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AP Biology AP Bio Study of Life Chapter 1 Themes.

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2 AP Biology AP Bio Study of Life Chapter 1 Themes

3 AP Biology Pre Assessment 1. Name the kingdoms of life. 2. Name 3 types of cells. Contrast these cells. 3. What are the 3 domains of all living things. 4. Name 1 scientist whose research led to the development of the cell theory. 5. What scientists led to the development of the DNA model? 6. Name 5 characteristics that all living things posess. 7. Who is the father of evolution? 8. What is the purpose of a control group? 9. What are protein catalysts?

4 AP Biology OBJECTIVES 1. Briefly describe unifying themes that pervade the science of biology. 2. Diagram the hierarchy of structural levels in biology. 3. Explain how the properties of life emerge from complex organization. 4. Describe seven emergent properties associated with life. 5. Distinguish between holism and reductionism. 6. Explain how technological breakthroughs contributed to the formulation of the cell theory and our current knowledge of the cell. 7. Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. 8. Explain, in their own words, what is meant by "form fits function." 9. List the five kingdoms of life and distinguish among them. 10. Briefly describe how Charles Darwin's ideas contributed to the conceptual framework of biology. 11. Outline the scientific method. 12. Distinguish between inductive and deductive reasoning. 13. Explain how science and technology are interdependent

5 AP Biology

6 Why study themes of Biology?  Biology is an ever expanding body of knowledge  too much to memorize it all  need to generalize  create a framework upon which to organize new knowledge  themes are the key to understanding the nature of living organisms

7 AP Biology Unifying Themes  Emergent Properties~ hierarchy of life  The Cell~ all organism’s basic structure  Heritable Information~ DNA  Structure & Function~ form and function  Environmental Interaction~ organisms are open systems  Regulation~ feedback mechanisms  Unity & Diversity~ universal genetic code  Evolution~ biology’s core theme; differential reproductive success  Scientific Inquiry~ observation; testing; repeatability  Science, Technology & Society~ functions of our world

8 AP Biology Emergent Properties/Characteristics of Life 1. Order. Organisms are highly organized, and other characteristics of life emerge from this complex organization. 2. Cells. All living organisms are made of cells 3. Reproduction. Organisms reproduce; life comes only from life (biogenesis). 4. Growth and Development. 5. Heredity

9 AP Biology 6. Energy Utilization. Organisms take in and transform energy to do work, including the maintenance of their ordered state. 7. Response to Environment. Organisms respond to stimuli from their environment. 8. Homeostasis. Organisms regulate their internal environment to maintain a steady-state, even in the face of a fluctuating external environment. 9. Evolutionary Adaptation. Life evolves in response to interactions between organisms and their environment.

10 AP Biology I. Life’s Hierarchical Order  The living world is a hierarchy, with each level of biological structure building on the level below it

11 AP Biology I. Hierarchy of Organization  Atoms  Molecule  Organelle  Cells  Tissues  Organ  Organism

12 AP Biology Levels of organization beyond the individual organism: Populations Localized group of organisms belonging to the same species Community Populations of species living in the same area Ecosystems An energy-processing system ofi community interactions that include abiotic environmental factors Biosphere The sum of all the planet's ecosystems AP Bio

13 AP Biology Form follows function  The alignment of structure & function is seen at all levels of biology  Levels of organization animation Levels of organization animation organism cell organelle organ

14 AP Biology Check Point  Diagram the hierarchy of structural levels in biology beginning with an Atom.

15 AP Biology II. Cells are an organism’s basic units of structure and function  Lowest level of structure capable of performing all activities of life.  All organisms are composed of cells.  unicellular or multi cellular  The invention of the microscope led to the discovery of the cell and the formulation  of the cell theory.  Robert Hooke (1665) examination of cork- tiny boxes which he called "cells" (really cell walls).  Antonie van Leeuwenhok (1600's) used the microscope to observe living organisms  Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann (1839) ~all living things are made of cells.  This formed the basis for the cell theory.

16 AP Biology Two major kinds of cells  Prokaryotic cell = Cell lacking membrane-bound organelles and a membrane-enclosed nucleus.  Archaebacteria and bacteria  Generally much smaller than eukaryotic cells  Contains DNA that is not separated from the rest of the cell, as there is no membrane-bound nucleus  Most have tough external walls

17 AP Biology Two major kinds of cells  Eukaryotic cell = Cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed Organelles.  Protists, plants, fungi, and animals  DNA is segregated from the rest of the cell within the nucleus  Some cells have a tough cell wall outside the plasma membrane (e.g., plant  cells). Animal cells lack cell walls.

18 AP Biology Check Point  Explain how technological breakthroughs contributed to the formulation of the cell theory and our current knowledge of the cell.

19 AP Biology Check Point  Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

20 AP Biology III. Reproduction  Asexual  Binary Fission~ bacteria  Sexual  Gametes  Fruiting Bodies  Flowers  Meiosis

21 AP Biology IV. Growth and Development  Growth  Development  Metamorphosis  Puberty

22 AP Biology V. Heredity  Heritable information in the form of DNA  DNA – the genetic material – carries biological information from one generation to the next You can make more, a lot like you! TRAITTRAIT

23 AP Biology Heredity

24 AP Biology Heredity  DNA  gene  chromosomes  Role of DNA

25 AP Biology VI. Energy transfer  Life is an open system  need input of energy  energy flows through  energy comes in, energy goes out  need a constant input  need input of materials  nutrients are recycled around & around ENTROPY RULES! DECOMPOSERS RULE, too! nutrients

26 AP Biology Check Point  What type of energy enters the atmosphere?  What type of energy leaves the atmosphere?

27 AP Biology Energy utilization You think they’re eating… They’re harvesting energy!

28 AP Biology Organisms are open systems that interact continuously with their environments  Organisms interact with their environment, which includes other organisms as well as abiotic factors.  Both organism and environment are affected by the interaction between them.  Ecosystem dynamics include two major processes:  1. Nutrient cycling  2. Energy flow

29 AP Biology VII. Responsiveness  Stimuli  Response  Nervous System  Endocrine System  Electrical Impulses

30 AP Biology VIII. Homeostasis  Organisms need to maintain a “steady state” in the face of changing conditions  maintain homeostasis  achieve this through feedback  monitor the body like a thermostat  turn on when it’s needed, off when its not

31 AP Biology Feedback  Positive feedback speeds a process up  Negative feedback slows a process down  Organisms and cells also use chemical mediators to help regulate processes

32 AP Biology Feedback Regulation: Negative  Accumulation of an end product of a process slows that process  Example: sugar breakdown generates ATP; excess ATP inhibits an enzyme near the beginning of the pathway

33 AP Biology

34 Feedback Regulation: Positive  An end product speeds up its production  Example: blood clotting in response to injury

35 AP Biology Examples of Regulation  The hormone insulin, for example, signals cells in vertebrate organisms to take up glucose. As a result, blood glucose levels go down.  In certain forms of diabetes mellitus, insulin is deficient and cells do not take up glucose as they should, and as a result, blood glucose levels remain high.

36 AP Biology Provide an example of positive and negative feedback processes.  Ex. Positive~ During pregnancy contractions increase until the baby is delivered.

37 AP Biology Metabolism  Sum of all chemical reactions in an organism  Enzymes  Activation energy  Anabolism- builds  Catabolism- breaks down

38 AP Biology Metabolism

39 AP Biology IX. Evolution  Core theme of biology Charles Darwin

40 AP Biology Evolution explains unity & diversity  Unity  what do organisms have in common & why do similarities exist?  common biochemistry & physiology  evolutionary relationships  connected through common ancestor  Diversity  but why are there differences?  natural selection  adaptations allow different individuals to survive in different environments

41 AP Biology AP Bio "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." -- Theodosius Dobzhansky March 1973 Geneticist, Columbia University (1900-1975)

42 AP Biology Examples  Bacterial resistance to antibiotics  Peppered Moths

43 AP Biology Taxonomy

44 AP Biology Taxonomy  Need for a universal system  Carolus Linnaeus  Three Domains 1. Bacteria 2. Arachae 3. Eukaryotes  Kingdom-most inclusive  Phylum  Class  Order  Family  Genus  Species

45 AP Biology 3 Domains of Life- 6 Kingdoms Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya EukaryaBacteriaArchaea

46 AP Biology Organizing systems  Making sense out of the diversity  Hierarchical scheme Eastern gray squirrel Sciurus carolinensis

47 AP Biology Scientific Name  Binomial Nomenclature  Scientific Name  Genus species  Examples  Homo Sapien  System is based on Phylogenetic relationships.

48 AP Biology Science as a process of inquiry

49 AP Biology Science as a process of inquiry  Built on repeatable observations & testable, falsifiable hypotheses

50 AP Biology Scientific Method  Process which outlines a series of steps used to answer questions.  Not a rigid procedure.  Based on the conviction that natural phenomena have natural causes.  Requires evidence to logically solve problems.  The key ingredient of the scientific process is the hypothetico-deductive method  Involves: 1. Asking a question and formulating a tentative answer or hypothesis by inductive reasoning. 2. Using deductive reasoning to make predictions from the hypothesis and then testing the validity of those predictions.

51 AP Biology Inductive vs Deductive Reasoning  Inductive reasoning = Making an inference from a set of specific observations to reach a general conclusion.  Deductive reasoning = Making an inference from general premises to specific consequences  Usually takes the form of If...then logic.  Usually involves predicting experimental results that are expected if the hypothesis is true

52 AP Biology Provide an example of Inductive & Deductive reasoning  Ex. Deductive reasoning- If I step on the gas and turn the ignition, the car will start.  Predicting results from a hypothesis  Ex. Inductive-observations lead to generalizations 

53 AP Biology Holism vs Reductionism Holism  The principle that a higher level of order cannot be meaningfully explained by examining component parts in isolation. An organism is a living whole greater than the sum of its parts.  Ex- A cell dismantled to its chemical ingredients is no longer a cell.  It is also difficult to analyze a complex process without taking it apart. Reductionism  A complex system can be understood by studying its component parts.  Ex- Watson and Crick deduced the role of DNA in inheritance by studying its molecular structure.

54 AP Biology Provide an Example of Reductionism  Ex. In order to understand inheritance, one must understand the molecular structure of DNA

55 AP Biology Science, technology & society  Science & technology must function within the rules of society  Ethics

56 AP Biology We have a love-hate relationship with technology.  Pros  Improved our standard of living.  Cons  Creation of new problems  Ie. Increased population growth, acid rain, deforestation, global warming, nuclear accidents, ozone holes, toxic wastes, and endangered species.

57 AP Biology Phylogeny  Branching tree of life.  Species that are very similar share a common ancestor at a recent branch point on the phylogenetic tree.  Less closely related organisms share a more ancient common ancestor.

58 AP Biology Where all life began…….  All life is connected and can be traced back to primeval prokaryotes that existed more than 3 billion years ago.  In 1859, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species in which he made two major points: 1. Species change, and contemporary species arose from a succession of ancestors through a process of "descent with modification." 2. A mechanism of evolutionary change is natural selection.

59 AP Biology Natural selection Organisms don’t adapt; Organisms have adaptations.

60 AP Biology Requirements for Natural Selection  Requirements for Natural Selection  All species have the potential to overpopulate the earth.  Many must die at an early age.  Variation exists within the members of a species.  Those with better adapted traits live longer and reproduce more often (differential reproduction)  (Fecundity)  Traits are inheritable.  Process can account for new species and diversity.

61 AP Biology Post Assessment  Describe seven emergent properties associated with life.  Distinguish between holism and reductionism.  Explain how technological breakthroughs contributed to the formulation of the  cell theory and our current knowledge of the cell.  Explain, in their own words, what is meant by "form fits function.“  List the five kingdoms of life and distinguish among them.  Briefly describe how Charles Darwin's ideas contributed to the conceptual framework of biology.  Outline the scientific method.  Distinguish between inductive and deductive reasoning.


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