2 What Are Electrolytes?Electrolytes are minerals in your blood and other body fluids that either carry a positive charge (cation), or a negative charge (anion)Are taken in as chemical compounds that dissociate into ions within the bodyHelp balance pH and acid base levels in bodyFacilitate fluid movement into and out of cellsAids in regulation of endocrine systemVital for nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction
5 Sodium Main cation present in extracellular fluid An excess of 8000mg of sodium is held within the bodily tissuesRequires 3-4 hrs of endurance activity to depleteHyponatremia: Most common electrolyte disorder. Can result from the use of diuretics, psychoactive drugs, ecstasy and water intoxicationHypernatremia: Can result from diabetes insipidus, kidney disease, severe burns, diarrhea and excessive sodium intake
6 Potassium Main cation within all muscle cells Vital for regulating sodium concentrationsHypokalemia: can result from laxative abuse, Cushing’s syndrome, kidney disease, adrenal gland impairments, also by glycerrhetinic acidHyperkalemia: can be caused by ketoacidosis, fasting, bulimia nervosa, heavy exercise, diuretics, may also result from hypernatremia
7 Chloride Anion that compliments sodium 70% of the body’s total negative ion contentAids in absorbing metallic mineralsEssential in regulating osmotic tension (balance of bodily fluids and electrolytes)Hypochloremia: Usually results from hyponatremia and hypokalemia. Causes metabolic alkalosis which is characterized by confusion and paralysisHyperchloremia: Caused by severe dehydration, kidney failure, brain injury, and metabolic acidosis
8 Calcium Most abundant in human body approximately 2.85 lbs Promotes skeletal growthInvolved with blood coagulationRequired for normal heart rhythm, healthy nerve transmission, and strong muscle contractionsHypocalcemia: results from thyroid disorders, kidney failure, vitamin-D deficiency, and medications such as heparin and glucoganHypercalcemia: thyroid disorders, multiple myeloma, metastatic cancers, and Paget’s disease can all cause elevated calcium levels.
9 Magnesium Ratio of 1Mg to 2Ca Needed for muscle relaxation Hypomagnesia: Chronic alcoholism, malnutrition, pancreatitis, severe burns, and hyperparathyroidismHypermagnesia: May occur in end stage renal disease, Addison’s disease, or overdose of magnesium salts
10 BicarbonateA negatively charged electrolyte that assists in the regulation of blood pH levelsToo much or too little Bicarbonate results in acid-base disorders such as acidosis and alkalosis
11 Phosphate Involved in metabolism Helps regulate acid-base balance and calcium levelsHypophosphatemia: may be caused by severe burns, alcoholism, hypothyroidism, malnutrition and Cushing’s syndrome.Hyperphosphatemia: hemodialysis, acromegaly, and intestinal obstruction
12 Symptoms of Electrolyte Imbalances thirstorthostatic hypotensiondry mouth and mucous membranesdark, concentrated urineloss of elasticity in the skinirregular heartbeat (tachycardia)irritabilityfatiguelethargyheavy, labored breathingmuscle twitching and/or seizures
13 More Symptoms… nausea, abdominal cramping, and/or vomiting headache edema (swelling)muscle weakness and/or tremorparalysisdisorientationslowed breathingseizuresComadry skinbrittle nails
14 Even MORE symptoms… irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia) diarrhea muscle painincreased urinationTetanyfatigueconstipationdepressionconfusionhypotensiondecreased heart and respiratory rateEven…………..DEATH!!!!
17 The MixElectrolyte replacement during exercise is necessary yet highly personalizedSweat composition differs greatly from person to personEnvironmental conditions play a major role in rate of electrolyte depletionThe body replaces only between 35-45% of what it loses during exercise. If we replace all the fluids at once, we end up with dilutional hyponatremia or water-intoxication which leads to serious health problems and even death.If we try to replace all the electrolytes we lose in equal amounts, a number of hormonal triggers may create problems such as gastric stress, edema, muscle spasms and cramping