces Lockout/tagout Fire protection Powered industrial trucks Cranes Machine guarding Electrical Respiratory protection Exposure to toxic substances Hazard communication There may also be others that apply to your workplace! 12
How are exposures regulated? –Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) Maximum permitted 8-hour time- weighted average concentration –Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL) 15-minute time-weighted average concentration not to be exceeded at any time during a workday –Ceiling Limit Maximum concentration to which an employee may be exposed at any time 13 Limits the total amount of flavoring you can inhale in a work day OSHA sets legally enforceable limits Makes sure that you don’t inhale too much flavoring in a short time Protects you from immediate irritation
Does OSHA have a standard for diacetyl? OSHA – No PEL or Federal OSHA Standard –Currently working on developing a standard CalOSHA (2010), No PEL –Exposure monitoring for airborne diacetyl –Regulated areas for all diacetyl processes –Controls to reduce exposures to lowest feasible levels –Medical surveillance (every 6 months) for workers –Respirators for workers At all times when working with diacetyl-containing powders When there are measurable diacetyl levels –8-hour exposures are greater than ppm –15-minute exposures are greater than ppm 14
Are there other groups that recommend exposure levels for diacetyl and substitutes? NIOSH=National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ACGIH=American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TERA=Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment 15 Agency or Organization 8-hour Limit (ppm) 15-min Limit (ppm) NIOSH (2011, Draft) ACGIH (2012) TERA (2010)0.2N/A NIOSH (2011, Draft) We don’t know which of these recommendations will be effective.Best approach is to reduce exposures as low as possible using these numbers to measure progress. Diacetyl 2,3-Pentanedione
Are there OSHA standards for other flavorings? Chemical OSHA PEL 8-hour (ppm) ACGIH TLV 8-hour/STEL (ppm) CalOSHA PEL 8-hour/STEL (ppm) Acetaldehyde20025 (c) Acetic Acid1010/1510/15 & 40 (c) Formic Acid55/10 Furfural522 Phosphoric acid / Propionic acidN/A10 Sulfur dioxide5N/A/0.252/5 > 2,000 individual flavorings and < 100 with exposure limits 16
Overview of Flavoring Exposures Training Goals Understand that some flavorings may cause lung injury under some conditions Know where to find a listing of flavorings that may cause lung injury 17
Why are exposures hard to predict in flavoring manufacturing? More than 2,000 flavorings –Some have irritant properties –Small number have exposure limits –Many with not enough information to determine whether they are a respiratory health hazard Exposures to different forms –Pure flavorings –Concentrated liquid and powder mixtures –Low concentration final products Multiple processes –Mixing, heating, packaging, etc. Batch processes –Volumes vary –Daily and seasonal variability 18 Not much information on possible hazards from breathing flavorings. Photo used by National Jewish Health with written permission.
Is there a list of flavorings that might be hazardous when inhaled? The Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) has a list of “High Priority” flavorings “High Priority” flavorings may cause respiratory injury when: Exposure levels are high Repeated exposures at lower levels Processed using heat Processed without proper exposure controls Image by the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association Used with written permission 19 “High Priority” flavorings should be labeled to alert workers that they require careful handling.
What are the “High Priority” flavorings? Acetoin Diacetyl Diacetyl Trimer 2,3-Heptanedione Methyl Mercaptan Methyl Sulfide 2,4-Pentadienal 2-Pentenal Phosphoric Acid Propionaldehyde Propionic Acid Sulfur Dioxide Triethylamine Valeraldehyde FEMA LISTED HIGH PRIORITY MATERIAL FOLLOW APPROPRIATE ENGINEERING AND PROCEDURAL CONTROLS TO MINIMIZE EXPOSURE 20 Figure by National Jewish Health Diacetyl & Substitutes Other Flavorings Acetaldehyde Acetic Acid Benzaldehyde Butyric Acid Ethyl Acrylate Formic Acid Furfural Hydrogen Sulfide Isobutyraldehyde Isobutryic Acid 2,3-Hexanedione 3,4-Hexanedione 2,3-Pentanedione These flavorings may cause respiratory injury when not handled properly.
What about natural flavoring complexes? Capsaicin Oils –Balsam fir –Bitter almond –Garlic –Grapefruit –Lemon –Lime –Mustard –Onion –Orange Photo by Scott Bauer available under public domain from Wikimedia CommonsWikimedia Commons 21 Natural flavoring complexes may also cause irritation and respiratory symptoms when not handled properly.
Health Effects and Medical Surveillance Training Objectives Learn about respiratory health effects Learn methods to detect possible flavoring-related health effects Understand the importance of medical surveillance 22
Definitions Airways –The tubes that carry air into and out of your lungs Airway Disease –Airways become narrowed. –Causes slowing of the flow of air into and out of your lungs Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (BOS) –Airway disease in small airways in the lungs –Injury from a chemical or infection –Scars form, causing airways to narrow. Associated with exposure to diacetyl Possibly diacetyl substitutes 23 Normal Airway Image by National Jewish Health Narrow Airway Image by National Jewish Health Permanent Scarring
Respiratory Health Effects Irritation –Eyes, nose, throat –Chest –Skin irritation (high exposure) Airway diseases –Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (BOS) –Asthma Allergies –Allergic reactions –Asthma Air travels through the small airways to the air sacs and into the blood stream. Diagram of a Normal Lung Image by National Jewish Health 24
Cough –Dry cough –Cough with phlegm Wheeze Chest tightness Shortness of breath Photo by National Jewish Health There are many causes of breathing symptoms. Photo by National Jewish Health 25 Airway irritation and airway diseases cause breathing symptoms.
A medical evaluation is needed to know the cause of the symptoms. 26 Colds and other infections Cigarette smoking Airway Irritation Asthma Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (BOS) Allergies Other lung diseases –Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Photo by National Jewish Health
It is important to find BOS early! This is the true story of one worker 29 years old with no lung problems. He never smoked. He worked for 2 years as a flavor compounder. –When he used a respirator, his beard prevented a good fit. He began to have breathing symptoms. –He was treated for bronchitis. His symptoms continued to worsen. He had to stop working. He saw a doctor who knew about flavorings and BOS. He already had severe airway disease (BOS). He was not able to work or do many other things again. If his BOS had been diagnosed earlier, the ending to the story might have been different. 27
Not all “High Priority” flavorings are irritating. Flavorings can cause irritation and injury. Usually, there is only irritation –Burning in the throat, nose, and eyes –Burning in the chest, cough, and chest tightening –Symptoms get better away from exposure Airway injury can occur –High levels of exposure –Very irritating flavorings Figure by National Jewish Health Photo by Cliff Hutson available under public domain from Wikimedia CommonsWikimedia Commons 28 Normal Airway
Some flavorings can trigger asthma “attacks”. During an asthma “attack”: –Airway muscles tighten. –Airways become inflamed and narrowed. –Symptoms may be mild or severe. Treatment with medications is often needed. Airways return to normal. Figures by National Jewish Health Asthma Airways inflamed and narrowed Medications Normal airway 29 Muscle tightening Swelling Mucus
Asthma “attacks” can be triggered in workers who already have asthma. Triggered by irritant flavorings –Capsaicin –Some natural oils –Some “High Priority” Flavorings Acetic acid Acetaldehyde (aldehydes) The higher the exposure, the higher the risk. Workers with asthma should be extra careful to avoid breathing in irritating flavorings. Photo by Cliff Hutson available under public domain from Wikimedia CommonsWikimedia Commons 30
Some natural flavorings can cause allergic reactions. Not common in this industry Runny nose (rhinitis) Asthma –Allergic reactions to Shellfish, fish, eggs, flour, some spices Rarely, a body-wide allergic reaction –Hives –Swelling of the mouth and throat –Chest tightness, shortness of breath –Allergic reactions to Shellfish, fish, some spices Peanuts and other tree nuts 31 Photo available under public domain from Wikimedia CommonsWikimedia Commons Photo by Bierfaß available under public domain from Wikimedia CommonsWikimedia Commons
Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (BOS) is scarring in small airways. Diacetyl, possibly diacetyl substitutes After injury, scars form. Scars cause airways to narrow. Normal airway Late BOS Images by National Jewish Health Early BOS 32 Early Scarring Inflammation Airway injury Permanent Scarring Diacetyl and diacetyl substitutes do not have good warning properties.
It is important to find BOS early! Early: Mild airway narrowing –Mild breathing symptoms –Removal from exposure can help prevent worsening. Late: Severe airway narrowing –Severe breathing symptoms –Nothing makes BOS better -- medications do not help. Normal airway Late BOS Figures by National Jewish Health Early BOS Early Scarring Inflammation Airway injury Permanent Scarring 33
Avoid breathing in diacetyl and substitutes. BOS has been found in workers exposed to butter flavorings. –Popcorn manufacturing workers –Flavor manufacturing workers –Diacetyl production workers 34 Photo by NIOSH available under public domain These workers had exposure to high levels of diacetyl. In animals, diacetyl causes airway injury and scars. Diacetyl substitutes may not be better. It is important to keep exposures to diacetyl and diacetyl substitutes as low as possible.
It is important to find BOS early! If you are exposed to diacetyl or diacetyl substitutes: –Report unexplained breathing symptoms to Human Resources or Health and Safety and to your doctor. –Participate in medical surveillance. Photo by National Jewish Health 35
Talk to your doctor about your symptoms and your work with flavorings Flavoring-Related Lung Disease (NIOSH) –Available on the NIOSH website (www.cdc.gov/niosh) NIOSH
Medical Surveillance: Questionnaires and Breathing Tests Breathing Test (Spirometry) –How much air you can breathe in and out –How fast you can blow air out –Testing is recommended at least every year. Every 6 months (CalOSHA) Are the results normal? –Compared to other people who are your same age, height, and gender Are the results normal for you? –Are the results similar to your past test results? Photo by National Jewish Health 37
Repeated breathing tests are needed. 25 years of age First Test 1) Is the result normal? YES Test After 5 Years of Work 2) Is the result normal for you? YES NO Keep your test results. Normal 38
Special tests are needed to diagnose work-related lung disease. If your test results are not normal for you –Repeat the breathing test. If the test is still not normal for you, the doctor will do more testing to find out the cause. Photo by National Jewish Health 39 Photo by National Jewish Health
Protect Your Lungs! Keep your exposure to all “High Priority” flavorings as low as possible. Do not rely on smell or irritation to warn you about exposure. Report new or worsening breathing symptoms. Don’t smoke! Photo available under public domain from Wikimedia CommonsWikimedia Commons 40 FEMA LISTED HIGH PRIORITY MATERIAL FOLLOW APPROPRIATE ENGINEERING AND PROCEDURAL CONTROLS TO MINIMIZE EXPOSURE Image by National Jewish Health
Flavoring Exposure Recognition and Control Training Goals Recognize flavorings and work processes where you might be exposed Understand the methods used to measure flavoring exposure Understand the proper use of control methods to reduce exposure to flavorings 41
How do I know if it is hazardous? Labeling of individual flavorings and compounded flavors Handling precautions on batch sheets –Health effects –Proper handling –Necessary precautions MSDS or SDS readily available Figure by National Jewish Health Figures by Torsten Henning available under public domain from Wikimedia CommonsWikimedia Commons 42 Workers need to be alerted when working with “High Priority” flavorings WARNING – This flavor may pose an inhalation hazard if improperly handled. Please contact your workplace safety officer before opening and handling, and read the MSDS. Handling of this flavor that results in inhalation of fumes, especially if the flavor is heated, may cause severe adverse health effects. Hazard Communication
What does exposure to flavorings look like? Possible exposure anywhere “High Priority” flavorings are: –Sampled –Weighed –Mixed –Poured –Transferred –Packaged 43 Flavoring particles and vapors quickly move into a worker’s breathing zone unless removed at the source.
How are exposures measured? Personal air samples –Estimate the amount of flavoring a worker might inhale into their lungs –Workers wear sampling pump for entire work shift Different air sampling collectors for different flavorings Currently, no method for diacetyl powders Sample collector in “breathing zone” Worker “wears” sampling pump Particle/Dust CollectorsGas/Vapor Collectors Photos by National Jewish Health 44 Exposures can change depending on the tasks performed and the products produced.
What does the level of exposure depend on? Amount of “High Priority” flavoring used Amount of time exposed How well the vessels are sealed Ventilation Liquids –Pouring distance –Use of funnels Powders –Hand scooping –Sifting –Packaging Photo used by National Jewish Health with written permission. 45 Short-term high exposures AND longer term lower exposures are both important.
Photo used by National Jewish Health with written permission ppm (n=63) 0.99 ppm (n=2) 0.46 ppm (n=3) ppm (n=21) ppm (n=2) Liquid Compounding Average 8-Hour Exposures Photo used by National Jewish Health with written permission. What levels of diacetyl have been measured in flavorings? 46 NJH OSHA NIOSH 8-Hour Exposure Limits NIOSH: ppm ACGIH: 0.01 ppm TERA: 0.2 ppm Many flavor worker tasks have short-term diacetyl exposures over 2 ppm. Little information available on exposures to other “High Priority” flavorings. QA Laboratories Average 8-Hour Exposures ppm (n=7) 0.07 ppm (n=3) ppm (n=3) Photo used by National Jewish Health with written permission. Powder Processing Average 8-Hour Exposures 0.71 ppm (n=31) 0.05 ppm (n=10) 0.34 ppm (n=3) 0.22 ppm (n=9) Photo used by National Jewish Health with written permission. 2-Hour Exposures Spray Drying 8-Hour Exposure 1.5 ppm (n=1) 2.6 ppm (n=6)
How are flavoring exposures controlled? 47 Elimination & Substitution Engineering Controls Work Practice Controls PPE High Exposure Acceptable Exposure Personal protective equipment: respirators, gloves, goggles, and protective clothing Changes in procedures or worker behavior to reduce exposure Changes that capture or enclose the source of exposure Changes in raw materials or flavorings Decreasing Effectiveness Increasing dependence on worker behavior
Does substitution work? Larger molecules –Pros: Lower exposures Less evaporation at room temperature –Cons: Chemically similar to diacetyl May have similar health effects Figures by National Jewish Health 48 Diacetyl Substitutes Until there is more information available, diacetyl and diacetyl substitutes should be controlled the same. O O Diacetyl 2,3-Pentanedione O O 2,3-Hexanedione O O 2,3-Heptanedione O O
What is the best solution? Closed lines for all ingredients and finished products Closed vessel cleaning system Containment verified with air sampling Maintenance workers may still be exposed. 49 Completely Enclosed Processes Photo by National Jewish Health used with written permission. May not be a realistic solution due to cost and production variability.
What is the next best solution? 50 Local Exhaust Ventilation Process Isolation Work Practice Controls Combination of controls used to reduce exposures to acceptable levels
What is process isolation? Designated area or room for work with “High Priority” flavorings Separate ventilation system from offices or other production areas Lidded tanks and vessels Flavorings stored in sealed containers Volatile “High Priority” flavorings kept in cold storage Photo by National Jewish Health used with written permission. 51 Reduces exposure levels and the number of exposed workers
What is local exhaust ventilation? Suction to remove flavoring prior to worker exposure Effective if properly designed and used Requires worker training 52 Most important control to reduce exposure to flavorings! Photo used by National Jewish Health with written permission.
Does ventilation reduce exposure? 53 Photo by NIOSH available under public domain. Figure by NIOSH available under public domain. Ventilation reduces exposures when properly designed and used correctly!
How do I use ventilation correctly? Capture depends on distance from the capturing hood Capture greatly decreases at a distance of two duct diameters Cross drafts reduce the capture of flavorings Contains public sector information published by the Health and Safety Executive and licensed under the Open Government Licence v Work as closely as possible to the ventilation hood!
What can I do to reduce exposure? Keep temperatures of liquids as low as possible. Replace lids immediately after adding flavorings. Pour slowly and use funnels. Add “High Priority” flavorings last. Avoid pouring from 55 gallon drums. Avoid hand scooping powders. Make sure other workers in your area know when you are using “High Priority” flavorings. Photo used by National Jewish Health with written permission 55 Use engineering controls properly all of the time!
What if I am a laboratory worker? Use the lab hood for handling “High Priority” flavorings. Keep containers closed as much as possible. Avoid odor evaluations of high concentration or neat “High Priority” flavorings. 56 Photo by New-Tech™ used with written permission.New-Tech Laboratory workers can have high exposures!
What about cleaning? Use HEPA vacuum for cleaning powder spills. Use cold water to pre-rinse mixing vessels prior to cleaning with hot water. Keep work areas where flavorings are handled clean. 57 Photos used by National Jewish Health with written permission Clean-up spills immediately to prevent unnecessary exposure.
When should I use a respirator? When exposures cannot be controlled in other ways When employees complain of irritation regardless of exposure level When using diacetyl and diacetyl substitutes –Always with diacetyl or diacetyl substitute powder exposures –Always when exposures have not been measured –To keep exposures as low as possible Photo by National Jewish Health 58 Respirators are a last choice for controlling exposures, but may be an important part of the solution in the flavoring industry.
How do I know my respirator is working? Yearly training Must fit properly –Fit tested annually –No facial hair Must have the right cartridges –Organic vapor for liquid exposures –Organic vapor + P100 for powder exposures Cartridges don’t last forever –Need change-out schedule –If you can smell it, you should change it. 59 Photo by Jeanne Mozier available under public domain.public domain Respirators are only effective when used properly! Photo by Stuart Butterfield available under CCA-2.0.CCA-2.0 Figure by National Jewish Health
What about skin and eye protection? Use gloves and aprons appropriate for flavoring exposure –Chemical resistant gloves and aprons are made from: Nitrile Butyl rubber Teflon™ Tychem ™ Tight-fitting eye goggles not safety glasses 60 Photo used by National Jewish Health with written permission PPE is only effective when used properly!
How does it all fit together? 61 Elimination & Substitution Engineering Controls Work Practice Controls PPE Acceptable Exposure Use of “High Priority” Flavors Exposure Recognition Exposure Monitoring High Exposure Temporary controls when not enough exposure measurements No controls needed Medical surveillance: Helps protect workers when little is known about exposure
Questions? Photo by National Jewish Health This material was produced under grant number SH F-8 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U. S. Government. 62