Presentation on theme: "Infant Nutrition : Proposals for the Mediterranean Area"— Presentation transcript:
1 Infant Nutrition : Proposals for the Mediterranean Area Eleftheria RomaGreece
2 Concerns about infant feeding……. Normal growthPrevention of:MalnutritionObesityAllergyEpigeneticsEstablishment of taste for different foodsEmotional support
3 Metabolic Programming in the Immediate Postnatal Life
4 Early influences of nutrition on postnatal growth. Rapid weight gain in infancy and the first 2 years was shown to predict increased obesity risk in childhood and adulthood.Breastfeeding leads to lesser high weight gain in infancy and reduces obesity risk in later life due to the lower proteinthe 'Early Protein Hypothesis'Cows' milk as a drink provides high protein intake and should be avoided in infancy.Koletzko B et al ; European Childhood Obesity Trial Study Group. Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser. 2013;71:11-27
6 Infant feeding and allergy prevention….. Most studies have focused on 4 main areas of infant feeding:A. Breast feeding (duration and exclusivity)B. Cow’s milk hydrolysate infant formulasC. Introduction of solidsD. Pre and/or probiotics
7 Nutrition in early life, immune-programming and allergies: the role of epigenetics The associated parallel rise in metabolic diseases interplay between modern dietary patterns and increasing abnormalities of both immune and metabolic healthThese changes have been associated with changes in the gut microbiome, metabolic responses and immune function - all of which may contribute to the rising propensity for chronic low-grade inflammationIn children, Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels are linearly related to body mass index (BMI) and c-reactive protein (CRP), and childhood obesity is an independent risk factor for food allergy.Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2013;31:175-82
8 Food or environmental antigen Maternal Milk:Antigen FreeComplexed to IgAComplexed to IgGTolerogenic immune mediatorsTGF-β, IL10, Vit A, ...Microbiota modulating factorsPrebiotics (oligosaccharides, glycoproteins)Antimicrobial (lysosyme, lactoferrine, IgA, ...)Gut growth factors (EGF, TGF-β, ...)Antigen handlingby maternaldigestive systemAntigen transferredacross gut barrierPossible maternal influence on neonatal tolerance induction through breast-feeding.Mucosal Immunology | VOL 3 NUMBER 4 : 2010Oral tolerance
9 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Avoidance diets during pregnancy and lactation are not recommended at this time, but more research is necessary for peanutExclusive breast-feeding for at least 4 and up to 6 months is endorsedFor high-risk infants who cannot be exclusively breast-fed, hydrolyzed formula appears to offer advantages to prevent allergic disease and cow’s milk allergyComplementary foods can be introduced between 4 and 6 months of ageThe Complementary should be delayed, however, until the infant is able to sit with support and has sufficient head and neck control.J Allergy Clin Immunol: In Practice 2013;1:29-36)
10 Prevalence of childhood celiac disease and changes in infant feeding. Although there is little evidence that complementary feeding before the age of 6 months is harmful, some studies have shown that there is a higher risk of iron-deficiency anaemia.In addition, there is a higher risk of coeliac disease in those who have not been weaned until 6 months of age.There is evidence that the infant feeding recommendation to gradually introduce gluten-containing foods from 4 months of age, preferably during ongoing breast-feeding, reduces the prevalence of coeliac disease. Ivarsson et al . Pediatrics Mar;131(3):687
11 UNICEF's position on infant feeding: "Babies should be exclusively breastfed.Breastfeeding should be sustained until the baby is at least two years old, but beginning at about six months breast milk should be complemented with appropriate solid foods.“There are three signals for a possible need for early complementation after four and prior to six months:-shows interest in semisolid foods-appears hungry after breastfeeds- is not gaining weight adequately
12 Breast-feeding: A Commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition Exclusive breast-feeding for around 6 months is a desirable goalPartial breast-feeding as well as breast-feeding for shorter periods of time are also valuableContinuation of breastfeeding after the introduction of complementary feeding is encouraged as long as mutually desired by mother and childJPGN 49:112–125, 2009.
13 Initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of life To enable mothers to establish and sustain exclusive breast feeding for 6 months, WHO and UNICEF recommend:Initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of lifeExclusive breastfeeding – that is the infant only receives breast milk without any additional food or drink, not even waterBreastfeeding on demand – that is as often as the child wants, day and nightNo use of bottles, teats or pacifiersFollow the ten steps
14 Weaning Age: 4-6 months? Or after 6 months? Quality of supplementary foodsWhich food ? First : fruits?, cereals? Meat,Gluten introduction : when?Fresh milk?Yoghourt, cheese?Quantity small amounts gradually?Protein?Opinion of different societies……..
15 Complementary feeding WHO recommends introducing complementary food at the age of 6 months. The recommendation further specifies that appropriate complementary feeding is:Timely: when the need for energy and nutrients exceed what can be provided through exclusive breast-feeding; Adequate: sufficient energy, protein and micronutrients Safe: hygienically stored and prepared Properly fed: consistent with a child’s signals and abilities for solids
16 Europe: Introducing solids/weaning A recent Cochrane review : no apparent risks in recommending, as a general policy, exclusive breast-feeding for the first 6 months of life in both developing and developed country settings.Cochrane Database Syst Rev Aug 15;8The EFSA's panel on dietetic products, nutrition, and allergies has concluded that for infants across the EU, complementary foods may be introduced safely between 4 to 6 months, and 6 months of exclusive breast-feeding may not always provide sufficient nutrition for optimal growth and development.European Food Safety Authority, 2009
17 Evidence related to the timing of introduction of complementary foods Solid introduction before 4 months and the number of foods introduced was associated with increased eczemaNo study found any benefit on allergic outcome by delaying the introduction of solidsTwo studies found association between delayed introduction of milk and eggExpose to cereal grains before 6 months opposed to after 6 are protected from the development of wheat-specific IgEAllergy 2009, 94:140Complementary feeding should not be introduced before 17 wk and not later than26 wk.Early diet and the risk of allergy: what can we learn from the prospective birth cohort studies GINIplus and LISAplus Am J Clin Nutr 2011;94(suppl):2012S–7S.
18 Medical Position Paper Complementary Feeding: A Commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition Complementary feeding (ie, solid foods and liquids other than breast milk or infant formula and follow-on formula)should not be introduced before 17 weeks and not later than 26 weeks.Cow’s milk is a poor source of iron and should not be used as the main drink before 12 months, although small volumes may be added to complementary foods.It is prudent to avoid both early (<4 months) and late (≥ 7 months) introduction of gluten, and to introduce gluten gradually while the infant is still breast fedJPGN 46:99–110, 2008.
19 Current international recommendations for infant feeding and allergy prevention Breast feeding exclusiveESPACI and ESPGHAN : 4-6WHO : 6 monthsCow’s milk based formulasESPACI and ESPGHAN: formula of reduced allergenicity if not breast fedIntroduction of complementary foodsAAP, ESPGHAN: no before 4 m and no after 6mWHO/UNICEF : after 6 months
20 Infant Feeding Guidelines Australian Dietary Guidelines Introducing solids at around the age of 6 monthsDelaying the introduction of solid foods beyond this age may increase the risk of developing allergic syndromesBy 12 months of age, a variety of nutritious foods from the five food groups is recommendedCommonwealth of Australia 2012
21 Recommendation of Canadian Paediatric Society Breastfeeding is the normal method of feeding infantsRecommend exclusive breast feeding for the first 6 monthsSupplemental vitamin D (400 IU) is recommended for breastfed infantsFirst complementary foods should be iron-richRecommend meat, meat alternatives and iron-fortified cereal as an infant’s first complementary foodsComplementary foods should also be led by the infant’s signs of readiness and may be a few weeks before or just after the sixth monthUse the WHO Growth Charts for Canada for optimal monitoring of infant growthPaediatr Child Health Vol 18 No 4 April 2013
22 SCIENTIFIC OPINION Scientific Opinion on the appropriate age for introduction of complementary feeding of infants EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA)The Panel agrees with WHO and other authoritative national and international bodies that breast-milk is the preferred food for infantsIntroduction of complementary food into the diet of healthy term infants in the EU between the age of 4 and 6 months is safe and does not pose a risk for adverse health effectsPresently available data on the risk of celiac disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus support also the timing of the introduction of gluten containing food (preferably while still breast-feeding) not later than 6 months of ageExclusive breast-feeding provides adequate nutrition up to 6 months of ageEFSA Journal (2009) 7(12): 1423
23 Breast-Feeding and Weaning Practices in the DONALD Study: Age and Time Trends Infants born between 2008 and 2012 were 3.3-fold less fully breast-fed for 4 months than those born before 2004With the constantly high consumption of commercial Complementary Food at all ages:Nutritional adequacy of both homemade and commercial CF needs to be investigated closer, as their long-term influence on health and dietary habits, e.g. fruit and vegetable intakeJPGN 2014;58: 361–367No Effect of Sequencing of Complementary Feeding in relation to Breast-Feeding on Total Intake in InfantsJPGN 2014;58: 339–343
24 Iron intake and iron status in breastfed infants during the first year of life. Healthy infants, fully breastfed at 4 months of age, demonstrated ID in about 21% and IDA in up to 6% during the second half of infancy while fed according to the paediatric dietary guidelinesThis finding supports the recommendation that supplementation with bioavailable iron via complementary foods should be started early (4-6 months of age) in order to prevent iron deficiency during infancyClin Nutr. 2010 Dec;29(6):773
25 Percentage of Iron Absorbed Iron and vitamin DSupplement of 400 IU per day of vitamin D is recommended for all breastfed infantsPediatrics November 2008Iron deficiency at risk: preterm infantsThe vitamin C and high lactose levels in breast milk aid in iron absorption.Iron SourcePercentage of Iron AbsorbedBreast milk~50 – 70%iron-fortified cow milk formula~3 – 12%iron-fortified soy formulaless than 1% – 7%iron-fortified cereals4 – 10%cow’s milk~10%The introduction of iron supplements and iron-fortified foods, particularly during the first six months, reduces the efficiency of baby’s iron absorption
26 Does timing matter? And we do not yet have all the answers Confused? So are we. And so are our patients.Practically, it seems that the timing of introduction of certain foods might matterIt is unclear why earlier publications showed delay in introduction of solid food to be preventive.The food, dose, frequency, age of introduction, andheritable background of the child might all play important rolesAnd we do not yet have all the answersCan Fam Physician 2013;59:721-2
27 Proposal for the Mediterranean area Exclusive breast feeding up to 6 monthsVitamin D 400 IU in exclusively breast fed infantsContinuation of breast feeding up to 12 months is desirableSupplementary foods about 6 months :Adequate foods providing sufficient energy, protein and micronutrients to meet a growing child’s nutritional needsAdding new food, according to tradition in each country, every 5-7 daysIntroduction of all allergenic foods before 12 monthsNo fresh milk as the main drink during the first year of lifeInfant formula up to 12 monthsBreast milk ideal for prevention of obesity, allergy and cardiovascular disordersHydrolyzed formulas may prevent allergy in high risk infants ?