Presentation on theme: "Manure is a Resource Ron Wiederholt Nutrient Management Specialist NDSU Extension Livestock Manure Nutrient Management Series March, 2006."— Presentation transcript:
Manure is a Resource Ron Wiederholt Nutrient Management Specialist NDSU Extension Livestock Manure Nutrient Management Series March, 2006
Manure is a Resource Significant amount of research showing that manure equals commercial fertilizer What has been done locally and across the country? –What types of manure have been tested on what crops
N Mineralization Research Three year trial to determine N release from manure Replicate it 3 yrs Rotation will be corn, wheat, sunflowers
N Mineralization Research Six fertility treatments –C1= commercial N at 1x rate=80lbs/acre N –M1= manure N at 1x rate=80 lbs/acre N –C1P1.5 = commercial N at 1x N rate and P = 1.5x N rate manure –M1.5 = manure N at 1.5x N rate = 120lbs/acre N –C1.5 = commercial N at 1.5x N rate = 120 lbs/acre N –Check = no added fertilizer
N Rate Determination Corn following soybeans –150 bu corn needs 180 lbs N –(40 lbs N/acre) soybean N credit –(60 lbs N/acre) soil test N credit –80 lbs N/acre needed to meet 1x requirement
2005 N Mineralization Results 8-8 8-16 8-238-30 9-6 9-13 9-209-26 Date
2005 N Mineralization Results C1.5 C1 C1P1.5M1M1.5Check Treatment a b b bc c c
2005 N Mineralization Results C1.5C1C1P1.5 M1M1.5 Check Treatment aaaaa b
Rate Fert Cost $/ac Yield Bu/ac Corn $/ac ($2.00/bu) Net $/ac Comm N ($.35/lb) 1x28.00110.5221193 1.5x42.00110220178 Manure N ($.12/lb) 1x9.60106.5213203 1.5x14.40105210195 Check00.0098196 N Price and Yield Return/Acre
Manure = Commercial Fertilizer F.C. Stevenson et al. Can J Plant Sci ’98: two sites, 4 yrs, fresh and stockpiled beef feedlot manure vs comm. fert. under no-till vs. conv. –Site was significant. Barley, canola and flax yields were similar to commercial fertilizer at one site but 20% less at another site. –The site with lower yields had a higher yield potential –Tillage not significant
Manure = Commercial Fertilizer B. Eghball et al. Soil Sci J. ’99: –similar corn yields between beef feedlot manure, compost and commercial fertilizer over 4 yrs regardless of tillage system –Nutrient availability drove weed biomass production more than introduction of weed seeds by manure
Manure = Commercial Fertilizer Singer et al., Agron Journal ‘04 –Corn, soybean and wheat yields were not different between chisel plow, moldboard plow or no-till when composted swine manure or commercial fertilizer was the fertilizer source.
Manure = Commercial Fertilizer What about manure on perennial crops? –High N, P and K requirements –Concerns about manure on foliage? –Efficient use of N on legumes?
If we use manure as a fertilizer resource, what will it do to our overall soil fertility profile?
Cropping Systems Trial (CST) The study was initiated in 1987 at the Carrington Research Extension Center (CREC) Consists of three, 4 year rotations conducted during 1987-90, 1991-94, 1995-98, 1999-2002, 2003-2006, etc… Within each crop, subplots include: - 4 N fertility treatments - 3 tillage systems-NT, MT, and CT
N Fertility treatments* 1. no N applied 2. 40 lb/A actual N 3. 80 lb/A actual N 4. Composted manure = 160 lb/A applied at start of each 4-year cycle (annual average of about 30-40 lb N/acre) *N fertilizer - surface applied, preplant ammonium nitrate (34-0-0) - not applied to fallow or legumes
CST Results No significant differences in yields of crops regardless of tillage Slight yield differences between nutrient sources –Manure out-yielded comparable commercial N fertilization in most cases Present data of NO 3 - N, pH, STP & SOM
CST Results How did tillage and N source affect NO 3 - N in soil profile in ’99-’02 rotation?
CST NO 3 - N in 0-24” vs. Conv. Till and Nutrient Source c b b a
CST NO 3 - N in 0-24” vs. Minimum Tillage and Nutrient Source c c b a
CST NO 3 - N in 0-24” vs. No Till and Nutrient Source c cbc a
CST Results How was pH affected by tillage and N source?
pH vs. Tillage Over Time at 80 lbs. N pH c c c a b b
pH vs. Tillage Over Time with Manure N pH a aab b b b
CST Results How was Soil Organic Matter (SOM) affected by tillage and N source
%OM in Conv-Till vs. N Level and Source Over Time %OM
%OM in Min-Till vs. N Level and Source Over Time ab bc a d cd d %OM
%OM in No-Till vs. N Level and Source Over Time a b a a b c cc %OM
CST Results How did tillage and nutrient source affect soil test phosphorous (STP) in ’99-’02 rotation?
CST STP vs. Conv. Till and Nutrient Source b a bb
CST STP vs. Minimum Tillage and Nutrient Source bc a b c
CST STP vs. No Till and Nutrient Source b a b b
CST Summary Crop yields are not affected by tillage but N source does impact yields Mineralization of beef feedlot manure is the same when incorporated or left on the surface NO 3 - N carry-over is impacted by tillage with no-till showing the least amount
CST Summary Manure applied to meet N rates significantly increases STP levels Soil pH declined over time regardless of tillage with commercial N fertilizer but remained stable when manure is N source SOM is inversely related to amount of tillage and manure only slightly impacted SOM- This could be due to low amount of manure applied (10 t/ac)
Points to Ponder STP in manure trt plots is about 3X higher than other plots Over 15 yrs STP was raised about 20 ppm when following a N-based NMP
Points to Ponder Averaging about 30 ppm STP in manure plots –In ND, agronomic STP threshold is 40 ppm and Env is 120 ppm –Do we only have 8 yrs left? –Or, in this situation is a N-based plan only sustainable for about 30 yrs?