2 Pre Assessment Name the kingdoms of life. Name 3 types of cells. Contrast these cells.What are the 3 domains of all living things.Name 1 scientist whose research led to the development of the cell theory.What scientists led to the development of the DNA model?Name 5 characteristics that all living things posess.Who is the father of evolution?What is the purpose of a control group?What are protein catalysts?
3 OBJECTIVES1. Briefly describe unifying themes that pervade the science of biology.2. Diagram the hierarchy of structural levels in biology.3. Explain how the properties of life emerge from complex organization.4. Describe seven emergent properties associated with life.5. Distinguish between holism and reductionism.6. Explain how technological breakthroughs contributed to the formulation of thecell theory and our current knowledge of the cell.7. Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.8. Explain, in their own words, what is meant by "form fits function."9. List the five kingdoms of life and distinguish among them.10. Briefly describe how Charles Darwin's ideas contributed to the conceptual framework of biology.11. Outline the scientific method.12. Distinguish between inductive and deductive reasoning.13. Explain how science and technology are interdependent
5 Why study themes of Biology? Biology is an ever expanding body of knowledgetoo much to memorize it allneed to generalizecreate a framework upon which to organize new knowledgethemes are the key to understanding the nature of living organisms
6 Unifying Themes Emergent Properties~ hierarchy of life The Cell~ all organism’s basic structureHeritable Information~ DNAStructure & Function~ form and functionEnvironmental Interaction~ organisms are open systemsRegulation~ feedback mechanismsUnity & Diversity~ universal genetic codeEvolution~ biology’s core theme; differential reproductive successScientific Inquiry~ observation; testing; repeatabilityScience, Technology & Society~ functions of our world
7 Emergent Properties/Characteristics of Life Order. Organisms are highly organized, and other characteristics of life emerge from this complex organization.Cells. All living organisms are made of cellsReproduction. Organisms reproduce; life comes only from life (biogenesis).Growth and Development.Heredity
8 6. Energy Utilization. Organisms take in and transform energy to do work, including the maintenance of their ordered state. 7. Response to Environment. Organisms respond to stimuli from their environment. 8. Homeostasis. Organisms regulate their internal environment to maintain a steady-state, even in the face of a fluctuating external environment. 9. Evolutionary Adaptation. Life evolves in response to interactions between organisms and their environment.
9 I. Life’s Hierarchical Order The living world is a hierarchy, with each level of biological structure building on the level below it
10 I. Hierarchy of Organization AtomsMoleculeOrganelleCellsTissuesOrganOrganism
11 Levels of organization beyond the individual organism: PopulationsLocalized group of organisms belonging to the same speciesCommunityPopulations of species living in the same areaEcosystemsAn energy-processing system ofi community interactions that include abiotic environmental factorsBiosphereThe sum of all the planet's ecosystemsAP Bio
12 Form follows functionThe alignment of structure & function is seen at all levels of biologyLevels of organization animationorganorganismcellorganelle
13 Check PointDiagram the hierarchy of structural levels in biology beginning with an Atom.
14 II. Cells are an organism’s basic units of structure and function Lowest level of structure capable of performing all activities of life.All organisms are composed of cells.unicellular or multi cellularThe invention of the microscope led to the discovery of the cell and the formulationof the cell theory.Robert Hooke (1665) examination of cork- tiny boxes which he called "cells" (really cell walls).Antonie van Leeuwenhok (1600's) used the microscope to observe living organismsMatthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann (1839) ~all living things are made of cells.This formed the basis for the cell theory.
15 Two major kinds of cells Prokaryotic cell = Cell lacking membrane-bound organelles and a membrane-enclosed nucleus.Archaebacteria and bacteriaGenerally much smaller than eukaryotic cellsContains DNA that is not separated from the rest of the cell, as there is no membrane-bound nucleusMost have tough external walls
16 Two major kinds of cells Eukaryotic cell = Cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosedOrganelles.Protists, plants, fungi, and animalsDNA is segregated from the rest of the cell within the nucleusSome cells have a tough cell wall outside the plasma membrane (e.g., plantcells). Animal cells lack cell walls.
17 Check PointExplain how technological breakthroughs contributed to the formulation of the cell theory and our current knowledge of the cell.
18 Check PointDistinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
19 III. Reproduction Asexual Binary Fission~ bacteria Sexual Gametes Fruiting BodiesFlowersMeiosis
20 IV. Growth and Development MetamorphosisPuberty
21 You can make more, a lot like you! V. HeredityHeritable information in the form of DNADNA – the genetic material – carries biological information from one generation to the nextTRAIYou can make more, a lot like you!
24 VI. Energy transfer Life is an open system need input of energy energy flows throughenergy comes in, energy goes outneed a constant inputneed input of materialsnutrients are recycled around & aroundnutrientsENTROPY RULES!DECOMPOSERS RULE, too!
25 Check Point What type of energy enters the atmosphere? What type of energy leaves the atmosphere?
26 You think they’re eating… They’re harvesting energy! Energy utilizationYou think they’re eating… They’re harvesting energy!
27 Organisms are open systems that interact continuously with their environments Organisms interact with their environment, which includes other organisms as well as abiotic factors.Both organism and environment are affected by the interaction between them.Ecosystem dynamics include two major processes:1. Nutrient cycling2. Energy flow
28 VII. Responsiveness Stimuli Response Nervous System Endocrine System Electrical Impulses
29 VIII. HomeostasisOrganisms need to maintain a “steady state” in the face of changing conditionsmaintain homeostasisachieve this through feedbackmonitor the body like a thermostatturn on when it’s needed, off when its not
30 Feedback Positive feedback speeds a process up Negative feedback slows a process downOrganisms and cells also use chemical mediators to help regulate processes
31 Feedback Regulation: Negative Accumulation of an end product of a process slows that processExample: sugar breakdown generates ATP; excess ATP inhibits an enzyme near the beginning of the pathway
33 Feedback Regulation: Positive An end product speeds up its productionExample: blood clotting in response to injury
34 Examples of Regulation The hormone insulin, for example, signals cells in vertebrate organisms to take up glucose. As a result, blood glucose levels go down.In certain forms of diabetes mellitus, insulin is deficient and cells do not take up glucose as they should, and as a result, blood glucose levels remain high.
35 Provide an example of positive and negative feedback processes. Ex. Positive~ During pregnancy contractions increase until the baby is delivered.
36 Metabolism Sum of all chemical reactions in an organism Enzymes Activation energyAnabolism- buildsCatabolism- breaks down
38 IX. EvolutionCore theme of biologyCharles Darwin
39 Evolution explains unity & diversity what do organisms have in common & why do similarities exist?common biochemistry & physiologyevolutionary relationshipsconnected through common ancestorDiversitybut why are there differences?natural selectionadaptations allow different individuals to survive in different environments
40 "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." Theodosius Dobzhansky: Integrating Genetics and EvolutionTheodosius Dobzhansky, a Russian geneticist who moved to the United States, provided laboratory evidence for natural selection and variation where previously there had been only field observation. Dobzhansky's work with Drosophila, or fruit flies, provided new evidence that supported Darwin's theory that natural selection, acting on genetic variation in populations, is a driving force in evolution.-- Theodosius Dobzhansky March 1973Geneticist, Columbia University( )AP Bio
41 ExamplesBacterial resistance to antibioticsPeppered Moths
48 Science as a process of inquiry Built on repeatable observations & testable, falsifiable hypotheses
49 Scientific MethodProcess which outlines a series of steps used to answer questions.Not a rigid procedure.Based on the conviction that natural phenomena have natural causes.Requires evidence to logically solve problems.The key ingredient of the scientific process is the hypothetico-deductive methodInvolves:1. Asking a question and formulating a tentative answer or hypothesis by inductive reasoning.2. Using deductive reasoning to make predictions from the hypothesis and then testing the validity of those predictions.
50 Inductive vs Deductive Reasoning Inductive reasoning = Making an inference from a set of specific observations to reach a general conclusion.Deductive reasoning = Making an inference from general premises to specific consequencesUsually takes the form of If...then logic.Usually involves predicting experimental results that are expected if the hypothesis is true
51 Provide an example of Inductive & Deductive reasoning Ex. Deductive reasoning- If I step on the gas and turn the ignition, the car will start.Predicting results from a hypothesisEx. Inductive-observations lead to generalizations
52 Holism vs Reductionism The principle that a higher level of order cannot be meaningfully explained by examining component parts in isolation.• An organism is a living whole greater than the sum of its parts.Ex- A cell dismantled to its chemical ingredients is no longer a cell.It is also difficult to analyze a complex process without taking it apart.ReductionismA complex system can be understood by studying its component parts.Ex- Watson and Crick deduced the role of DNA in inheritance by studying its molecular structure.
53 Provide an Example of Reductionism Ex. In order to understand inheritance, one must understand the molecular structure of DNA
54 Science, technology & society Science & technology must function within the rules of societyEthics
55 We have a love-hate relationship with technology. ProsImproved our standard of living.ConsCreation of new problemsIe. Increased population growth, acid rain, deforestation, global warming, nuclear accidents, ozone holes, toxic wastes, and endangered species.
56 Phylogeny Branching tree of life. Species that are very similar share a common ancestor at a recent branch point on the phylogenetic tree.• Less closely related organisms share a more ancient common ancestor.
57 Where all life began…….All life is connected and can be traced back to primeval prokaryotes that existed more than 3 billion years ago.In 1859, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species in which he made two major points:1. Species change, and contemporary species arose from a succession of ancestors through a process of "descent with modification."2. A mechanism of evolutionary change is natural selection.
58 Organisms don’t adapt; Organisms have adaptations. Natural selectionOrganisms don’t adapt; Organisms have adaptations.
59 Requirements for Natural Selection All species have the potential to overpopulate the earth.Many must die at an early age.Variation exists within the members of a species.Those with better adapted traits live longer and reproduce more often (differential reproduction)(Fecundity)Traits are inheritable.Process can account for new species and diversity.
60 Post AssessmentDescribe seven emergent properties associated with life.Distinguish between holism and reductionism.Explain how technological breakthroughs contributed to the formulation of thecell theory and our current knowledge of the cell.Explain, in their own words, what is meant by "form fits function.“List the five kingdoms of life and distinguish among them.Briefly describe how Charles Darwin's ideas contributed to the conceptual framework of biology.Outline the scientific method.Distinguish between inductive and deductive reasoning.