4The intercostal muscles and the diaphragm contract, increasing the size of the thoracic cavity. The diaphragm moves slightly downward, the ribs move upward/outward and air flows into the lungsInhalationExhalation is the reverseALL IS NORMAL BASED ON………
5Rate Rhythm Quality Depth 12-20 regular breath adequatesoundsSkin is warm/pink/dry
17HypoxiaDeprivation of adequate supply of oxygenAnoxiaComplete deprivation of oxygen
18Hypoxemiadecreased partial pressure of oxygen in blood, sometimes specifically as less than 60 mmHgHypoxemia is different from hypoxia, which is an abnormally low oxygen availability to the body or an individual tissue or organ. Still, hypoxia can be caused by hypoxemia, and such hypoxia is referred to as hypoxemic hypoxiaCan be cause by
19Alveolar hypoventilation If the alveolar ventilation is low, there may be insufficient oxygen delivered to the alveoli each minute. This can cause hypoxemia even if the lungs are normal, as the cause may be outside the lungs (e.g., airway obstruction, depression of the brain's respiratory center, or muscular weakness).
20Hypoxia vs. hypoxemiaHypoxia differs from hypoxemia. In the latter, the oxygen concentration within the arterial blood is abnormally low. It is possible to experience hypoxia and have a low oxygen content (e.g., due to anemia) but maintain high oxygen partial pressure (pO2). Incorrect use of these terms can lead to confusion, especially as hypoxemia is among the causes of hypoxia (in hypoxemic hypoxia).
21Partial pressureIn a mixture of ideal gasses, each gas has a partial pressure which is the pressure which the gas would have if it alone occupied the volume
22Breathing Difficulties Signs and SymptomsShortness of breathTightness in the chestRestlessnessIncreased pulse rateDecreased pulse rate (especially in infants and children)Changes in breathing rate/rhythm
23Pale, cyanotic or flushed skin Noisy breathingInability to speak in full sentencesUse of accessory musclesRetractionsAMSCoughingFlared nostrils; pursed lipsPositioningBarrel chest
24Focused History and Physical Exam O P Q R S TLung soundsCareOxygen administration
26AsthmaSeen in young and old alikeEpisodic diseaseMay be triggered by an allergic reaction
27When an attack occursSmall bronchioles become narrowOverproduction of thick mucusSmall passages practically shut downFlow restricted in one directionExpiratory wheezesAir is trapped in the lungs
28Assisting with the Inhaler The drug is in the form of a fine powder that become active when comes in contact with lung tissueCalm your patientAdministration check listRight patientRight medicationRight doseRight routeCheck expiration date
29Shake inhaler vigorously several times Make sure patient is alert enough to properly useMake sure patient exhales deeplyInhale deeply as Inhaler is administeredHold breath as long as possible