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Round 1Round 2. NeuronsElectrical States of Neurons Types of Nervous Systems Sensory Receptors Control of Functions in the Brain Other Components of the.

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Presentation on theme: "Round 1Round 2. NeuronsElectrical States of Neurons Types of Nervous Systems Sensory Receptors Control of Functions in the Brain Other Components of the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Round 1Round 2

2 NeuronsElectrical States of Neurons Types of Nervous Systems Sensory Receptors Control of Functions in the Brain Other Components of the Nervous System Final Jeopardy Round 1 Round 2 Round 1

3 What are the two parts of a neuron specifically designed for the sending and receiving of electrical impulses? Dendrite – Receiving Axon – Sending Round 1

4 Which type of neuron receives the initial stimulus? Sensory Neuron Exs. Eye stimulated by light, Hand stimulated by touch

5 Round 1 What do motor neurons stimulate? Effectors, or target cells that produce some kind or response Ex. Stimulate muscles to create movement

6 What type of neurons are found in the brain and spinal cord? Round 1 Association Neurons Receive impulses from sensory neurons or send impulses to motor neurons

7 Sensory neurons leading to the spinal cord have what two types of axons? Peripheral and Central Axons peripheral axons lead to the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) and central axons lead to the Central Nervous System (CNS) Round 1

8 -70 millivolts the resting potential of neurons Round 1

9 The action potential causes the resting potential to move to what? 0 millivolts Round 1

10 Hyperpolarization causes what to happen in a neuron? Round 1 More K+ ions move into the cell than necessary and the cell is polarized to -80 millivolts

11 Repolarization causes what in a neuron? the original membrane potential is restored by K+ ions moving across the membrane through channels back to the outside of the neuron and the Na+ on the outside moving back into the neuron Round 1

12 What is the refractory period? the membrane is polarized but the K+ and Na+ are on the wrong sides of the membrane the neuron will not respond to a new stimulus during this period and the ions will return to their resting potential to receive a stimulus Round 1

13 What is the simplest type of nervous system? the nerve net found in cnidarians, it consists of neurons controlling simple motor functions, such as the contraction and expansion of the gastrovascular cavity Round 1

14 Of what does a central nervous system consist? a brain and a spinal cord Round 1

15 What does the somatic nervous system do? Round 1 It contracts the skeletal muscles

16 What does the autonomic nervous system control? controls the activity of organs and various involuntary muscles Ex. Cardiac and Smooth Round 1

17 What does the peripheral nervous system consist of? the somatic and the autonomic nervous systems Round 1

18 What stimulates mechanoreceptors? physical stimuli Ex. Touch, stretch, motion, sound Round 1

19 Excess heat, pressure or specific classes of chemicals released from damaged tissues stimulate what kind of receptors? Round 1 Pain Receptors

20 Electromagnetic receptors detect what? Visible Light (Photoreceptors), Eletricity, and Magnetism Round 1

21 Hot and cold are detected by what kind of receptor? Thermoreceptors they also help maintain body temperature Round 1

22 Chemoreceptors detect what kind of signals? information about solute concentration in a solution Ex. Taste and smell Round 1

23 Consciousness is controlled by what? multiple parts of the brain Round 1

24 What are the respective functions of each hemisphere of the brain? left hemisphere – high-speed serial information processing this is essential to language and logic operations right hemisphere – pattern recognition, nonverbal ideation, and emotional processing Round 1

25 Emotions are controlled by what part of the brain? the limbic system or a ring of cortical and noncortical centers around the brainstem mediates primary emotions and attaches emotional “feelings” to survival-related functions Round 1

26 Language and speech are controlled by what parts of the brain? the frontal and temporal lobes Round 1

27 What three parts of the brain are involved in memory? frontal lobes – short term memory hippocampus and amygdala – longterm memory The frontal lobes communicate with the hippocampus and amygdala to create long-term memory Round 1

28 What is a myelin sheath? glia cells that wrap themselves around a neuron to protect it Round 1

29 What are the three main types of glia cells and what do they do? astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells Astrocytes provide support for neurons. Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells both form myelin sheaths, oligodendrocytes in the CNS and Schwann cells in the PNS Round 1

30 What does cerebrospinal fluid do? cushions the brain and spinal cord, brings the cells nutrients, and washes away wastes Round 1

31 What type of glia cell makes of the blood-brain barrier? astrocytes Round 1

32 Schwann cells are found as myelin sheaths in which type of nervous system? the peripheral nervous system Round 1

33 Final Jeopardy Answer Round 1 The 24-hour cycle of biochemical, physiological, or behavioral processes of living entities Round 2 More Review

34 Final Jeopardy Answer What is the circadian rhythm?

35 Round 2 Brain Sections Brain Sections Continued Central Nervous System Diseases of the CNS Review Questions Review Questions Continued Final Jeopardy Round 2More Review

36 The medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain are all part of what section of the brain? Round 1 The brianstem This controls functions such as breathing rate, regulates arousal and sleep, and conducts sensory and motor signals between the spinal cord

37 What two types of matter is the cerebrum made out of? white and gray matter Round 1

38 What does the cerebellum control? Round 1 Motor, perceptual, and cognitive functions

39 What does the band of axons called the corpus callosum do? connects the left and right hemisperes of the brain Round 1

40 What is the function of the hypothalmus? regulates homeostasis This includes the following functions: feeding, fighting, fleeing, and reproducing. It is also a thermostat, an appestat (adjusts appetite), a thirst center, and regulates circadian rhythms. Round 1

41 What does the cerebral cortex control? voluntary movement and cognitive functions Round 1

42 What embryonic part of the brain give rise to the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus in adults? the diencephalon Round 1

43 What is the difference between white and gray matter? White matter has myelin sheaths surrounding the neurons and gray matter is just the neurons and their axons Round 1

44 The cerebellum controls cognitive functions among others. Give two examples of a cognitive function. learning, decision-making, conciousness, and an integrated sensory awareness with surroundings Round 1

45 What feature of the neocortex (part of the cerebrum) allows humans’ and other mammals’ brains to have a larger surface area? convolutions, or indents Round 1

46 Unlike the PNS, what can the CNS not do? the CNS cannot repair itself after injury Ex. brain and spinal cord injuries, strokes, and diseases that destroy the neurons (Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s) Round 2

47 What is the responsive region at the leading edge of the growing axon called? The growth cone Round 2

48 True or False: the human does not produce new neurons after birth False Dr. Peter Erickson did an experiment in which he dissected the brains of terminal cancer patients upon their deaths. He found newly divided neurons in the hippocampus of all the patients. Round 2

49 True or False: Mature neurons cannot divide True new neuron development comes from stem cells that survive in the brain, not mature neurons Round 2

50 What are four major diseases and disorders of the nervous system? Schizophrenia Depression Alzheimer’s Parkinson’s Round 2

51 Name 2 characteristics of schizophrenia. 1. Hallucinations 2. Delusions 3. Blunted Emotions 4. Distractibility 5. Lack of Initiative 6. Poverty of Speech Round 2

52 About what percentage of the population is affected by major depression? 5 percent Round 2

53 What is Alzheimer’s disease? a mental deterioration, or dementia it is characterized by confusion, memory loss, and a variety of other symptoms Round 2

54 Name two symptoms or Parkinson’s disease 1. Difficulty initiating movements 2. Slowness of movement and rigidity 3. Masked facial expression 4. Muscle tremors 5. Poor balance 6. Flexed posture 7. Shuffling gait Round 2

55 Out of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, which one has a higher incidence people over the age of 85? Round 2 Alzheimer’s The incidence of Alzheimer’s in people over the age of 85 is 35% and Parkinson’s is 5%

56 What are the three main functions of the nervous system? sensory neurons – receive information from the sensory receptors interneurons – transfer and interpret impulses motor neurons – send appropriate impulses/ instructions to the muscles and glands Round 2

57 What is a stimulus? the cause of a physical response Round 2

58 What is an effector? a body part (muscle or organ) that is activated by a stimulus (nerve impulse) Round 2

59 What does a myelin sheath do? it insulates the nerve it acts much similarly to the insulation on a wire Round 2

60 What are white and gray matter found? gray matter is the cell body white matter is the filaments in between the cells Round 2

61 What common ions are found in both the cytoplasm and outside the cell in interstitial fluid? Na+ and K+ Round 2

62 What is a synapse? a junction between two nerve cells, where the tip of a nerve fiber almost touches another cell in order to transmit signals Round 2

63 What is proprioception? the sense of relative position of neighboring parts of the body Round 2

64 What is acetylcholinesterase? an enzyme, present in blood and some nerve endings, that aids the breakdown of acetylcholine (transmitter of nerve impulses) and suppresses its stimulatory effect on nerves Round 2

65 What is a dermatome? an area of skin that has nerve fibers coming from a single spinal nerve Round 2

66 Final Jeopardy Answer Round 2 31 pairs

67 Final Jeopardy Round 2 How many spinal nerves are there? More Review

68  gamesNervous.html gamesNervous.html  /subjects/games.php?id=129 /subjects/games.php?id=129    auto.php?id=3079 auto.php?id=3079

69 Sources  Cliffs AP Biology 2 nd Edition By Phillip Parker  Pearson Education AP Test Prep Series By Fred W. Holtzclaw and Theresa Knapp Holtzclaw  Biology, 7 th Edition By Neil A. Campbell and Jane B. Reece  - picture  - picture  - picture  - picture  - picture  - picture  - picture  - pictures  - picture  - picture  - picture  - picture  - picture  - picture  - picture  20dcx.jpg – picture 20dcx.jpg  - picture  - picture  - picture  - picture  - picture  - picture  - picture

70 Sources Continued   4%20Radiculopathy.jpg – picture 4%20Radiculopathy.jpg  - picture  - picture  - picture  - picture  - picture  - picture   - picture  - picture

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