Presentation on theme: "Tracey Blahy Dietetic Intern Southcoast May 2014"— Presentation transcript:
1 Tracey Blahy Dietetic Intern Southcoast May 2014 FODMAPsTracey Blahy Dietetic Intern Southcoast May 2014
2 What are you going to learn? Introduction - What does FODMAP stand for - FODMAP’s and digestion - Research - FODMAP’s and IBSFODMAP’s – applicationYour role as a dietitianResources, Handouts and Questions
3 What does FODMAPs stand for ? Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and PolyolsFODMAPs - small chain sugars/carbohydrates and fiberpoorly absorbed in small intestine - delivered to the large intestine - small osmotically active molecules - food for bacteria – when eaten gas is produced – fermentationPoorly absorbed, rapidly fermentable, osmotically active dietary carbohydrates (FODMAPs)
4 What does FODMAPs stand for ? F is for Fermentable - Carbohydrates that are fermented by bacteria in the large intestine instead of being broken down by our digestive enzymes. - Fermentation results in gas, bloating and pain.O is for Oligosaccharides - Oligosaccharides are short-chain carbohydrates - Fructans - Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) - Oligo-galactans. - Xylo-oligosaccharides
5 What does FODMAPs stand for ? D is for Disaccharides - These are pairs of sugar molecules. - Lactose, maltoseM is for Monosaccharides - This describes a single sugar molecule. - Fructose, glucose, galatose, xyloseA is for And - Every list needs a good conjunction.P is for Polyols - Polyols include sugar alcohols like xylitol, sorbitol, or maltitol.
6 Absorbing and breakdown carbs CarbohydrateWhy they might cause an issueDisaccharideFound in milk. Lactose intolerance is caused by partial or complete lack of the enzyme lactase..MonosaccharideFound in fruit. Fructose intolerance is is due to incomplete digestion in the GI track. The absorption of fructose is dependent on glucose. Monosaccharaides are poorly absorbed due to their low capacity transport across the epithelium. Low expression of GLUT5.Fructans OligosaccharideFructans are completely malabsorbed because the intestine lacks an enzyme to break their fructose-fructose bond. Wheat accounts for the majority of peoples fructan intake.Galactans OligosaccharideFound mostly in beans and lentils. Galactans are malabsorbed as the intestine does not have the enzyme needed to break down galactans.PolyolsFound naturally in some fruits and vegetables and added as sweeteners to candy, gum and meds. Polyols are too large for passive diffusion.
7 Digestion – The perfect world Digestion takes place in the small intestineTransporters take the sugar “energy” to the bodySugar molecules in large intestine = food for gut flora - goodShort chain fatty acids producedFermentationOsmosisSalt and water absorbed Perfectly controlled by the: ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (ENS) The brain can influence the “tuning” of the ENS
9 Digestion and FODMAPsWhen the “tuning” of the Enteric Nervous System is not perfect, the bowel may respond in an abnormal way to FODMAP foods. FODMAP foods may causeExcess bloating and painOsmosis occurs - excess water in the colon – diarrheaFermentation – hydrogen, CO2 and methane producedThe increase in fluid and gas in the bowel leads to diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, abdominal pain and distension.
10 Gut ReactionsThere are two different types of adverse reactions to food! 1/ Immunological reaction - reaction to the protein in the food and involve the immune system. This is often called a food allergy or hypersensitivity. 2/ Non-immunological reaction - do not involve the immune system and are normally referred to intolerance. Very common affecting 1 in 5 people. Reaction varies upon the amount of food consumed and other foods consumed in that day. IBS is in this class!
11 What is Irritable Bowel Syndrome? IBS is defined as abdominal pain and discomfort with altered bowel habits, in the absence of any other medical explanation for the symptoms. IBS is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders in the USA affecting 58 million people, approximately 10 to 20% of the entire population (1) IBS affects 5-27% of Western society (1) 80% of IBS suffers are women IBS can have a substantial impact on patients’ lives Pathology of IBS is not well understood however research has shown that patients often have a GI tract that is more sensitive and works more slowly or quickly than it should. The “tuning” is off! The ENS is not well tuned. Patients with IBS typically have hypersensitive nerve endings around the bowel. Management of IBS - drugs, stool softeners, diets that control fiber, fat, caffeine, alcohol, citrus foods, prescribing prebiotics or probiotics and hypnotherapy. Ref:
12 Diagnosing patients with IBS Do you have recurrent abdominal pain ? Do you often feel bloated? Are you frequently constipated? Do you have frequent diarrhea? RED FLAGS Doctors will look for the “ABC” of IBS Abdominal pain Bloating Changes in bowel habits.Doctors will look for RED FLAGs that may indicate another condition rather than IBS. If the symptom started after age 50, or if there is blood in the stool, fever, weight loss of more than 10 pounds family history of colorectal cancer, inflammatory colorectal disease, cancer. IBD – Some people who suffer from IBS like symptoms are diagnosed with INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE (IBD). This is an illness where the bowel becomes chronically inflamed. Two main types of IBD Chron’s disease and Ulcerative colitis. Treatment is controlling the inflammation. If bowel inflammation is well controlled IBD patients may benefit from following low FODMAP diet.
13 Diagnosing IBS - TestsBarostat Test Inserting a tube with inflatable balloon into the rectum. If a person has IBS – experience pain No IBS – can inflate the balloon more without pain This test shows that people with IBS require less distension before their nerves send messages to their brain to indicate that they are in pain. Breath Test- Fructose or Lactose Hydrogen/Methane Breath testing – tool used to determine if a patient has fructose, or lactose malabsorption. Gas produced in colon – blood stream and then expelled by the lungs. Elimination Diet Trail the low FODMAP diet - monitoring symptoms. Research Test - Ileostomy model Patients with an end-ileostomy consume known amounts of dietary component. The effluent is then measured to calculate the degree of absorption in the small intestine(2).
14 FODMAP – The History2005 – A study was published that hypothesized the FODMAP diet as a “cure’ for Crohns’s (3).Research conducted to find out the FODMAP contents of foods(14).Developed a FODMAP diet and tested it on patients with IBS (4).2011 – FODMAP diet tested in UK – (5).More research conducted in (1,6, 7).First line therapy for the treatment of IBS (8).
15 Key Studies (IBS) – Original Research RefYearJournalAuthorTitleComments42008Clinical Gastroenterology and HepatologyShepherd et alDietary triggers of abdominal symptoms in patients with IBSRandomized placebo controlled study. N= wks.22010Alimentary pharmacology & therapeuticsBarrett et alDietary poorly absorbed, short chain carbohydrates increase delivery of water and fermentable substrates to the proximal colon12 ileostomates – randomized cross-over, single blinded study52011Journal of Human Nutrition and DieteticsStaudacher et alSymptom response following advice for a diet low in FODMAPS vs. Standard dietary advice in patients with IBS. NICE guidelines.London n=40 each group 76% satisfied with symptom change.62013Inter Journal of Clinical PractRoest et alThe low FODMAP diet improves gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with IBSNew Zealand – a prospective study7Curr Gastro RepFedwa and SatishDietary Fructose Intolerance, Fructan intolerance and FODMAPS1Nutrition in Clinical PracticeExtending our knowledge of Fermentable, Short-Chain carbohydrates for managing gastrointestinal symptomsControlled cross over study with IBS pts. High quality evidence.82014GastroenterologyHalmos et alA diet low in FODMAPS reduces symptoms of IBSClinical study. High quality evidence supports FODMAP as fist line therapy.
16 Key Studies – Original Research CodeYearJournalAuthorsTitleComments32005Aliment Pharmacol TherGibson and ShepherdPersonal view: food for thought – Western life style and susceptibility to Crohn’s disease. The FODMAP hypothesis1st study to look at FODMAPS.92009Journal of Crohn’s and ColitisGearry et alReduction of dietary poorly absorbed FODMAPS improves abdominal symptoms in patients with IBDStudy conducted on pt’s with Inflammatory bowel disease14Journal of Agriculture and Food ChemistryMuir et alMeasurement of Short-chain carbohydrates in Common Australian vegetables and fruits by High Performance Liquid Chromatography.FODMAP content of Food. * Another similar study was conducted in 2007 by Muir et al using HPLC1213JPEN Aliment Pharmacology TherBarrett et al Halmos et alStrategies to manage GI symptoms complicating enternal feeding Diarrhea during enteral nutrition is predicted by the poorly absorbed FODMAP content of the formula.
17 Key Studies – Review Articles RefYearJournalAuthorsTitle2006Journal of the American Dietetic AssociationShepherd et alFructose Malabsorption and Symptoms of IBS: Guidelines for effective dietary management.2009Journal of Gastro and HepatologyGibson et alEvidence based dietary management of functional gastrointestinal symptoms: The FODMAP approach102010Gibson and ShepherdEvidence-based dietary management of functional gastro symptoms: The FODMAP approach112013The American Journal of GastroenterologyShort Chain Carbohydrates and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders
20 High FODMAP foods - AVOID General Guidelines Sweeteners - honey, agave nectar, maltitol, sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol. Dairy that contains significant amounts of lactose, milk or soft cheeses, ice cream and cream. Rye and Wheat Products - a gluten free diet could improve symptoms of IBS because it removes wheat (a fructan). Beans and legumes – high in oligsaccharides Watermelon, apples, pears, mushrooms, cauliflower, onions
24 Your role as a dietitian Use the FODMAP diet - “This high quality evidence supports its use as a first-line therapy. Clinical Trail number xxx” (8). - “The low FODMAP diet provides an effective approach to the management of patients with functional gut symptoms. The evidence base is now sufficiently strong to recommend its widespread application” (10) Offer this diet approach to appropriate patients. Individualize the diet for your patients. Test for tolerance – goal less strict version of the diet. Listen to your patients:- The healthier I eat the worse I feel?
25 In Interview Has pt been tested for celiac disease? Has pt been tested for lactose and fructose intolerance and SIBO ?Nutrition assessment – LISTEN CAREFULLY!Diet recall – ask about some trigger foodsTeach elimination diet – find out what they are ready forStart to challengeReview resultsTranslate science into food and brand names – collect boxes and visuals – try productsShopwell.com
26 What patients might benefit from following a low FODMAP diet Patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) Patients with Gluten Intolerance (Celiac) Patients with IBD (Crohns’s disease) (9) Patients with suffering from chronic stress Enteral Feedings (12,13) Infants with colic Lacovou M et al., Dietary Management of infantile colic: a systematic review. Matern Child Health Journal. 2012;16 (6):
27 Food Recall Breakfast Fiber one cereal with milk Snack Wheat thins and hummus Apple Lunch ½ tuna sandwich with red onion on fiber one bread Salad with Italian dressing (onions, broccoli, lettuce, bean salad) Dinner Pasta with tomato sauce and meat balls Sugar free frozen yogurt
28 CommunicationAltered Gl function related to possible dietary carbohydrate intolerance as evidenced by 15 year history of IBS, recent GI evaluation unremarkable, negative for celiac disease, pt reports daily abdominal pain, bloating, gas, diarrhea, diet hx reveals routine consumption of rapidly fermentable, osmotically active carbohydrates (FODMAP’s). Intervention: Trail of FODMAP elimination diet for 3 weeks. Follow up: changes in symptoms. Document. Data is good!
29 PES statementAltered GI function related to likely intolerance to certain dietary carbohydrates (FODMAPs) as evidenced by patient reports 80% decrease in bloating and gas and no episodes of abdominal pain or diarrhea on FODMAP restricted diet x 3 weeks.
30 How to proceed Use teaching tools appropriate for the patient Elimination diet – 2 to 6 weeks (normally use 3 weeks)Provide simple low FODMAP recipes.Meal planReintroduction of FODMAPs – dietitian comes into play. No validated protocol exists.
32 Reading Food Labels – Shopping tips Look out for Inulin – this is added to many yogurts, cream cheese, organic valley vanilla milk, rice milksMetamucil is 100% inulin. An alternative would be psyllium husk.GF Is a good starting point as they are wheat free but make sure they don’t have apple, pear, honey or molassesApple juice and pear juice are often added to GF products to sweeten them. Beware as apples and pears are high in sorbitol.Low polyol sweeteners are aspartame, stevia, sugar (sucrose) and maple syrup.Onion powder and garlic powder – often added to salad dressings and broths. “Natural Flavoring” is often onion and garlic.
33 Shopping tips Nature Valley Crunchy Granola Bars Environkidz Gorilla MunchAleia’s peanut butter cookiesUdi’s GF pizzaChoose high fiber foods that are low FODMAP such as oats, oat bran, brown rice, quinoa, strawberries, blueberries, oranges, spinach, baked potatoes with skin and chia seeds (2 TBS = 10g fiber)Rao’s Sensitive formula – only Red Sauce without garlic and onionMake your own salad dressingshttps://www.pinterest.com/pcatsos/
34 Meal PlanBreakfast 2 eggs with hash browns and banana or Lactose free yogurt and strawberries Lunch Millet bread with peanut butter and sugar sweetened jam Carrot sticks Snack Orange or smoothie with lactose free milk, pineapple, berries, and chia seeds Dinner Salmon and “Jacket Potato” with cheese Salad greens, olive oil and vinegar
35 Challenge Diet1/ Following low FODMAP diet for 4 to 8 weeks. 2/ “Challenge” by reintroducing ONE of the FODMAP groups and observe symptoms. Chose an amount of food that you would normally consume. Suggested order:- Sugar alcohols – 4 dried apricots or 2 fresh apricots (polyols) Mannitol – ½ cup mushrooms (polyols) Lactose – ½ to 1 cup of milk or 6oz yoghurt Fructose – ½ mango or 1 tsp. of honey Fructans – 2 slices of wheat bread, 1 clove garlic then ¼ onion Galactans – ½ cup lentils or ½ cup kidney beans or chickpeas 3/ “Challenge” with ONE FODMAP per week. Eat the challenge food - no symptoms Eat the same challenge food – increase the amount Confirmation – the food is ok for patient! Next ???
36 Challenge DietIf you don’t get symptoms: Try another food in the same FODMAP group. Try it twice in the same week and increase your amount. You could try one more food to confirm patient is ok with entire group. If you get symptoms: Wait 4 days and then try the food again – reduce the portion in half. DOSING is important! Wait 4 more days and then try ANOTHER food in the SAME GROUP - confirming intolerance to the group. It is important to reduce portions and re-challenge – remember the goal.Goal is to find the most liberal and varied diet possible that keeps symptoms under control. How big is your patients “bucket” ?
37 Challenge DietSmall portions of foods with increasing FODMAP content introduced.Priority on high value foods – foods they missContinue with low FODMAP diet and then challenge with one FODMAP category such as polyols.Use challenge list – items at the top contain most FODMAP’s
38 Coping Strategies Eat glucose or dextrose with high fructose foods Use garlic oil instead of garlicBoil and drain high fructan vegetablesRemoving onions from soups and stews is not beneficial – water soluble therefore already leached out.Galactans are water soluble so soak, drain, rinse. Canned lentils and chickpeas are relatively lowUse lactose free dairyCarry lactase enzyme pills – no mannitolTo increase fiber use chia seeds and then psyllium husk
39 Resources iPhone (launch December 2012) Android (launch November 2013) The Monash University (Australia) low FODMAP Diet appSmartphone application which provides accurate information about foods that trigger IBS reactions in order to help sufferers manage their symptoms.iPhone (launch December 2012)Android (launch November 2013)Fodmap video
40 Useful web sitesSue Shepherd and Peter Gibson Large practice specializing in gastro (Australia) blog - (Boston) Patsy Catsos, MS, RD International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders
43 SummaryThe FODMAP diet is now viewed as evidence-based first-line treatment strategy for patients with IBS. - scientifically proven - provides all the nutrients needed - reduces symptoms of IBS in ¾ of IBS suffers - wont cure IBS but it does help to prevent trigger symptoms - should be prescribed by a dietitian who is an expert - there is high compliance to the diet – if diet is delivered well Ref:8
44 How to become a FODMAP expert What Every RD Needs to Know about FODMAPs, Providence, RIPatsy Catsos, MS, RDN, LD and Kate Scarlata, RDN, LDNFriday, March 21, 2014 from 9:00 AM to 4:00 PM (EDT)Providence, RIRegistration Information$
45 How to become a FODMAP expert Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Fodmaps, Fat, Fiber and Flora Kate Scarlata, RD, LDN8 CPEUs HARD COPY $ CPEUs ELECTRONIC $ Up-to-date manual (85 pgs) will enable you to help your clients manage their IBS symptoms. More specifically you will learn how to:Assess symptoms and discuss treatment options for your clients with IBS.Distinguish between food allergy, food sensitivities, gluten sensitivity and celiac disease.Recommend a low FODMAP diet for symptoms management when appropriate.Develop IBS nutrition care plans with patient tolerable fiber-rich foods and supplements.Create menu plans and grocery lists to assist IBS clients in lifestyle management.
46 Next Steps – The FutureRandomized control studies over longer periods of time – broader populationsLink - patients who believe they are gluten sensitive or wheat intolerant may indeed benefit from following the FODMAP diet.Different cultures and foods.Delivery of the message.