Emphysema Characterized by the destruction of the alveolar walls and the distention of the alveolar sacs. Patients trap air and are unable to exhale.
Emphysema Thin, barrel chest appearance Cough, little sputum Prolonged exhalation Diminished lung sounds with wheezes Pursed lip breathing Pink complexion (pink puffers) Home oxygen
Chronic Bronchitis Affects primarily the bronchus and the bronchioles. Characterized by a productive cough that persists for at least 3 consecutive months 2 years in a row.
Chronic Bronchitis Typically overweight (blue bloaters) Chronic cyanotic complexion Dyspnea, but not as bad as emphysema Coarse rhonchi Wheezes and crackles in lungs
Asthma A reactive airway disease that affects the bronchial tree and bronchioles An increased sensitivity of the lower airways to irritants and allergens
Asthma Bronchospasm Edema of the inner lining of the airways Increased secretion of mucus that causes plugging of the smaller airways.
Pulmonary Embolism An obstruction of blood flow in the pulmonary arteries. Impedes the delivery of oxygenated blood back into the cardiovascular system. Can be caused by blood clots, fat particles, foreign body, or amniotic fluid.
Pulmonary Embolism Causes include: –Sedentary lifestyle –Recent surgery –Long bone fractures –Smokers –Birth control pills
Acute Pulmonary Edema Excessive amounts of fluid collect in the spaces between the alveoli and the capillaries. Cardiogenic: increased pressure in the pulmonary veins push fluid out of the capillaries. Non cardiogenic: destruction of capillary beds causes fluid to leak out. (ARDS)
Acute Pulmonary Edema Signs/Symptoms include: –Dyspnea and orthopnea –Frothy sputum –Crackles in lungs –Cyanosis, or pale wet skins –JVD –Swollen lower extremeties –Hypertension
Acute Pulmonary Edema Oxygen via NRB or BVM Sit upright Dangle feet Rapid transport
Hyperventilation Syndrome Most often caused by anxiety or emotional distress. Can also be caused by: –Methanphetamine OD –Hyperglycemia –ASA OD
Hyperventilation Syndrome Signs/Symptoms include: –Dizzy –Shortness of breath –Numbness/tingling to hands, feet, perioral –Spasms of fingers and toes
Assessment of Newborn Appearance Pulse Grimace Activity Respiration
Appearance Trunk and extremities pink = 2 points Trunk pink with blue extremities = 1 point Trunk and extremities blue = 0 points
Pulse Heart rate over 100 = 2 points Heart rate under 100 = 1 point Heart rate absent = 0 points
Grimace AKA Reflex irritability Facial grimace plus cry = 2 points Only facial grimace = 1 point No reflex activity = 0 points
Activity Active movement = 2 points Some flexion w/o active movement = 1 point Limp = 0 points
Respiration Good respiration + strong cry = 2 points Slow or irregular breathing = 1 point Apnea = 0 points
APGAR Scores 0-3 points = aggressive resuscitation (BVM, CPR, etc.) 4-6 points = Provide stimulation and O points = Provide routine care
Spontaneous Abortion AKA Miscarraige Can occur for many reasons Viability usually considered after 20 weeks Check for severe lower abdominal pain, severe vaginal bleeding, passing of tissue or blood clots
Pre-Eclampsia Last trimester emergency, usually first pregnancy, with a history of hypertension or diabetes Characterized by high blood pressure and swelling of the extremities Seizures from pre-eclampsia is called Eclampsia
Placenta Previa The placenta attaches itself to the uterus over the cervix Fetus pushes on placenta, causing severe bleeding, but little or no pain
Abruptio Placentae When the placenta tears away from the uterine wall prematurely Causes fetal distress due to poor gas and nutrient exchange Severe abdominal pain, although little or no external bleeding may occur.
Ruptured Uterus As the uterus expands and thins out, especially around the cervix, can cause spontaneous or traumatic rupture. Usually more than 2 previous pregnancies, or history of C-section. Mothers mortality rate is 5-20%, Fetal mortality rate is 50%. Severe pain, minor vaginal bleeding.
Ectopic Pregnancy When the ovum is implanted outside the uterus. 90% fallopian tube 6% in peritoneum 1% in cervix
Acute Coronary Syndromes: Angina Pectoris Literally “pain in chest” From a decrease of oxygen to the cardiac tissues (cardiac tissue ischemia) Normally from an increased workload on the heart Will feel a crushing or squeezing type pain radiating to the jaw, arm, or back Normally relieved with rest, O2, NTG
Acute Coronary Syndrome: Myocardial Infarction A portion of the heart muscle dies from the lack of an adequate supply of oxygenated blood. Usually from coronary artery disease. Heart muscle dies, leading to a build up of lactic acid, which causes the “pain.” Can cause irregular heart rhythms and sudden death.
Assessment of ACS (O)nset: Sudden or Gradual? (P)rovocation: What caused the pain? (Q)uality: What does it feel like? (R)egion: Where does it hurt? (R)adiation: Does the pain travel? (R)eoccurance: Have you had before? (S)everity: Rate on 1-10 scale (T)ime: How long have you had pain?
Pertinent Negatives of ACS Nausea Vomiting Diaphoresis Dizziness Weakness Syncope Palpitations Shortness of Breath
Acute Coronary Syndromes: Treatment Rest. Do not make your patient move more than they have to. O2 15l/m NRB Nitroglycerin SL ASA
Nitroglycerin (NTG) Class: Nitrate Action: Dilates Coronary Arteries allowing blood to oxygenate ischemic tissues. Dose: 1 on SO, to a max of 3 on BHO Side Effects: Headache, hypotension, tachycardia Contraindications: Use of sexual enhancing drugs in last 48 hours
Aspirin (ASA) Class: Platelet Aggregation Inhibitor Action: Reduces the ability of the platelets to bind to eachother.
Heart Failure AKA “CHF” Inability for one or both Ventricles to pump blood effectively Several Causes
Heart Failure Main Causes: –AMI –Hypertension –Valve disorders –Pulmonary Embolism –Drug use
Right Heart Failure Right ventricle accepts de-oxygenated blood and ejects it to the lungs for oxygenation. Fluid (blood) backs up in the venous system causing JVD, Liver enlargement, peripheral edema. Normally not an emergent condition.
Left Heart Failure Left ventricle accepts oxygenated blood from the lungs, and ejects it out to the bodies arteries. Left ventricle cannot eject all its blood, which causes a build up of pressure. The pressure causes Pulmonary Edema Left Ventricular failure is an emergent condition
Signs of Heart Failure Severe Shortness of breath with crackles Tachycardia and Tachypnea Orthopnea and PND Fatigue with little movement Pale, cool, sweaty skins Cyanosis Severe hypertension JVD
Treatment for Heart Failure Sit patient upright and dangle legs O2 15l/m by NRB or BVM Positive Pressure Ventilation
Emergencies related to diabetes mellitus More common with Type I diabetics Most dangerous complication of diabetes mellitus Most common cause of coma in the diabetic patient Hypoglycemia
Causes/Signs & Symptoms Insulin Shock Too much insulin Too little food Too much exercise or stress May be precipitated by increased ETOH without CHO intake
Emergencies related to diabetes mellitus –Usually presents as either DKA or HHNS Both syndromes have elevated BGL in the body –DKA usually > 350 mg/dl –HHNS usually > 600 mg/dl Altered physiology leads to dehydration and acidosis Hyperglycemia
Causes/Signs & Symptoms Too little insulin Too much food Illness Infection
A TIA looks just like a CVA symptomatically TIA disappears within 24 hours of onset, without any permanent neurological changes Usually, symptoms subside within 15–30 minutes Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA) General signs and symptoms of a stroke or TIA Progressive worsening of symptoms as stroke evolves
Types of seizures Primary seizures –Seizure disorder Secondary seizures –Insult to body Fever Infection Hypoxia Hypoglycemia Hyperglycemia Drug intoxication Drug withdrawal Eclampsia in pregnancy Degenerative brain diseases Imbalances in the electrolytes in the body Cardiac arrest –Generally full body seizures
Generalized tonic-clonic Grand Mal What we most commonly think of Most self limiting Occurs in phases Aura Tonic phase Hypertonic phase Clonic phase Postictal phase Status –Greater than 5 minutes –Recurrent with no lucid interval
Partial Seizures Simple partial seizure –Focal motor or Jacksonian seizure –Patient is usually awake –Results in an area of the body (face, arm, leg, or body) demonstrating the seizure-like motions –May progress to grand mal seizure Complex partial seizure –Psychomotor or temporal lobe seizure –Due to the region of the brain involved with the seizure, the patient’s orientation may be altered –Usually lasts 1-2 minutes, characterized by repetitive type motions –Post-seizure confusion usually longer than seizure itself
Absence or petit mal seizure Most common in children Characterized by a blank stare Rarely necessitates emergency care
Febrile seizure Common to kids 6 months to 6 years Usually self limiting Due to rapid rise or fall of temperature Gentle cooling
Routes of Exposure Ingestion Inhalation Injection Absorption
Delerium Tremens Occurs 1-14 days after the patients last drink An episode may last 1-3 days S/S p. 589
Causes of Shock Fluid loss (not just blood loss) Pump Failure Vasodilation Hypoxia
Hypovolemic Shock Results from a decrease of the volume of blood available for perfusion to the body’s organs. –External or Internal Bleeding (hemorrhagic shock) –Plasma loss from burns –Dehydration from vomiting or diarrhea
Obstructive Shock Mechanical obstruction or compression that prevents blood from reaching the heart. –Pulmonary embolism –Tension pneumothorax –Cardiac tamponade
Distributive Shock Abnormal distribution of blood in the vessels or throughout the body. Causes and insufficient amount of blood to reach the heart. Massive dilation of vessels or leakage of fluid from the capillaries. –Neurogenic –Anaphylactic –Septic
Neurogenic Shock Also known as Vasogenic Shock Usually the result of a spinal cord or severe head injury. Causes the nervous system to lose control of the vascular system. Blood pools in the periphery.
Anaphylactic Shock Results from the body’s abnormal reaction to a foreign protein. Normally from bee stings, foods, certain medications. The body releases chemicals causing the blood vessels to dilate and leak. Bronchioles constrict. Without immediate care, the patient will die.
Septic Shock Results from toxins produced by a severe infection (usually bacterial). Toxins cause a reaction that dilates the blood vessels and allows blood to pool in the extremities and fluid to leak from the vessels.
Cardiogenic Shock Results from inadequate pumping of the heart. –CAD –AMI –Heart rhythm abnormalities –Heart valve disease –CHF
Stages of Shock Compensatory Decompensated (progressive) Irreversible
Treatment of Shock Recognition is the most important key. Lay patient flat. Elevate legs inches (shock position) Keep patient warm. O2 15l/m NRB Treat patient gently.
Pneumothorax Defined as an accumulation of air in the pleural cavity, causing collapse of a portion of the lung. Causes? Results in a decrease in gas available within the alveoli. Signs and symptoms include: chest pain worse with inspiration, tachypnea, decreased or absent breath sounds.
Open Pneumothorax AKA “Sucking Chest Wound” Caused by an open wound to the chest. Treatment includes immediate occlusion to the opening with a 3 sided occlusive dressing.
Tension Pneumothorax An immediately life-threatening condition. Results from a pneumothorax that continues to trap air in the thoracic cavity with no release of the air. Air accumulates in the thoracic cavity on the injured side. The lung completely collapses and compresses and shifts the mediastinum to the uninjured side.
Tension Pneumothorax Uninjured lung, heart, and large veins are compressed, resulting in reduced CO, ineffective ventilations, and severe hypoxia. Signs include: cyanosis, unequal movement of the chest, distended neck veins, deviation of the trachea to the uninjured side. Can this be caused by an open chest wound?
Pericardial Tamponade Trauma causes bleeding in the pericardium. The pericardium cannot expand, so the blood causes pressure on the heart, resulting in reduced CO, blood backup into the venous system. This is a life threatening condition. Signs similar to a tension pneumothorax, but with normal breath sounds.
Pericardial Tamponade Signs include: JVD, shock, tachycardia, hypotension, narrowing pulse pressures, weak pulses. Symptoms progressively worse as the pericardium continues to fill with blood. Normally causes from a penetrating injury.
Heat Cramps Caused by electrolyte imbalances by over- exerting muscles Normally in the large flexor muscle groups: abdominal, gluteus, hamstrings
Heat Exhaustion The body has maximized its heat- dissipating mechanisms and is beginning to shut down Pale and very sweaty Mild aloc, dizzy Normal body temperature
Heat Stroke The Body’s heat dissipating systems shut down Body becomes over heated, and keeps heating Damages brain cells, causes seizures Hot, red skin. May or may not sweat (50%) Up to 80% mortality rate if not treated
Major Signs/Symptoms Elevated Core Temperature Muscle Cramps Weakness/Exhaustion Dizziness Tachycardia Tachypnea Nausea/Vomiting Seizures Headache ALOC
Care and Treatment Normal to Cool skin Move to cool place Oxygen Remove clothing Apply cold compresses Shock position Fluids
Care and Treatment Hot/dry skin Remove from heat Remove clothing Oxygen Cold packs to groin, neck, armpits, behind knees Spray tepid water on patient Fan patient Keep skin wet