Presentation on theme: "Rules of Electron Location and Orbital Filling Order"— Presentation transcript:
1Rules of Electron Location and Orbital Filling Order Quantum NumbersRules of Electron Location and Orbital Filling Order
2Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle It is impossible to determine both the position and the velocity of an electron at the same time.
3Aufbau PrincipleAn electron occupies the lowest energy level available.
4Pauli Exclusion Principle No 2 electrons in the same atom can have the same 4 identical quantum numbers.In other words, no two electrons can be in the same place at the same time.
5Hund’s RuleOrbitals of equal energy are each occupied by ONE electron before any orbital is occupied by a SECOND electronAll electrons in a single occupied orbital must have the same spin.
6QUANTUM THEORY: shows how the electron determines an atom's behavior and properties 4 Quantum Numbers must be used to describe the position of the electrons in an atomn, l, m, s are the "numbers"Each electron has a different set (just like each locker out in the hall has a different combination)
7Principal Quantum Number Symbol = nRepresents the main energy level of the electronRange = 1- 7Equation: 2n2 - shows how many electrons can be in each energy level(e.g. level 3: 2(3)2 = 18 e-'s)Ex. = 3sPrincipal Quantum number = 3
8Angular Momentum Quantum Number Symbol = l (small letter L)Identifies the shape of the orbital (also called sublevel)Range = 0 – n-1 (whole number)Shapes:0 = s (sphere) 1 = p (petal)(peanut)2 = d (double petal) 3 = f (flower)(double peanut)
9Shapes of the Charge Clouds s for "Sphere": simplest shape, or shape of the simplest atoms like hydrogen and heliumElectrons don't interfere with, or block, each other from the pull of the nucleus - ball shapeEach energy level has an "s" orbital at the lowest energy within that level
10Shapes of the Charge Clouds p for "Peanut": more complex shape that occurs at energy levels 2 and above
11Shapes of the Charge Clouds d for "Double Peanut": complex shape occurring at energy levels 3 and aboveThe arrangement of these orbitals allows for "s" and "p" orbitals to fit closer to the middle/nucleus
12Shapes of the Charge Clouds f for "Flower": 7 bizarre-shaped orbitals for electrons of very large atomselectrons filling these orbitals are weakly attached to the atom because they are so far away from the pull of the nucleus
13Magnetic Quantum Number Symbol = mRepresents the orientation of the orbital around the nucleusm can be from –l to +lEach line holds 2 electrons___ = s___ ___ ___ = p
14Magnetic Quantum Number (cont.) ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ = d___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ = f
15Spin Quantum Number 2 Spin States Clockwise spin = +1/2 (upward arrow) Counterclockwise spin = -1/2 (downwardarrow)A Single orbital can hold two electrons, but they must have opposite spins