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Module introduces you to Badakhshan Emphasis on: Geography & topography Human terrain Recent history Economics Security situation Politics Districts.

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Presentation on theme: "Module introduces you to Badakhshan Emphasis on: Geography & topography Human terrain Recent history Economics Security situation Politics Districts."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Module introduces you to Badakhshan Emphasis on: Geography & topography Human terrain Recent history Economics Security situation Politics Districts

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4 Location: NE Afghanistan Area: 15,786 sq miles 47,403 sq km Terrain: 90% mountainous …including High Pamirs Numerous peaks over 20,000 feet Amu Darya watershed Few all-weather roads

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6 Wakhan Mountains Sefid Kers Khvajeh Mohamed Range Panj River Wakhjir Javan Pass (Into China) Jaman Pass (Tajikistan) Baroghil Pass (Into Pakistan) Pamir River Dora Pass Turghan Pass Monjani River Hindu Kush Range Qala Panja Pass Anjoman Pass

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8 Deforestation from 1980s to present Little or no erosion controls in place Flash flooding problems Temperate grasslands, savannahs Gissaro-Alai woodlands along Pamir River Common plants: Pistachio Almond Walnut Apple Juniper Sagebrush

9 Montane grasslands & shrublands Hindu Kush alpine meadows Northern and southwestern regions Meadows and birch forests Karakorum-West Tibetan alpine steppe Wakhan Corridor Pamir alpine meadow and desert

10 Desert and Xeric shrublands Afghan mountains semi-desert South of Fayzabad Common plants: Thorny bushes Zizyphus Acacia Amygdatus

11 Paropamisus xeric woodlands Northwest and central Badakhshan Common plants: Pistachio Almond Willows Sea buckthorn

12 Strategic borders: Pakistan China Tajikistan 1896: border settled with Russia Capital: Faizabad, Fayzabad Estimated population: 61,000 Districts: 28 Number of villages: 1,851

13 Wakhan Mountains TAJIKISTAN Takhar Panjshir Nuristan PAKISTAN CHINA Fayzabad

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15 Population: 819,000 96% rural Avg household: 6 members Male: 51%; Female: 49% Ethnic composition: Tajiks (majority) Pamiris Uzbeks

16 Ethnicity (Cont’d): Pockets of Ismai’lis along Tajik border Some Ghilzai Pashtuns, Kirghiz Hazara, Turkmen Kuchi nomads Move into province in summer 185,000 Winter population: 9,500

17 Religion: Virtually all residents are Muslim Sunni majority Many Pamiris are Shi’a/Ismaili Languages : Dari (77%)

18 Languages (Cont’d): Various Pamiri dialects Shughni Munji Ishkashimi Wakhi Uzbeki (12%) <2% speak Turkmen, Pashto, Nuristani dialects

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20 Tajiks Historically dominant Partly based on tribes Shaqany Qharqhza Zebaki Sunni Generally favor Jamiat-e Islami party

21 Isma’ilis Not really an ‘ethnicity’… …but Muslim sect Minority branch of Shi’a Followers of Agha Khan Predominate in Shighnan & Wakhan Few once gravitated to Khalq, Maoists

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24 Part of Sassanid Empire Persians Badaxs = official Persian title Silk Road ran through here Early East-West trade route Marco Polo traveled through here Sassanid Empire

25 19 th century: Great Game British India vs Russia Badakhshan in between Explorers reconnoiter territory 1896: Wakhan Corridor created Badakhshan ‘panhandle’ Given to Afghanistan Buffer between Russia, British India

26 November 1979: Most of Badakhshan in insurgent hands Fayzabad controlled by insurgents Government, Soviets intervene Fayzabad occupied Dec 1979 Main Soviet garrison: Fayzabad Rest of province in Muj hands Remote Soviet bases supplied by helo

27 1982: Soviets blocked Anjoman Pass Key insurgent logistics route Jamiat-e Islami stronghold Prominent leader: Burhanuddin Rabbani Originally from Feyzabad President of Afghanistan in 1990s Small HIG base in southern Badakhshan Commander: Mohammed Bashir

28 1991: Muj capture most of province 1990s: Northern Alliance stronghold Never invaded/occupied by Taliban Base for NA anti-Taliban operations

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30 Water access: Household access to irrigated land: 42% Household access to rain-fed land: 65% Agriculture: Income for 55%+ of households 47% own or manage agricultural land

31 Crops: Wheat Barley Maize Rice Flax Melons

32 Industrial crops: Not as prevalent as in other provinces Cotton Sesame Tobacco Sugar Poppies Honey

33 Income for 21% of population Cattle Donkeys Sheep Goats Horses

34 Trade & services: 32%: income from trade & services Mineral resources: Lapis Lazuli Silver Copper Iron Lead deposits Rubies Emeralds

35 Literacy rate: 31% Highest provincial rate Male literacy: 38% Female literacy: 21% Literacy – males ages 15-24: 46% Literacy - females ages 15-24: 27%

36 Kuchi literacy: <5% Primary schools (boys): 336 Primary schools (girls): 12 Secondary schools (boys): 59 Secondary schools (girls): 23 School attendance: Ages 6-13: 46% Boys ages 6-13: 49% Girls ages 6-13: 46%

37 Education access: Primary school in village: 25% 5-10 km to primary school: 16% 10+ km to primary school: 15% Secondary school in village: 13% 5-10 km to secondary school: 18% 10+ km to secondary school: 28%

38 Higher education: University of Badakhshan Faculty of Education Faculty of Medicine Total enrollment (2005): % of students were female in 2005 Badakhshan Teacher Training Institute Enrolled 357 students in 2005

39 (As of 2005) Health centers: 33 Of 1,851 villages only 56 have clinics 5-10 km to reach clinic: 16% 10+ km to reach clinic: 50% Hospitals: 2 Doctors: 36 Nurses: 85 Pharmacies: 120

40 Drinking water: Access to safe drinking water: 13% Direct access to drinking water in community: 68% Travel up to 1 hour to access drinking water: 16% Travel up to 6 hours to access drinking water: 12%

41 Toilet facilities: None (open bush/field): 14% Open pit: 27% Traditional covered latrine: 55% Flush latrine: <1%

42 Electricity access: Around 1% have access to electricity Transport: Roads for all-season car traffic: 25% Roads for seasonal car traffic: 18% No roads: 57%

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44 NeverRarely 1-3 times Sometimes 3-6 times Often Few times month Mostly Happens a lot Households10%27%48%9%6% Problems Satisfying Food Need of the Household During Last Year 40% get less than needed daily calories for good health 70% have little or no dietary diversity In % relied on food aid

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46 Kabul has the power – by design Intended to throttle back warlords As a consequence: Governor appointed by President Governor reports to President Ministries maintain local departments Departments report to Kabul not Governor Elected Provincial Council reports to President

47 Dr. Shah Waliullah Adeeb Born: 1969 in Badakhshan Ethnicity: Tajik Education: High school in Peshawar Masters and PhD from Khartoum University Appointed: 31 October 2010 Escaped assassination June 2011

48 Dr. Shah Waliullah Adeeb Member of Jamiat-e Islami Close to Burhanuddin Rabbani Former President of Afghanistan Assassinated 2011 Previous assignments: Ministry of Education World Bank, Kabul Professor, Kabul University

49 Assassinated 2011 Born in Faizabad, 1940 Ethnicity: Tajik Education: Faculty of Shari’a, Kabul U Al-Azhar, Cairo, mid-1960s Professor of Sharia, Kabul U Founder of Jamiat-e Islami Party President of Afghanistan, 1990s

50 Eldest son of Burhanuddin Third of ten children Education: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Dhahran – Several years in Dubai in export business Spent many years in UK Wife is dental hygienist Returned to Afghanistan, 9/15/01

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52 Historical ethnic tensions: Resettled Kuchis & Uzbeks Resettled Kuchis & Isma’ilis 1975 Islamist revolt against Daud Based in Kidhim, Argu districts Primarily linked to Hezb-e Islami Anti-Soviet uprisings, Jamiat-e Islami dominated resistance Some Hezb-e Islami, Harakat activity

53 Some intra-Jamiat tensions Jamiat-HIG clashes Communal land disputes Insurgent inroads in south Some insurgents sympathy in: Keran-e Munjan Jurm Yamgan Warduj

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55 “Each district of Badakhshan has its own distinctive character. Steep Shuhada was a spectacular canyon lined with golden wheat terraces, dark cherry orchards, and hot springs. The Jurm valley was broader and more barren, interrupted by deep green wedges of forest and field where nourishing streams broke out of the mountains. In the fertile highlands of Khash, the streams were densely lined with a reed used for classical Persian calligraphy pens, and the roads were brazenly lined with poppy fields.” Joel Hafvenstein, Opium Season

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57 Sub-Governor (woluswal) Police Chief NDS Officer Some Ministry sub-Departments Taliban shadow governments

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59 Location: central Badakhshan Environmental features: Avalanches Seasonal flash floods District center: ?

60 Est. population: 15,000 Ethnicity: Tajiks Kuchi nomads in summer Pashtuns

61 Crops: Wheat Barley Animal husbandry: Goats Cows Sheep

62 Development data: Roads: Cars all seasons: 0% Cars seasonal: 7% No roads: 93%

63 Created 2005 out of Fayzabad Location: east Badakhshan Area: 1,032 sq km District center: Argo Number of villages: 145 Est. population: 84,000 Ethnicity: Tajik & Uzbek Dominant languages: Tajik and Uzbek

64 Crops: Wheat Barley Maize Poppy Sesame Tobacco Industry: Kilm weaving Honey, sugar extracts

65 Education: Available for about 50% of children Primary schools: 21 Secondary schools: 9 Medical: Clinics: 1

66 Roads: Cars all season: 56% Cars seasonal: 14% No roads: 30% New Faizabad-Argo road completed 2009 NGOs: Afghan Aid

67 Location: central Badakhshan District center: Do Ab Est. population: 33,000 Ethnicity: Tajik Dominant language: Dari

68 Crops: Wheat Barley Walnuts Cherries Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep Cows

69 Development data: Roads: Cars all seasons: 74% Cars seasonal: 12% No roads: 14% NGOs: Afghan Aid Aga Khan Development Network Security: May 2010: insurgent attack on district HQ

70 Created 2005 out of Fayzabad Location: western Badakhshan Environment: Seasonal flash foods District center: Darayim

71 Est. population: 38,000 Ethnicity: Tajiks Uzbeks Dominant language: Dari

72 Crops: Wheat Barley Poppy Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep

73 Development data: Roads: Cars all seasons: 58% Cars seasonal: 25% No roads: 17% Security: Poppy eradication underway, 2008 May 2010: IED killed 6 ANP

74 Also: Darwaz-e Balaye Nesai Location: northern Badakhshan Borders Tajikistan Includes part of Amu Darya River

75 Est. population: 27,000 Ethnicity: Tajiks Pamiris Dominant languages: Dari Various Pamiri dialects

76 Crops: Wheat Barley Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep Industry: Karakul skins Dried sugar Confections

77 Development data: Roads: Cars all seasons: 1% Cars seasonal: 0% No roads: 99% NGOs: Aga Khan Development Network

78 Also: Darwaz-e Payeen Mamay Location: northern Badakhshan Borders on Tajikistan Includes part of Amu Darya River Est. population: 23,000

79 Ethnicity: Tajiks Pamiris Dominant languages: Dari Various Pamiri dialects

80 Crops: Wheat Barley Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep Industry: Pottery Jewelry

81 Development data: Roads: Cars all seasons: 0% Cars seasonal: 0% No roads: 100% NGOs: Aga Khan Development Network

82 Location: central Badakhshan Kokcha River runs through it District center: Fayzabad City Est. population: 61,000

83 Ethnicity: Tajiks Uzbeks Dominant language: Dari History: : anti-Soviet resistance Soviets occupy city Major USSR garrison town in 1980s

84 Crops: Wheat Barley Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep Others: Local trade and commerce hub Rice and flour mills

85 Development data: Roads: Cars all seasons: 23% Cars seasonal: 55% No roads: 21% NGOs: ACTED

86 Location: east Afghanistan Borders Pakistan: Northern Areas Borders Tajikistan District center: Ishkashim

87 Est. population: 13,000 Ethnicity: Tajiks Dominant language: Dari History: 20 July 1991: liberated by Muj

88 Crops: Wheat Barley Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep Donkeys

89 Development data: Roads: Cars all seasons: 26% Cars seasonal: 21% No roads: 54% NGOs: Aga Khan Development Network

90 Location: central Badakhshan Est. population: 52,000 Ethnicity: Tajiks Dominant language: Dari

91 Crops : Wheat Barley Poppy Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep Poultry

92 Development data: Roads: Cars all seasons: 66% Cars seasonal: 8% No roads: 23% NGOs: Aga Khan Development Network Marked improvement in female education Security: Minimal central government presence Previous problems with local warlords

93 Location: central Badakhshan District center: Khash Est. population: 15,000 Ethnicity: Tajiks Dominant language: Dari

94 Economy: Crops: Wheat Barley Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep

95 Development data: Roads: Cars all seasons: 67% Cars seasonal: 14% No roads: 19% NGOs: Aga Khan Development Network Politics: District Sub-Governor: Haji Atiqullah

96 Location: NW Badakhshan Borders Tajikistan Includes part of Amu Darya River District center: Khwahan Est. population: 14,000 Ethnicity: Tajiks Dominant language: Dari

97 Crops: Wheat Barley Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep Industry: Pottery Jewelry

98 Development data: Roads: Cars all seasons: 0% Cars seasonal: 10% No roads: 90%

99 Also: Kuran wa Munjam Karan 0 Manjam Location: southern Badakhshan Borders Pakistani’s Northern Areas Tagab-e Anjuman river flows through it Tagab-e Munjam river flows through it

100 District center: Kiran wa Munjam Est. population: 8,000 Ethnicity: Tajiks Dominant language: Dari

101 Crops: Wheat Barley Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep Donkeys Poultry

102 Development data: Roads: Cars all seasons: 7% Cars seasonal: 22% No roads: 71% NGOs: Aga Khan Development Network Security: Aug 2010: 10 aid workers killed in Taliban ambush

103 Also: Keshim Location: western Badakhshan Includes Kishim River District center: Kishim Est. population: 71,000 Ethnicity: Tajiks Dominant language: Dari

104 Crops: Cotton Sesame Tobacco Sugar extracts Big regional poppy producer Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep

105 Development data: Roads: Cars all seasons: 59% Cars seasonal: 27% No roads: 14% NGOs: ACTED

106 Also: Kuhistan Location: central Badakhshan Est. population: 16,000 Ethnicity: Tajiks Dominant language: Dari

107 Economy: Crops: Wheat Barley Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep

108 Development data: Roads: Cars all seasons: 0% Cars seasonal: 0% No roads: 100% NGOs: CONCERN

109 Location: northern Badakhshan Borders Tajikistan Includes part of Amu Darya River District center: Kufab

110 Est. population: 21,000 Ethnicity: Tajiks Pamiris Dominant language: Dari Pamiri dialects

111 Crops: Wheat Barley Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep Donkeys Cattle

112 Development data: Roads: Cars all seasons: 0% Cars seasonal: 0% No roads: 100% NGOs: Aga Khan Development Network

113 Location: north Badakhshan Borders Tajikistan Part of Amu Darya River Est. population: 29,000 Ethnicity: Tajiks Dominant language: Dari

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116 Crops: Wheat Barley Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep Donkeys Poultry

117 Development data: Roads: Cars all seasons: 0% Cars seasonal: 19% No roads: 81% NGOs: CONCERN

118 Also: Shahri Buzurg Location: western Badakhshan Border on Tajikistan Seasonal flash flooding Still recovering from drought District center: Khordakan Also primary district market

119 Est. population: 45,000 Ethnicity: Tajik Pamiri Uzbek Dominant language: Dari

120 Subsistence farming dominates Arable land: Less than 10% of land area Water sources: Primarily rain-fed agriculture

121 Crops: Wheat Barley Rice Alfalfa Poppy Apricots Mulberries Pistachios

122 Animal husbandry: Accounts for <25% of household income Goats Sheep Cows Other: Seasonal labor Remittances from Iran Gold mining

123 Development data: Roads: Cars all seasons: 4% Cars seasonal: 28% No roads: 68% Electricity: No public electricity Generators rare

124 NGOs: ACTED Food security: Lack of dietary diversity Wheat bread diets & tea predominate

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128 Ownership largely involves animals, trees and a few household items. There are few household items of money value and the agriculture tools are simple and basic. - Oxfam study of Buzurg-i Shahri, 2007

129 Location: NE Badakhshan Borders Tajikistan Includes part of Panj River Mountainous District center: Bashur

130 Est. population: 23,000 – 30,000 Ethnicity: Pamiris-Ismailis Tajiks Dominant language: Dari Pamiri dialects Religion: Shi’a (Ismaili); Sunni

131 Historically isolated, marginalized Buffer zone between: Afghanistan British India Russia 1925: revolt against King Amanullah Response to taxation & conscription policies Revolt crushed

132 1960s to 1980s: Appeal of communism Especially for Ismaili intelligentsia… …who reacted against Kabul’s Pashtunization policies Many Ismai’lis drawn to Khalq or Maoists

133 : ‘Golden Age’ for Shighnan War did not affect this area much Residents promoted to key PDPA positions Four were provincial PDPA Governors Relative prosperity 1990s: Mujahedin period Tajikization of Shighnan Displacement of many Shighnan officials Drugs, contraband trade increased

134 Economy: Crops: Wheat Barley Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep Donkeys Poultry

135 Development data: Relatively high literacy rate Chronic food deficits Roads: Cars all seasons: 0% Cars seasonal: 0% No roads: 100% NGOs: Aga Khan Development Network

136 Location: northern Badakhshan Borders on Tajikistan Includes part of Amu Darya River Est. population: 18,000

137 Ethnicity: Tajiks Pamiris Dominant language: Dari Religion: Sunni Islam Sizeable Shia minority

138 Economy: Crops: Wheat Barley Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep

139 Development data: Roads: Cars all seasons: 3% Cars seasonal: 0% No roads: 97% NGOs: Aga Khan Development Network

140 Location: eastern Badakhshan Est. population: 26,000 Ethnicity: Tajiks Dominant language: Dari

141 Economy: Crops: Wheat Barley Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep Donkeys Poultry

142 Development data: Roads: Cars all seasons: 89% Cars seasonal: 3% No roads: 8% NGOs: Afghan Aid

143 Also: Tagab Location: west Badakhshan Terrain: mountainous Taqab River flows through it Est. population: 24,000 Ethnicity: Tajiks Influx of Kuchis in summer months Dominant language: Dari

144 Economy: Crops: Wheat Rice Pistachio Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep

145 Development data: Roads: Cars all seasons: 58% Cars seasonal: 15% No roads: 27% Politics: Sub-Governor: Haji Awrang Security: no active insurgent movement

146 “Tagab was safe. Every Afghan I spoke to agreed that if I had wanted to walk from one end of the district to the other, I would be fine. Awrang’s deal with the people didn’t depend on force or threats, but on his continued supply of benefits and his own reputation for honesty. As far as I could see, he was trying to cast himself as the new Ahmad Shah Massoud, and wanted to keep his reputation untainted by corruption and poppy.” Joel Hafvenstein, Opium Season

147 Also Taskhan Location: western Badakhshan Est. population: 27,000 Ethnicity: Tajiks Kuchi migrants in summer Dominant language: Dari

148 Economy: Crops: Wheat Barley Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep Donkeys Poultry

149 Development data: Roads: Cars all seasons: 16% Cars seasonal: 26% No roads: 56%

150 Location: east Badakhshan Borders: Pakistan’s Northern Areas Tajikistan China Est. population: 12,000

151 Ethnicity: Tajiks Pamiris Kirghiz Dominant languages: Dari Pamiri dialects

152 1895 Afghan-Russian border settlement British ‘offered’ Wakhan to Afghans British desired buffer with Russian Empire 1979: Soviet invasion May & June 1980: Soviets occupy Wakhan Later assumed district administration Soviets limited access to eastern areas Goal: prevent Chinese arms shipments Persistent rumors Wakhan ceded to USSR Late July 1991: liberated by Muj

153 Economy: Crops: Wheat Barley Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep Donkeys Industry: Silk

154 Development data: Roads: Cars all seasons: 11% Cars seasonal: 46% No roads: 43% NGOs: Aga Khan Development Network Security: UN: Low Risk/Permissive Environment

155 “The Wakhan Corridor is a heady ethnic and linguistic mix coupled with profound religious differences: Ismailis fervently loyal to the Aga Khan, the 49th Imam, who saved them from certain starvation during the civil war in Tajikistan; Shiites; covert Buddhists; remnants of pre-Islamic paganism reminiscent of that in Ladakh and Nepal; and even vestiges of Zoroastrianism.”Aga Khan, the 49th Imam -- Dr. Thomas Markey & Dr. Jean-Claude Muller

156 “…there was a unanimous belief that the Afghan government is simply an outrageous band of crooks on the take and that Hamid Karzai is chief among them. This disgust cut across all linguistic, age and belief groups.” -- Dr. Thomas Markey and Dr. Jean-Claude Muller

157 Also: Warduj Created out of Baharak, 2005 Location: central Badakhshan Est. population: 20,000 Ethnicity: Tajiks Dominant language: Dari

158 Economy: Crops: Wheat Barley Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep Donkeys Poultry

159 Development data: Roads: Cars all seasons: 68% Cars seasonal: 9% No roads: 23% NGOs: Afghan Aid Security: UN: Low Risk/Permissive Environment

160 Location: NW Badakhshan Est. population: 48,000 Ethnicity: Tajiks Dominant language: Dari

161 Crops: Sesame Tobacco Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep Industry: Honey Dried sugar Jewelry

162 Development data: Roads: Cars all-season: 15% Cars seasonal: 27% No roads: 58% NGOs: ACTED

163 Created out of Fayzabad District, 2005 Also called Yaftali Payin Location: western Badakhshan Est. population: 49,000 Ethnicity: Tajiks Dominant language: Dari

164 Economy: Crops: Wheat Barley Animal husbandry: Goats Sheep Security: UN: Low Risk/Permissive Environment

165 Also: Yamqan, Yumgan Created out of Baharak in 2005 Location: central Badaskhshan Est. population: 22,500 Ethnicity: Tajiks Pamiris Dominant language: Dari

166 Crops: Wheat Barley Poppy Walnuts Animal husbandry: Donkeys Goats Sheep Industry: Rugs

167 Development data: Roads: Cars all seasons: 5% Cars seasonal: 21% No roads: 74% Medical: No clinics NGOs: Aga Khan Development Network Security: UN: Low Risk/Permissive Environment

168 Created out of Ragh in 2005 Location: western Badakhshan Borders Tajikistan Seasonal flash flooding problems Still in recovery from drought District center: Sar-e Pul Also primary district market Est. population: 27,000 Ethnicity: Tajik, Pamiri, Uzbek

169 Subsistence farming dominates economy Arable land: Less than 10% of land Water sources: Primarily rain-fed agriculture

170 Crops: Wheat Barley Rice Melons Potatoes Alfalfa Poppy Pistachios Apricots

171 Animal husbandry: <25% of household income Cows Sheep Goats Industry: Rugs Pottery Honey production Other: Remittances from Iran Seasonal labor Gold mining

172 Other: Remittances from Iran Seasonal labor Gold mining

173 Chronic food insecurity Wheat bread diets & tea Roads: Cars all seasons: 0% Cars seasonal: 19% No roads: 81% Electricity: No public electricity Generators rare

174 NGOs: ACTED Security: UN: Medium Risk/Unstable Environment

175 Ownership largely involves animals, trees and a few household items. There are few household items of money value and the agriculture tools are simple and basic. - Oxfam study of Yawan, 2007

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180 Location: east Badakhshan Borders Pakistan Northern Areas No designated border crossing into Pakistan Includes Sanglich, Warduj Rivers Avalanches, flash floods District center: Zebak Est. population: 6,500

181 Ethnicity: Tajiks Pamiris Languages: Dari Pamiri dialect History: 16 July 1991: liberated by Mujahedin

182 Economy: Crops: Wheat Barley Animal husbandry: Sheep Cattle Goats Horses

183 Development data: Roads: Cars all seasons: 4% Cars seasonal: 33% No roads: 63% Food security persistent challenge NGOs: Aga Khan Development Network Security: UN: Low Risk/Permissive Environment


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