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Brian Fletcher Waldo Bezuidenhout. What Are Electrolytes? Electrolytes are minerals in your blood and other body fluids that either carry a positive charge.

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Presentation on theme: "Brian Fletcher Waldo Bezuidenhout. What Are Electrolytes? Electrolytes are minerals in your blood and other body fluids that either carry a positive charge."— Presentation transcript:

1 Brian Fletcher Waldo Bezuidenhout

2 What Are Electrolytes? Electrolytes are minerals in your blood and other body fluids that either carry a positive charge (cation), or a negative charge (anion) Are taken in as chemical compounds that dissociate into ions within the body Help balance pH and acid base levels in body Facilitate fluid movement into and out of cells Aids in regulation of endocrine system Vital for nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction

3 Types of Electrolytes sodium (Na+) potassium (K+) chloride (Cl-) calcium (Ca2+) magnesium (Mg2+) bicarbonate (HCO3-) phosphate (PO42-) sulfate (SO42-)

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5 Sodium  Main cation present in extracellular fluid  An excess of 8000mg of sodium is held within the bodily tissues  Requires 3-4 hrs of endurance activity to deplete  Hyponatremia: Most common electrolyte disorder. Can result from the use of diuretics, psychoactive drugs, ecstasy and water intoxication  Hypernatremia: Can result from diabetes insipidus, kidney disease, severe burns, diarrhea and excessive sodium intake

6 Potassium  Main cation within all muscle cells  Vital for regulating sodium concentrations  Hypokalemia: can result from laxative abuse, Cushing’s syndrome, kidney disease, adrenal gland impairments, also by glycerrhetinic acid  Hyperkalemia: can be caused by ketoacidosis, fasting, bulimia nervosa, heavy exercise, diuretics, may also result from hypernatremia

7 Chloride  Anion that compliments sodium  70% of the body’s total negative ion content  Aids in absorbing metallic minerals  Essential in regulating osmotic tension (balance of bodily fluids and electrolytes)  Hypochloremia: Usually results from hyponatremia and hypokalemia. Causes metabolic alkalosis which is characterized by confusion and paralysis  Hyperchloremia: Caused by severe dehydration, kidney failure, brain injury, and metabolic acidosis

8 Calcium  Most abundant in human body approximately 2.85 lbs  Promotes skeletal growth  Involved with blood coagulation  Required for normal heart rhythm, healthy nerve transmission, and strong muscle contractions  Hypocalcemia: results from thyroid disorders, kidney failure, vitamin-D deficiency, and medications such as heparin and glucogan  Hypercalcemia: thyroid disorders, multiple myeloma, metastatic cancers, and Paget’s disease can all cause elevated calcium levels.

9 Magnesium  Ratio of 1Mg to 2Ca  Needed for muscle relaxation  Hypomagnesia: Chronic alcoholism, malnutrition, pancreatitis, severe burns, and hyperparathyroidism  Hypermagnesia: May occur in end stage renal disease, Addison’s disease, or overdose of magnesium salts

10 Bicarbonate  A negatively charged electrolyte that assists in the regulation of blood pH levels  Too much or too little Bicarbonate results in acid-base disorders such as acidosis and alkalosis

11 Phosphate  Involved in metabolism  Helps regulate acid-base balance and calcium levels  Hypophosphatemia: may be caused by severe burns, alcoholism, hypothyroidism, malnutrition and Cushing’s syndrome.  Hyperphosphatemia: hemodialysis, acromegaly, and intestinal obstruction

12 Symptoms of Electrolyte Imbalances  thirst  orthostatic hypotension  dry mouth and mucous membranes  dark, concentrated urine  loss of elasticity in the skin  irregular heartbeat (tachycardia)  irritability  fatigue  lethargy  heavy, labored breathing  muscle twitching and/or seizures

13 More Symptoms…  nausea, abdominal cramping, and/or vomiting  headache  edema (swelling)  muscle weakness and/or tremor  paralysis  disorientation  slowed breathing  seizures  Coma  dry skin  brittle nails

14 Even MORE symptoms…  irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)  diarrhea  muscle pain  increased urination  Tetany  fatigue  constipation  depression  confusion  hypotension  decreased heart and respiratory rate  Even…………..DEATH!!!!

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17 The Mix  Electrolyte replacement during exercise is necessary yet highly personalized  Sweat composition differs greatly from person to person  Environmental conditions play a major role in rate of electrolyte depletion  The body replaces only between 35-45% of what it loses during exercise. If we replace all the fluids at once, we end up with dilutional hyponatremia or water-intoxication which leads to serious health problems and even death.  If we try to replace all the electrolytes we lose in equal amounts, a number of hormonal triggers may create problems such as gastric stress, edema, muscle spasms and cramping

18 References:  http://science.howstuffworks.com/question565.htm http://science.howstuffworks.com/question565.htm  www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002350.htm www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002350.htm  http://kidshealth.org/parent/system/medical/labtest5.html http://kidshealth.org/parent/system/medical/labtest5.html  www.enw.org/Electrolytes.htmht www.enw.org/Electrolytes.htmht  www.honoluluclub.com/pulse.php?ID=31 www.honoluluclub.com/pulse.php?ID=31  http://fitness.gov/fastfacts.html http://fitness.gov/fastfacts.html  www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/drinks.htm www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/drinks.htm  www.sportdrinksdirect.com/ www.sportdrinksdirect.com/  www.traceminerals.com/research/chloride.html www.traceminerals.com/research/chloride.html  www.ehendrick.org/healthy/002063.htm www.ehendrick.org/healthy/002063.htm  www.runnersworld.com www.runnersworld.com  www.americansportsevents.com www.americansportsevents.com  www.lifesteps.com www.lifesteps.com


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