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Module introduces you to Nimruz Emphasis on: Geography & topography Human terrain Recent history Economics Politics Security situation District levels.

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Presentation on theme: "Module introduces you to Nimruz Emphasis on: Geography & topography Human terrain Recent history Economics Politics Security situation District levels."— Presentation transcript:


2 Module introduces you to Nimruz Emphasis on: Geography & topography Human terrain Recent history Economics Politics Security situation District levels


4 Location: Southern Afghanistan Borders Iran & Pakistan Area: 20,980 square miles Terrain: Mostly flat desert terrain Margow, Khash, Gowd-e Zereh deserts Helmand, Farah & Khashrud Rivers Salt flats


6 Zerch Depression Helmand River Gowd-e Zereh Desert Margow Desert Khash River Khash Desert IRAN PAKISTAN Helmand Farah Farah River


8 Relies on river-fed irrigation 2-3 inches of rain/yr average Recent years: only 1/10 inch Main sources of water: Helmand Khash …all but dried up Causing increasing desertification Dam Helmand River? Iran opposed





13 Population: 150,000 95% rural Ethnic composition: Baluch majority Brahui Pashtun Nurzai Kuchi Tajiks Languages: Pashto, Baluch

14 Tajik Baluch, Brahui Nurzai Mixed Durrani Source: Naval Postgraduate School

15 Speak Indo-European language Related to Farsi, Kurdish Found in Nimruz Also found in: Helmand Kandahar States with large Baluch populations: Iran Pakistan

16 Historical pattern: Pakistani Baluch uprisings Pak army crushes them Baluch leaders flee to Afghanistan Leaders find support from Afghan officials Pakistan complains Proxy wars renewed Iran Baluch also increasingly restless

17 Taliban primarily Pashtun insurgency Close ties between Baluch and Pashtuns But no Baluch in senior Taliban leadership Alliance of convenience: Many Baluch = smugglers Taliban rely on them to smuggle drugs Drugs help fuel insurgency Baluch know terrain of Nirmuz

18 Small minority ethnic group Co-ethnics in Iran and Pakistan Found in: Kandahar Helmand Nimruz Farah Tribally based

19 Sunni Speak Dravidian tongue Incomprehensible to Baluch, Pashtuns Relatives in India Heavily reliant on smuggling

20 Brahui AidoziLowarziYagiziZirkandiMamasani Mohamed- Hasani


22 Durrani Panjpai Numbers: around 1 million Found in: Kandahar Helmand Farah Herat Zabul Nimruz Durrani Panjpai Nurzai

23 Poorer, disenfranchised Sense marginalization Trading, smuggling, drugs Tribal opponents: Achekzais Close links to Taliban Hafiz Abdur Majid (Shura Council) Haji Bashir Nurzai (in U.S. prison)

24 Nurzai AdinzaiAdozaiAlizaiBadizaiBahardurzaiChalakzaiGhorizaiGurganJamalzaiJijiKurezaiMirgianPatazSamizaiUmarzai

25 Dravidian languages


27 Astride key trade routes Persia-India Saffarid Dynasty 861-1003 AD Capital in Zaranj Founder: Yaqub bin Laith al-Saffar Humble origins – a coppersmith Empire included parts of Persia, India Language of rule: Persian

28 Timur-e Lang Turkish/Mongolian origins 1370: proclaimed emperor at Balkh 1398: sacked Delhi Destroyed Helmand River irrigation Result: Population decline Desertification Sistan basin has never recovered…

29 Minor insurgency in 1980s Not major war theater Ambushed Soviet/DRA convoys On Ring Road Delaram-Zaranj highway Exploited local terrain of canals, ditches Active parties in 1980s, 1990s Harakat-e Inqilabi (Mohammadi) Hezb-e Islami Khalis

30 Spring 1995: Taliban shift west Moved along Kandahar-Herat highway Heavy fighting around Delaram Taliban vs Ismail Khan’s forces Many local Pashtuns defect to Taliban Initial Taliban setback around Shindand Retreat to Kandahar Then recovered Nimruz, September 1995

31 India paved Delaram-Zaranj road 215 km - crosses Nimruz Province Links Iran’s Chahbahar-Zaranj road Work completed Jan 2009 Insurgents attacked contractors Pakistani suspicion: India & Iran cooperation Goal: divert traffic to Chahbahar Goal: weaken Pak Gwadar port Goal: Indian goods to Afghanistan


33 Smuggling dominant Oil Poppy Agricultural economy: Drought = major problem Based on Helmand River Wheat, corn & poppies Animal husbandry Remittances from Iran very important Trade with Iran


35 Born in 1955 in Nimruz Brahui Muj commander against Soviets Commander ‘Southern Front’ Opposed Taliban 1995: Retreated to Iran after Taliban 1995 advance Minister for Refugees (2009-2010)

36 Haji Juma Khan One time drug lord & smuggler Contacts in Iran, Turkey, Dubai, Pakistan Reportedly born in Nimruz Brahui tribe Headquarters were in Zaranj Large drug convoys through Iran to Turkey Also down to Makran coast and then to UAE Extradited to US, indicted for drug trafficking


38 Ring road: key insurgent target Crossed Nimruz at Delaram Most attacks in south focused on Zaranj Suicide bombing attempt in Zaranj, Dec 2008 Suicide bombing in Zaranj, Jan 2009 10 killed, 20 wounded Suicide bombing in Zaranj, May 2010 13 dead No PRT, foreign troops




42 Sub-Governor (woluswal) Police Chief NDS Officer Some Ministry sub-Departments Taliban shadow governments

43 Also called Charborjak Location: central Nimruz Area: 21,864 sq km Borders Iran and Pakistan Terrain: Desert plain

44 District center: Chahar Borjak Villages: 65 Est. population: 8,200 Ethnicity : Baluch majority Brahui Pashtuns

45 Crops: Wheat Poppy Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep Camels

46 Other: Smuggling (poppy/heroin) Poppy cultivation & processing Remittances from Iran Reported untapped oil reserves

47 Education: Primary schools: 9 Secondary schools: 1 Health care: Clinics: 3 Common diseases: Diarrhea, tuberculosis, pneumonia Transportation: Graveled roads: 180 km

48 2004: Haji Juma Khan bought Rudbar village Located in eastern Chahar Burja Lies astride roads to tri-border area Intended to hand it over to his tribe Cultivate poppy and wheat Considerable sums spent on: Irrigation canals Creation of artificial lake Electricity generators Palm trees


50 Also Chakhansor Location: northern Nimruz Borders: Helmand province Farah province Area: 9,699 square kilometers Terrain: Desert plain

51 District center: Chaksanur (pop. 500) Villages: 160 Est. population: 11,165 Ethnicity: Pashtun Baluch Tajik Hazara

52 Crops: Wheat Melons Vegetables Poppy Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep Camels

53 Other: Poppy cultivation Smuggling Remittances from Iran

54 Education: Primary schools: 6 Secondary schools: 2 Health care: Comprehensive Health Center: 1 Basic Health Center: 10


56 2007: Transferred to Farah Transfer completed? Location: Northern Nimruz Lies on Kandahar-Herat highway Junction for highway to Zaranj Terrain: Desert plain

57 District center: Delaram Est. population: ? Ethnicity: Pashtun

58 Crops: Wheat Barley Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep Other: Trade and commerce Smuggling (especially poppy/heroin)


60 Insurgent-dominated area Significant fighting in 2008-09 ANP undermanned, lacking firepower March 2010: Marines deploy to Delaram May 2011: District chief arrested for drug trafficking Handover of FOB Delaram to ANA

61 lead-delaram-security

62 Location: central Nimruz Includes Lake Pushak… …which is all but dried up Borders Iran Area: 1,250 sq km Terrain: Desert, semi-desert plain

63 District center: Kang Villages: 119 Est. population: 14,000 Ethnicity: Pashtun Baluch Tajik

64 Crops: Barley Maize Wheat Melons Millet Poppy

65 Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep Other: Smuggling Poppy cultivation Remittances from Iran

66 Development data: Primary schools: 9 Health care: Hospitals: 1


68 Location: northern Nimruz Terrain: Desert, semi-desert plain Mountains Est. population: 35,000 Ethnicity: Pashtun Nurzai

69 Economy: Smuggling Poppy Remittances from Iran, Pakistan Pomegranates, wheat, maize, grapes (when there is water) Politics : District Sub-Governor: Hashim Nurzai


71 Location: central Nimruz Borders Iran Terrain: Desert, semi-desert plain District center: Zaranj Est. population: 49,000 Ethnicity: Baluch, Tajik, Pashtun

72 Economy: Trade & commerce Smuggling Poppy cultivation Remittances from Iran Wheat, maize, melons, watermelons Iranians electrify city


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