Albumin Infusions: A review of literature pertinent to IM Hospitalists L Noronha, MD Assistant Professor of Medicine May 6, 2011
Thanks to: Shauna Rodriguez Autumn Roberts Melissa Cordero Richard D’Angio Jim Little Chris McFarland Lenka and Chris
Is this the face that launched 1,000,000 albumin infusions? Marvin Slepian, MD Professor of Medicine (Cardiology and Biomedical Engineering), University of Arizona Director, Interventional Cardiology Director, University of Arizona Tissue Engineering Lab Chairman and Chief Scientific Officer, SynCardia Systems, Inc.
Objectives Describe current albumin use at UNM Familiarize hospitalists with major trials evaluating inpatient albumin infusions Submit guidelines for inpatient albumin administration by IM hospitalists
Outline What is albumin? Purported effects Key trials for – Resuscitation (SAFE, SOAP, Cochrane Review) – Considerations in cirrhosis Recommendations for Section use
Albumin Any non-glycosylated water soluble protein Moderately soluble in salt solutions Examples: AFP, Vit D binding protein, HSA Albuminoids contain albumin (egg white)
More on HSA… Synthesized in liver 30-40% in serum Remainder stored in muscle and skin Production triggered by decreased oncotic pressure
Albumin for the Vascular Space 60% of colloidal oncotic pressure Attracts sodium and other osmotically active positive ions
Binding and Transport of Various Compounds Endogenous Unconjugated bilirubin Free fatty acids Calcium Hormones Nitric oxide Metals Tryptophan – Low albumin assoc c HE Exogenous Binding to albumin “keeps” drug in vascular space Unbound drug (free) is active High affinity drugs need to be given in higher doses Loop diuretics, warfarin, NSAIDS, phenytoin have high affinity
Desired Roles of Albumin Infusion Oncotic pressure Anti-inflammatory Diuretic
Albumin for Infusion Pooled from human donors Pasteurized at 60⁰C for 10 hrs. 10% leaves intravasc space within 2 hours 75% after 2 days (nl capillaries) 5% (nl serum osm) for volume expansion 25% sol’n for LVP, SBP, HRS Order sol’n as 0.5mg/kg or #g in Powerchart $36/12.5g at UNM UNM Allocation 600U/month
Cochrane Injuries Group Albumin Reviewers - 1998 Meta analysis of 24 studies (combined 1419 pts) evaluating albumin infusion in critical illness Absolute increase of death 6% (NNH 17) over NS Editorial: “Albumin use should be halted” Authors recc: “albumin should not be administered to critically ill outside the context of rigorously conducted, randomized trials.”
Sepsis Occurrence in Acutely ill Patients (SOAP) – Critical Care 2005 Multi-center prospective observational study ICUs in several European countries 3047 pts adm May 1-15, 2002 354 received albumin (11.2%), 2793 did not (88.8%) Noted that albumin given to sicker pts (cancer, cirrhosis), so matched crystalloid subgroup compared
SOAP Results Albumin associated with decreased ICU and hospital survival (relative hazard 1.57)
Saline versus Albumin Fluid Evaluation (SAFE) - NEJM 2004 Multi-center double-blind RCT ICUs in NZ, Australia 11/01-6/03 6997 ICU pts > 18y req fluid resus Excluded: cardiac surgery, liver xplant, burns Randomized to 4% albumin or NS – identical 500 mL bottles, “masking cartons, IV sets” Add’l fluids, monitoring at provider discretion Prim endpt: 28d mortality Secondary: LOS (ICU, total), vent days, RRT
SAFE Results Primary and secondary 28 day endpoints equal for albumin and saline groups Subgroup analyses: - Pt baseline albumin did not impact outcomes - Trauma (brain injury) did worse So SAFE said, “It’s Safe.”
Nephrotic Syndrome Nefrologia 2011;31(2):148-154 | Doi. 10.3265/Nefrologia.pre2010.Nov.10724 Avances en la fisiopatología del edema en el síndrome nefrótico New insights into the pathophysiology of oedema in nephrotic syndrome Enviado a Revisar: 8 Nov. 2010 | Aceptado el: 16 Nov. 2010 | En Publicación: 22 Mar. 2011 H. RONDON-BERRIOS Division of Nephrology. Department of Internal Medicine. University of New Mexico School of Medicine. Albuquerque, Nuevo México (EEUU) Correspondencia para H. Rondon-Berrios, Division of Nephrology. Department of Internal Medicine, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, ACC 5. MSC10 5550. 1 University of New Mexico, 87131-0001, Albuquerque, Nuevo México, EEUU Forget albumin. It’s all about the Epithelial Sodium Channel!
Considerations in Cirrhosis Diuresis/LVP SBP HRS
Diuresis in Cirrhosis Effects of Albumin/Furosemide Mixtures on Responses to Furosemide in Hypoalbuminemic Patients, Chalasani, et al, J Am Soc Nephrol, 2001 13 Patients with cirrhosis already on spironolactone and dietary sodium restriction ALL receive different doses of furosemide with or without albumin. No difference in diuresis (volume, urine sodium) or furosemide activity
Albumin for Diuresis in Cirrhosis Mixed results in randomized studies -Heterogeneous baseline patients -Definitions of “refractory ascites” -Renal function -May decrease hospital LOS -Does not impact survival -May be cost effective
Large Volume Paracentesis LVP preferable to serial 5L paracentesis + diuretics for refractory ascites in 5 RCTs - Decreased LOS - Fewer re-admissions * Refractory ascites = persists despite doses of spironolactone 400 + furosemide 160 daily or recurs rapidly after LVP Mean survival = 6mos.
Albumin (20% sol’n) Decreases Paracentesis Induced Circulatory Dysfunction (PICD) in RCT’s With or without albumin – 105 pts Albumin (18.5%) vs other volume expanders [Dextran 70 (34.4%), Polygeline(37.8%)] – 289 pts *PICD = increase in plasma renin activity on the sixth day after paracentesis of more than 50% of the pretreatment value - correlated with time to readmission and survival Range of 5-10g albumin/L paracentesis used
SBP EFFECT OF INTRAVENOUS ALBUMIN ON RENAL IMPAIRMENT AND MORTALITY IN PATIENTS WITH CIRRHOSIS AND SPONTANEOUS BACTERIAL PERITONITIS, Sort, et al, NEJM, 1999 Multicenter RCT in Spain cefotaxime (63 pts) or cefotaxime + IV albumin 20% sol’n (63) IV albumin grp received 1.5 g/kg on diagnosis (day 1), 1 g/kg on day 3. Primary endpt: non-reversible deterioration in renal function (Cr incr to > 1.5 or Cr incr > 50% over baseline) during hospitalization Followed for 90 days
Results Incidence of renal impairment was lower among those treated with cefotaxime + albumin (6 of 63 [10%]) compared to cefotaxime alone (21 of 63 [33%]), P=0.002. [NNT= 4 ; (33-10=23), 1/.23= 4] In-hospital mortality was lower among those treated with cefotaxime + albumin vs. those treated with cefotaxime alone (10% vs 29%, P=0.01). [NNT= 5 (29-10=19), 1/.19= 5] Mortality at 3 months was also lower among those treated with cefotaxime + albumin vs. those treated with cefotaxime alone (22% vs 41%, P=0.03). [NNT= 5 (41-22= 19), 1/.19= 5] For the entire series of patients, independent predictors for developing renal impairment were: baseline serum bilirubin and Cr levels (P<0.001 and 0.01, respectively).
HRS Terlipressin therapy with and without albumin for patients with hepatorenal syndrome: Results of a prospective, nonrandomized study, Ortega, Hepatology 2002 Single center. Sept 1999-May 2001 21 patients. HRS per IAC Criteria All given 60-80g IV albumin over 2 days 8 have LVP with more albumin All start terlipressin First 13 receive more albumin 20% sol’n: 1g/kg Day 1, then 20-40g/d Final 8 do not receive add’l albumin. More “responders” in albumin group, alive in 1 month, transplanted.
Albumin for HRS Treatment of Hepatorenal Syndrome as Defined by the International Ascites Club by Albumin and Furosemide Infusion According to the Central Venous Pressure: A Prospective Pilot Study, Peron, Gastroenterology 2005 20 patients with HRS Albumin to keep CVP > 3 (no limit) + Furosemide (to maintain UO > 50mL/h) given 250mg over 4h, increased for up to 1.5g/d Range 40 to 600g albumin/day 11 patients “responded” (Cr clearance rose to > 40).
This created pressure… As seen in “Deathly Hallows: Part 2” Hospitalist Nephrologist Use albumin in HRS!
HRS Terlipressin and albumin vs albumin in patients with cirrhosis and hepatorenal syndrome: a randomized study. Martin, Gastroenterology 2008 46pts with HRS randomized to: terlipressin + albumin or albumin alone Improved renal function without survival benefit Several subsequent studies built on adding vasoactive medications to albumin.
Section Recommendations LVP (> 5L) 25% albumin: 5-10g/L removed (as bolus) SBP 25% albumin: 1.5g/kg on dx, 1g/kg on Day 3
100g, 75g 50g Consider giving 75g for 10L or more paracentesis
Section Recommendations HRS 20 or 25% albumin sol’n in consultation with nephrology Stay tuned for emerging data on vasopressin analogues, prostaglandins,
Additional References Cochrane Injuries Group Albumin Reviewers. Human albumin administration in critically ill patients: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. BMJ. 1998;317:235–40. Bunn F, Lefebvre C, Li Wan Po A, et al. Human albumin solution for resuscitation and volume expansion in critically ill patients: The albumin reviewers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 20002:CD001208. Finfer S, Bellomo R, Boyce N, et al. A comparison of albumin and saline for fluid resuscitation in the intensive care unit. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:2247–56. Vincent JL, Navickis RJ, Wilkes MM. Morbidity in hospitalized patients receiving human albumin: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Crit Care Med. 2004;32:2029–38. SAFE Study Investigators. Finfer S, Bellomo R, McEvoy S, et al. Effect of baseline serum albumin concentration on outcome of resuscitation with albumin or saline in patients in intensive care units: analysis of data from the saline versus albumin fluid evaluation (SAFE) study. BMJ. 2006;333:1044–9. Quinlan GJ, Martin GS, Evans TW. Albumin: biochemical properties and therapeutic potential. Hepatology. 2005;41:1211–9. Gentilini P, Casini-Raggi V, Di Fiore G, et al. Albumin improves the response to diuretics in patients with cirrhosis and ascites: results of a randomized, controlled trial. J Hepatol. 1999;30:639–45. Chalasani N, Gorski JC, Horlander JC, et al. Effects of albumin/furosemide mixtures on responses to furosemide in hypoalbuminemic patients. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2001;12:1010–6. Gines P, Guevara M, Arroyo V, Rodes J. Hepatorenal syndrome. Lancet. 2003;362:1819–27. Sort P, Navasa M, Arroyo V, et al. Effect of intravenous albumin on renal impairment and mortality in patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:403–9. Akcicek F, Yalniz T, Basci A, et al. Diuretic effect of furosemide in patients with nephrotic syndrome: is it potentiated by intravenous albumin? BMJ. 1995;310:162–3. Peron JM, Bureau C, Gonzalez L, et al. Treatment of hepatorenal syndrome as defined by the international ascites club by albumin and furosemide infusion according to the central venous pressure: a prospective pilot study. Am J Gastroenterol 2005;100(12):2702-7. Martin-Llahi, M, Pepin, MN, Guevara, M, et al. Terlipressin and albumin versus albumin in patients with cirrhosis and hepatorenal syndrome: a randomized study. Gastroenterology 2008;134:1352-1359.