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Chapter 1 Ten Themes In The Study Of Life

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Ten Themes In The Study Of Life"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 Ten Themes In The Study Of Life

2 Hierarchy of Organization
Atoms Molecules Organelles Cells Tissues Organs Systems Organism Population Community Ecosystem Biome Biosphere Ecosphere

3 Emergent Properties Order – tendency to self organize
Reproduction – biogenesis Growth and development Energy utilization Response to the environment Homeostasis – self regulation Evolutionary adaptation

4 With each step upward in the hierarchy of biological order, novel properties emerge that were not present at the simpler levels of organization. “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.”

5 How do we seek understanding?
Reductionism – reducing complex systems to simpler components Holism – Study the entire system to truly understand it

6 The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of cells
2. All cells come from other cells 3. Cells are the units of structure and function

7 Two Major Kinds of Cells
Prokaryotic – first cell Eukaryotic – true cell

8 E.M. of Prokaryotic Cells

9 DNA Basics DNA is the substance of genes Double helix
4 Bases (Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine Self-replicating molecule Changes over time All forms of life employ essentially the same genetic code

10 Organisms Are Open Systems That Interact Continuously With Their Environments.
Living things both alter and are changed by their environment Materials are recycled Energy is lost as heat and not recycled

11 Energy Flow In The Ecosystem

12 Living Systems Are Regulated
Many Biological Processes Are Self -Regulating Through “Feedback” Mechanisms

13 Negative Feedback Positive Feedback

14 Evolution, Unity, And Diversity
The Evolutionary Connections Among All Organisms Explain the Unity and Diversity of Life.

15 The Three Domains of Life


17 “Descent With Modification”

18 Connections Observation #1– Individual variation
Observation #2 – Struggle for existence Inference – Differential reproductive success or “Natural Selection” Natural Selection Is An Editing Process

19 “Science Is A Way Of Knowing”
The Process Of Science “Science Is A Way Of Knowing”

20 Idealized Scientific Method
Inductive Reasoning

21 Hypothetico-deductive Reasoning
“If…then” Logic

22 “Fishing” For Answers


24 Theories Have Broad Explanatory Power
Theories Are Comprehensive


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