Presentation on theme: "Livestock/Perennial grass/Row crops-a solution? University of Florida, Auburn University, UGA, National Soil Dynamics Laboratory, National Peanut Laboratory,"— Presentation transcript:
Livestock/Perennial grass/Row crops-a solution? University of Florida, Auburn University, UGA, National Soil Dynamics Laboratory, National Peanut Laboratory, Virginia Tech, Texas A&M The Nature Conservancy, NRCS, Cotton Inc., NWF Water Mgt. District, NESPAL, and others
We know that cultivation and tillage depletes organic matter and exposes the soil to erosion. Cover crops help but do they do enough?
Sod-based Peanut-Cotton Rotation Sod System: (CBBP)Conventional System: (PCCP) Oat Winter Cover Crop Following Peanut and Cotton in Both Systems oats Strip till was used in each year with best management practices Bahia Cotton oats Peanut
Cattle and perennial grasses add an intensity to cropping systems that brings better utilization of nutrients, water, land resources, and can be much better environmentally and economically
Planting bahiagrass into winter cover in January 08 (early planting is key) Bahia killed in fall of 07 and planted to oat/rye
Virginia Tech at Tidewater REC 2006 YIELD!!! % higher yield
Cotton Leaf Water Potential (2007)
Peanut Leaf Water Potential in 2007 Sod-based peanuts had less water stress than the conventional peanuts most of the season under both irrigated and non-irrigated conditions.
Peanuts grown in soil with Bahia roots Peanuts grown in soil without Bahia roots Soil was from cultivated field with bahia roots added in pots in greenhouse We know bahia grass increase peanut yields consistently
Percent peanut yield averaged over 8 years, Quincy sod Conv.
In bahia rotation
Nitrate-N in soil profile of sod-based rotation after Bahia & winter grazing and before peanut planting 2009, Marianna No bahia for 2 cycles, fertilized cover crops Nitrate is similar to OM content
Potassium (K) in soil profile of sod-based rotation after Bahia & winter grazing and before peanut planting 2009, Marianna
Nitrate-N in soil profile of sod-based rotation after Bahia- Peanut and winter grazing before Cotton 2009, Marianna Cattle recycling N
0 N60 lbs N/A on 6/8/09 0 N60 lbs N/A on 6/8/09 July 8, 2009 PCCP BBCP More N uptake due to higher SOM and soil moisture content as well as deeper roots
Soil nitrates at 2 ft depth in cotton From suction cup lysimeters Little N left at end of the season due to higher uptake
Potassium (K) in soil profile of sod-based rotation after Bahia- Peanut and winter grazing before Cotton 2009, Marianna
High rainfall during harvest
Comparison of a conventional and a sod based system Conventional system use land days a year vs. year round with crops plus winter grazing which controls weeds after first crop and is intense Not less intense which is often the thought when going with bahiagrass Roots of row crops expand for the first days before the plant goes into reproductive stage of growth vs. continuous growth for perennial grasses which leads to more soil exploration, nutrient and water utilization Nitrogen used on annual crops can be lost after crop maturity if a second crop is not planted vs. being used for 6-9 months by perennial grass or 6 months by a summer crop followed by 6 months for winter grazing Cattle recycle nutrients and if used at stocking rates of one animal per 1-2 acres can prevent leaching of nutrients and can reduce applied N, P, K, and other nutrients substantially Nutrient loss is highest with single annual crops using conventional tillage and is less with cover crops with conservation tillage and cattle, vs. even less with crops following bahiagrass with the least loss where cattle are part of the system perennial/annual crop system
This rotation with perennial grass, livestock, annual row crops results in less irrigation needed, less N needed, less N leached, higher yields of winter grazing, peanuts and cotton, and 2-7 times more profit