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**The Quantum Mechanical Model**

The nucleus is found inside a blurry “electron cloud” A area where there is a high probability of finding an electron.

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***No more than 2 electrons in each orbital***

Electron Configuration Principal Quantum Number (n) = the energy level of the electron. (max # e- = 2n2 ) Sublevels- like theater seats arranged in sections (s,p,d,f) (# of sublevels = n ) Within each energy level, the complex math of Schrodinger’s equation describes several shapes. These are called atomic orbitals - regions where there is a high probability of finding an electron *No more than 2 electrons in each orbital*

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**Summary # of orbitals Max electrons Starts at energy level sublevel s**

1 2 1 p 3 6 2 d 5 10 3 7 14 4 f

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**Relative sizes of the spherical 1s, 2s, and 3s orbitals of hydrogen.**

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**Diagram of principal energy levels 1 and 2.**

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**The shapes and labels of the five 3d orbitals.**

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**Electron Configurations**

The way electrons are arranged in atoms. Three main “guiding” principles: Aufbau principle- electrons enter the lowest energy first.

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**Electron Configurations**

Pauli Exclusion Principle- at most 2 electrons per orbital Why only 2 electrons per orbital? like charges repel each other, but… electrons spin on axis, clockwise or counterclockwise, creating magnetic polarization ( ↑↓ )

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Hund’s Rule- When electrons occupy orbitals of equal energy (same sublevel ) they don’t pair up until they have to. - one electron enters each orbital until all orbitals contain one electron with spins parallel.

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**Writing Electron Configurations**

(Letter - number designation) # of e- H 1s1 Sublevel Principle Energy Level

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**Orbital Diagrams ↑ ↓ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ N 1s 2s 2p 2 2 3**

Show each orbital as a circle, box, or line. Show each electron as an arrow, ↑ or ↓ spin. Label electron configuration (letter –number). ↑ ↓ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ N 7 1s 2s 2p 2 2 3

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**Increasing energy 7p 6d 5f 7s 6p 5d 6s 4f 5p 4d 5s 4p 3d 4s 3p 3s 2p**

Orbital (Aufbau) diagram

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Example Let’s determine the electron configuration & orbital diagram for Phosphorus Need to account for 15 electrons

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**Increasing energy 7p 6d 5f 7s 6p 5d 6s 4f 5p 4d 5s 4p 3d 4s 3p 3s 2p**

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**Orbitals being filled for elements in various parts of the periodic table.**

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Remember… When we write electron configurations, we are writing the lowest energy (ground state) configuration. Do Problems pg 160 *** # 21 draw orbital diagrams, not just e- configurations

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