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Personality Session 12. What is Personality? Those inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or.

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Presentation on theme: "Personality Session 12. What is Personality? Those inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or."— Presentation transcript:

1 Personality Session 12

2 What is Personality? Those inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment.

3 Relationship between Personality and Behavior

4 Temperament

5 Key Characteristics of Personality Variables Individual Differences Consistent and Enduring May Change

6 Predicting Consumer Behavior using Personality

7 Marketing’s Interest in Personality

8 Personality & Consumption TraitNature of TraitBrand/Product Need for Uniqueness Need for Cognition Frugality Self- Monitoring

9 Personality & Consumption TraitNature of TraitBrand/Product Need for Uniqueness Pursuit of novelty through purchase, use & disposition Need for Cognition Enjoy thinking extensively about things Frugality Disciplined approach to short-term acquisitions Self- Monitoring Look to others for cues on how to behave

10 Personality & Consumption TraitNature of TraitBrand/Product Need for Uniqueness Pursuit of novelty through purchase, use & disposition Customizable products Need for Cognition Enjoy thinking extensively about things Frugality Disciplined approach to short-term acquisitions Self- Monitoring Look to others for cues on how to behave Fashion

11 Human Biases when Judging Someone’s Personality Tend to see individuals in limited roles Student, teacher Assumption that behavioral differences across individuals in same role is a reflection of their personality.

12 Do Brands Have a Personality?

13 Animal Personalities of Corporations

14 People & Pets

15 Pets & Dates

16 Personalities of Pet Owners

17 Pet Facts It’s a Big Busines 60 % of households have a pet (40% more than one) Spend $23 billion on pet products and services

18 Consumers & Animals Humans have had a close relationship with animals for many years In a 12,000 year old tomb, there were remains of a human and a dog. The human’s hand was carefully placed on the dog’s shoulder to emphasize the bond between them.

19 Pet Facts It’s a Family Thing 84% of pet owners describe themselves as their pet’s parents 78% first greet their pets when they come home (only 13% first greet their spouses) 30% prepare special meals for their pets One hotel has its chef prepare special meals for pets water Some are served only bottled water

20 Pet Facts It’s a Holiday Thing 25% prepare birthday cakes 26% sing Happy Birthday 25% wrap gifts & 5% send greeting cards 33% include a picture of their pets in their Holiday Greeting Cards (60% mention their pets in their letters) 27% get a Santa picture with their pets

21 Factors Associated with Popularity of Pets Anthropomorphism –The human tendency to ascribe human qualities to nonhuman entities. –Entrepreneurship class developed a day care center for dogs –Focus groups discussed their discomfort and guilt when leaving their dogs at home –Some turned on the TV or radio to keep their pets entertained.

22 Doggie Camp

23 Doggie Camp 2

24 Doggie Camp 3

25 Neoteny The tendency of animals to maintain a juvenile appearance into adulthood Dogs are bred to have foreshortened snouts, curling tails, large brown eyes, hanging ears, short hair, skin folds, and small size. Persian cats are bred to have large, round eyes, a small, short muzzle, small ears, and a round face. Goal is for them to have a doll or childlike face.

26 Pet Health Reaches New Extremes Braces for dogs ( $3,000 ) [55 certified pet dentists] $5,000 to cure dog’s skin rash $1,000 /week for dialysis Chemotherapy for cats Kidney transplant ( $25,000 )

27 Where Will It End?

28 Pet Communications

29 Trait Theory Approach Most consumer-oriented personality research uses traits Assess individual personality differences using a standardized scale Relate the scale responses to a specific consumer behavior

30 Personality & TV Viewing Introverts – Situation Comedies & Music Videos Extroverts – “Desperate Housewives” Conscientious Persons – “Cops” –“To have something to talk about” Aggressive – Situation Comedies to study social interaction Unpublished U. Florida study by Cynthia Frisby

31 Reality TV & Personality

32 Personality Research Relating Dogmatism to Innovativeness Dogmatism – open versus closed minded Innovativeness - desire to purchase or use new products Hypothesis – The more dogmatic one is, the less likely one is to be an innovator.

33 Personality Research - Dogmatism & Innovativeness Purdue co-eds were given 15 choices of brands & products Each choice had 5 alternatives One of the alternatives was predetermined to be an innovative choice (new product, new brand or new style) Innovativeness score was the number of new items selected (0-15)

34 Sample of Choices  Lucky Strike  Camels  Marlboro  Virginia Slims  Newport

35 Sample of Choices  Lucky Strike  Camels  Marlboro  Virginia Slims  Newport Innovative

36 Personality Research - Dogmatism & Innovativeness Dogmatism was measured using Rokeach scale (40 statements) “It is better to be a dead hero than a live coward” “There is nothing new under the sun” Scores could range 40 to 280 (midpoint of 160) 60 Subjects split at the median

37 Results - Dogmatism & Innovativeness Correlation was -.32

38 Anheuser-Busch Model

39 Effect of Environment Subjectiverts –Focus on inner thoughts and concerns –Little monitoring of the external environment –Poor listener & social mixing Objectiverts –Focus on the external environment –Sensitive to changes in the world around them –Good listener & social mixing

40 Effect on Environment Internalizers –Adjust self to fit in with the environment –Cold? – put on a sweater Externalizers –Adjust environment to fit in with own needs –Cold? – turn up the thermostat

41 Explaining Drinking Behavior with Personality

42 Anheuser-Busch Model PURE TYPES

43 Anheuser-Busch Model MIXED TYPES

44 Reparative Drinkers Generally a middle-aged person of either sex. Has not achieved as much as hoped by that stage of life, though far from being a failure. Drinking occurs at the end of the work day Drinking associated with transition from work to nonwork. Self-reward

45 Reparatives – ( Bud-preresearch )

46 Reparatives – ( Miller Time )

47 Reparatives – ( Bud lyrics )

48 Social Drinkers A younger adult of either sex. Has yet to attain level of aspiration but still driven by desire to get ahead Drinking is heaviest on weekends, holidays, and vacations Drinking associated with friendliness and acceptance of and by others

49 Social - 1

50 Social - 2

51 Social – Michelob Ultra

52 Indulgent Any age and sex Has not attained level of aspiration and never expects to. Consider self to be irretrievable failure. Life is tragic Drinking heaviest when under pressure Blames failure on environment and drinks to escape

53 Indulgent – ( NFL referee )

54 Indulgent – ( Keystone )

55 Oceanic Same as indulgent except for reason Blame failure on own shortcomings and drink to escape themselves

56 Oceanic ( Bud Light Intro )

57 Beer Ads Reparatives (work to play) –Miller - Miller Time –Bud - This Bud’s For You Social (weekends) –Michelob –Coors – Silver Bullet? Indulgents –Keystone – Fantasy Oceanic –Bud Light – Escape self (baseball star)

58 Return to Personality?

59 Why Trait Theory Research has Been Disappointing ( text p. 194 ) 1.Developed for psychological purposes not marketing purposes Bipolar disorder Psychosis 2.Scales are improperly altered or poorly designed Use 5-6 questions from a 40 item scale 3.Scales designed to predict general tendencies not specific action Introversion-Extroversion vs. Ford or Chevrolet 4.Insufficient thought to the predicted relationships (no theory) Related personality scale responses to brand choices – effects may be from chance

60 Consumer Behavior as a Personality Trait SituationConsumer AConsumer B Coupon for CrestUse coupon Buy 3 Tide boxes & get one free Buys 3Does not buy Tide Nordstrom saleWaits in line at 7 am Does not go

61 Consumer Behavior as a Personality Trait SituationConsumer AConsumer B WatchRolexTimex CarLexusFord Explorer SuitBrooks BrothersMen’s Wearhouse

62 Compulsive Buying Chronic, repetitive purchasing that becomes a primary response to negative events or feelings – O’Guinn and Faber 1989

63 A Look at Compulsive Shoppers

64 Impulse Control Disorders ( common elements ) Feeling of an urge or need to behave Failure to control this feeling Increased arousal prior to commitment to the behavior Gratification while committing the behavior Regret or depression after engaging in the behavior Popkin 1989

65 Research Goals To develop a personality-trait like scale to identify those most at risk for compulsive buying To estimate the prevalence of this type of abnormal consumer behavior.

66 Method ( p. 461 ) 1.Identify critical elements that differentiate compulsive buyers from normal buyers. 2.Test the model on populations of compulsive and normal consumers 3.Compare the distribution of scores and establish a cutoff point 4.Assess the reliability and validity of the scale 5.Estimate the incidence of compulsive buyers in the overall population

67 Data Collection Compulsive shoppers were selected from those who had written to a self-help group. 1,400 letters (200 eliminated as not right) –388 responses from 808 mailed surveys Mail surveys to persons in 3 cities –Chicago, Springfield, Bloomington

68 Scale 1.Bought things even though I could not afford them 2.Felt others would be horrified if they knew of my spending habits 3.Wrote a check when I knew I didn’t have enough money in the bank to cover it 4.If I have any money left at the end of the pay period, I just have to spend it

69 Scale 5.Made only the minimum payments on my credit cards. 6.Felt anxious or nervous on days I didn’t go shopping. 7.Bought something in order to make myself feel better.

70 Scoring *Q1 ( spend any money left ) +.34*Q2a ( others horrified ) +.50*Q2b ( bought couldn’t afford ) +.47*Q2c ( wrote check ) +.33*Q2d ( bought to feel better ) +.38*Q2e ( felt anxious ) +.31*Q2f ( made minimum payments ) Score < means compulsive buyer

71 Probability Distributions of Compulsive Buying

72 Table 3 - Comparisons Measure (* reversed) Screened Compulsives S-R Compulsives General Consumers Comp. Scale 15.86* Self-Esteem Fantasy6.86* Materialism39.14* Envy12.59*

73 Table 3 - Comparisons MeasureScreened Compulsives S-R Compulsives General Consumers Credit Cards Credit cards paid in full Credit cards within $100 of limit % of income going to debt 52.7%56.8%29.5%

74 Table 3 - Comparisons MeasureScreened Compulsives S-R Compulsives General Consumers Credit Cards Credit cards paid in full Credit cards within $100 of limit % of income going to debt 52.7%56.8%29.5%

75 How Many Compulsive Buyers? Liberal cutoff – 8.1% Conservative cutoff - 1.8%

76

77 Compulsive Shopping Men buy items related to attaining their ideal self by purchasing goods, such as high tech, electronics & sporting goods Women purchase objects related to their uniqueness and self- image such as clothes, jewelry and cosmetics Behavior may be linked to low levels of serotonin, which causes women to shop and men to be violent

78 Addiction


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