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American Stories THIRD EDITION By: Brands By: Brands Chapter 1 New World Encounters Preconquest ‒ 1608.

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Presentation on theme: "American Stories THIRD EDITION By: Brands By: Brands Chapter 1 New World Encounters Preconquest ‒ 1608."— Presentation transcript:

1 American Stories THIRD EDITION By: Brands By: Brands Chapter 1 New World Encounters Preconquest ‒ 1608

2 New World Encounters, Preconquest ‒ 1608 Native Americans Before the Conquest What explains cultural differences among Native American groups before European conquest? Conditions of Conquest How did Europeans interact with West Africans during the fifteenth through seventeenth centuries?

3 New World Encounters, Preconquest ‒ 1608 Europe on the Eve of Conquest What factors explain Spain’s central role in New World exploration and colonization? Spain in the Americas How did Spanish conquest of Central and South America transform Native American cultures?

4 New World Encounters, Preconquest ‒ 1608 The French Claim Canada What was the character of the French empire in Canada? The English Take Up the Challenge Why did England not participate in the early competition for New World colonies?

5 Video Series: Key Topics in U.S. History 1.A New World: To The First Americans 3.The Expansion of Europe 4.The Protestant Reformation Home

6 Diverse Cultures: Cabeza de Vaca’s Journey Through Native America Europeans astonished by the diversity of Native peoples De Vaca shipwrecked in Florida in 1528 Met and lived among the Indians of twenty unique cultures Expanded New World narrative Explorers and conquerors such as de Vaca Placed experiences in an interpretative framework Home

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8 Native Americans Before the Conquest The Environmental Challenge: Food, Climate, and Culture Aztec Dominance Eastern Woodland Cultures Home

9 Native Americans Before the Conquest Peopling of America began thousands of years ago 15,000 ‒ 20,000 years ago Environmental factors Last Ice Age Land bridge ‒ Beringia Paleo-Indians Took place over long time Native Americans Before the Conquest

10 The Environmental Challenge: Food, Climate, and Culture Native Americans enjoyed an abundant supply of meat Rapid population growth Indians adjusted to changing environment New food sources - Agricultural Revolution Shift from nomadic hunting and gathering to permanent villages Diversity of cultures Native Americans Before the Conquest

11 Native Americans Before the Conquest

12 Aztec Dominance More complexity in Mexico and Central America developed Inca – area of Ecuador, Peru, and northern Chile Mayan and Toltec – Central Mexico Aztecs - valley of Mexico Native Americans Before the Conquest

13 Native Americans Before the Conquest

14 Eastern Woodland Cultures Atlantic coast of North America Native Americans lived in smaller bands Identified by ethnographers as Eastern Woodland Cultures Dispersed in winter, but formed villages during summer Agriculture supplemented by hunting and gathering Likely were the first natives encountered by English settlers Native Americans Before the Conquest

15 Eastern Woodland Cultures (continued) Algonquian-speaking people North Carolina to Maine Exploited different resources and had different dialects Shared many cultural values and assumptions Kinship important Reciprocal relationships Wars rarely very lethal Native Americans Before the Conquest

16 Discussion Question What explains cultural differences among Native American groups before European conquest? Native Americans Before the Conquest

17 Conditions of Conquest West Africa: Ancient and Complex Societies Cultural Negotiations in the Americas Threats to Survival: Columbian Exchange Home

18 Conditions of Conquest Portuguese exploration Fifteenth century Sea route – around Africa Christopher Columbus Sailing for Spain Headed west across Atlantic Encountered new and ancient cultures Experienced change Conditions of Conquest

19 West Africa: Ancient and Complex Societies Europeans encountered different cultures Islam Political systems Portuguese search for gold and slaves African trade regulations Europeans lacked options Slaves Conditions of Conquest

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21 Cultural Negotiations in the Americas Arrival of Europeans changed Native American cultures Different rates at different locations Native American responses Trade Exchanged beaver skins for metal items Cultural seminars Conditions of Conquest

22 Cultural Negotiations in the Americas (continued) Cultural differences Language “Civilized” Indians rejected European values Conditions of Conquest

23 Threats to Survival: Columbian Exchange Cooperative encounters fewer over time European land use Native Americans eager for trade Dependent on, indebted to, Europeans Native American population declined Cause: lack of resistance to disease Effects Columbian Exchange Plants, animals, disease Conditions of Conquest

24 Table 1.1 New Opportunities, New Threats: The Columbian Exchange Conditions of Conquest

25 Discussion Question How did Europeans and Native Americans interact during the period of first contact? Conditions of Conquest

26 Europe on the Eve of Conquest Spanish Expansion The Strange Career of Christopher Columbus Home

27 Europe on the Eve of Conquest Tenth century – Vikings in New World Eric the Red in Greenland Leif Ericson settled “Vinland” Outposts difficult to maintain Europe on the Eve of Conquest

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29 Spanish Expansion Spain became a world power Centralized political authority Geographic knowledge Religious connection Catholic rulers – strongly religious Reconquista – conquistadores Canary Islands Conquered before West Indies Models of subjugation Europe on the Eve of Conquest

30 The Strange Career of Christopher Columbus Columbus Born in Italy, humble parents Educated, mastered geography Desire to voyage west to reach Cathay Portuguese rejected Columbus’s plan Spain’s Isabella and Ferdinand financed trip Europe on the Eve of Conquest

31 The Strange Career of Christopher Columbus (continued) Journeys of Columbus initial voyage Three subsequent voyages to find cities of China Never found treasure he was seeking died clinging to belief he had reached the Orient Amerigo Vespucci America named after him Europe on the Eve of Conquest

32 Discussion Question What factors explain Spain’s central role in New World exploration and colonization? Europe on the Eve of Conquest

33 Spain in the Americas The Conquistadores: Faith and Greed From Plunder to Settlement Home

34 Spain in the Americas Conflict between Portugal and Spain Both sought treasure in Asia Treaty of Tordesillas Spain in the Americas

35 The Conquistadores: Faith and Greed Conquistadores in the Caribbean Did not desire permanent society Sought instant wealth – gold Hernán Cortés Conquered Aztec in Mexico Spain in the Americas

36 From Plunder to Settlement Encomienda system Rewarded conquistadores Brought them under royal authority Large land grants and Indians Crown control of colonies Correspondence Appointed officials answered only to crown Spain in the Americas

37 From Plunder to Settlement (continued) Catholic Church Dominicans and Franciscans Protected Indian rights Performed mass conversions Virgin of Guadalupe Source of precious metals Tons of gold and silver Spain in the Americas

38 How Did Global Exploration Change the Old and New Worlds? What global trade routes existed in the Old World prior to the Age of Global Exploration? In what ways were societies in the Americas interrelated before the arrival of the Europeans? How did the new trans-Atlantic trade connect different parts of the world? Spain in the Americas

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43 Discussion Question How did Spanish conquest of Central and South America transform Native American cultures? Spain in the Americas

44 The French Claim Canada Jacques Cartier – 1534 exploration Saint Lawrence River Discouraged by harsh winters 1608 – Samuel de Champlain Founded Québec French in New World Stated goals Relations with Native Americans Coureurs de bois Flaws Home

45 Discussion Question What was the character of the French empire in Canada? The French Claim Canada

46 The English Take Up the Challenge Birth of English Protestantism Religion, War, and Nationalism Home

47 The English Take Up the Challenge John Cabot First recorded transatlantic voyage for England Claimed New World territory under Henry VIII (r. 1509–1547) English interest in New World wanes Preoccupied with domestic and religious concerns at home The English Take Up the Challenge

48 Birth of English Protestantism England in late fifteenth century Henry VII brought peace from civil war Many powerful magnates Internal diplomacy Protestant Reformation European Protestants against Catholics Monarchy Anticlericalism New ideas The English Take Up the Challenge

49 The English Take Up the Challenge

50 Religion, War, and Nationalism Elizabeth the symbol of English, Protestant nationhood Sea Dogs’ seizure of Spanish treasure made them English heroes The Spanish Armada Philip II – invaded England 1588 – Spanish Armada defeated Sir Walter Raleigh Roanoke The English Take Up the Challenge

51 Discussion Question Why did England not participate in the early competition for New World colonies? The English Take Up the Challenge

52 Conclusion: Campaign to Sell America By 1600, no English settlements in New World Richard Hakluyt advertised benefits of American colonization


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