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WOODLAND MANANGEMENT FOR BIODIVERSITY CALCOT CENTRE, 9 th JULY 2012 Saving butterflies, moths and our environment Butterfly Conservation.

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Presentation on theme: "WOODLAND MANANGEMENT FOR BIODIVERSITY CALCOT CENTRE, 9 th JULY 2012 Saving butterflies, moths and our environment Butterfly Conservation."— Presentation transcript:

1 WOODLAND MANANGEMENT FOR BIODIVERSITY CALCOT CENTRE, 9 th JULY 2012 Saving butterflies, moths and our environment Butterfly Conservation

2 ORGANISERS & PRESENTERS Hampshire & Isle of White WLT Buckinghamshire, Berkshire & Oxfordshire LWT (BBOWT) Forestry Commission Butterfly Conservation Trust Game & Wildlife Conservancy Trust Deer Initiative

3 STRUCTURE OF DAY Presentations –Principles of woodland Management and the importance of management to biodiversity – Karen Davies (BBOWT) –Management of woodland and woodland grants available to support this work – Jonathan Rau (Forestry Commission) –Key species and survey techniques: A case study on butterflies and moths – Dan Hoare (Butterfly Conservation Trust) –Game management in woodlands – Peter Thompson (Game and Wildlife Conservation Trust Lunch Visit to Moor Copse –Led by Andy Coulson-Phillips (Reserves Manager BBOWT) & Ian Stevenson (Reserves Officer BBOWT) with Jamie Cordery (South East Deer Initiative)

4 PURPOSE OF THIS PRESENTATION Distil key elements from the day - where applicable to Groups in an urban or urban- fringe setting –Will concentrate on the biodiversity issues of woodland management –Will only cover issues of forestry harvesting, grants & deer management where they effect us

5 TARGET AUDIENCE Land owners within the area of North Wessex Downs Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty Land Agents Land Managers Conservation Groups

6 BIODIVERSITY = VARIETY Woodland provides a dark & cool environment Variation can be introduced by: –Coppicing / Pollarding –Opening up rides within the wood –Opening up areas within the wood: Clearings “Sky-lighting” –Profiling the boundary of the wood

7 BIODIVERSITY = VARIETY Woodland under the canopy provides a dark & cool environment – A habitat in it’s own right –A mix of species and ages is better than a monoculture –Trees are better spaced out rather than planted close together

8 WOODLAND HABITAT RESOURCES 1 Leaving fallen timber is GOOD Leaving felled timber is OK Leaving “standing dead” trees (“monoliths”) is OK

9 WOODLAND HABITAT RESOURCES 2 Processing arrisings (“brash”) –“Habitat Piles” can be OK –Distributing throughout the wood may be Better –Chipping can be expensive but useful –Dead hedging OK but is not “stock-proof” –Burning is to be Avoided

10 BIODIVERSITY = VARIETY Coppicing / Pollarding –Woods partitioned into sections (“Stoops”) –Rotational felling –Mainly Hazel –Traditionally frequency of rotation determined by: Use of wood products Availability of labour Rotation now determined by: –Dormice Without Dormice = 7-10 years With Dormice = 15 years or more

11 BIODIVERSITY = VARIETY Opening up the canopy allows in light and warmth All Woodland Edges can be structured in a similar way Edge Progression: –Short grass –Long grass + small shrubs –Larger shrubs & coppice –Mature canopy trees

12 Short grass (mown twice or more a year) Long grass & small shrubs (mown/cleared on a 1-3 year cycle) Medium height shrubs & coppice (felled every 5-20 years) Canopy Trees – mixed species/age Width of transition should be as wide as the height of the canopy PROFILE OF A WOODLAND EDGE Fence line or centre of path/track

13 ELEMENTS OF A WOODLAND RIDE OR PATH Mature Canopy Medium Shrubs/Coppice Long Grass & Small Shrubs Short Grass “Scallops” Pinch Point N

14 WOODLAND EDGES Woodland rides, paths and access tracks: –At least as wide as the height of the canopy –Wider on rides aligned north/south where possible Woodland/Field boundaries –Edge can be formed on the woodland side of any (deer-proof) fence

15 WOODLAND CLEARINGS - 1 Clearings can mix & match edge elements depending on size of clearing Where paths or tracks cross can be used as focus for a clearing. Created by: –Felling –“Sky-lighting” = ring barking one or more trees

16 WOODLAND CLEARINGS - 2 “Sky-lighting” = ring barking one or more trees Progression to standing Dead Wood: –Small branches will fall in first summer –Larger branches will fall in second summer –Tree will soon (5 years) start shedding bark

17 COPPICE STRUCTURE >5% in temporary open space >15% in stands 1-10 years old >10% non-intervention (Mature trees): –3 fallen/laying trees >20cm dia per hectare –4 dead standing trees per hectare

18 LINKING THE LANDSCAPE Linear Features –Well maintained hedges Landscape scale –Using scrub to link areas of woodland –Maintaining grassland habitat

19 HOW TO LINK ISOLATED WOODS - 1 Mature Canopy Woodland Meadow Mature Canopy Woodland Meadow with planted Scrub Before After

20 Mature Canopy Woodland Meadow Mature Canopy Woodland Meadow with planted Scrub Before After Scrub allows some woodland species to “jump” the gap HOW TO LINK ISOLATED WOODS - 2

21 Mature Canopy Woodland Meadow Mature Canopy Woodland Meadow with planted Scrub Before After Sufficient Meadow to allow grassland species to move HOW TO LINK ISOLATED WOODS - 3

22 ANCIENT WOODLAND - CHARCTERISTICS Continuously managed since the 1600’s Have their own Ancient Woodland Indicator (AWI) Species –Primarily plants – 60 species –“Common” species include: Wood Anemone Sweet Woodruff Wood Sorrel Archangel Mouchel (aka Townhall Clock)

23 ANCIENT WOODLAND - VULNERABILITIES Easily damaged: –Soil disturbance/compaction from wood processing or vehicles Very slow to recover –AWI plant species are often very slow to colonise adjacent areas –Some can be very fussy as to soil conditions, location, aspect or state of canopy Example - Wood Anemone –Most of its seed is sterile –Does not persist in seed bank for long –Rhizomes are very slow to establish –Needs dappled shade Need to plan work carefully

24 BIODIVERSITY INDICATORS - 1 How can we measure the effectiveness of our management regime? Monitor butterflies: –Easy to identify –React very quickly to changes in their habitat or breeding conditions Hoverflies can also be used –Much more difficult to observe/catch/identify

25 BIODIVERSITY INDICATORS - 2 Example – Duke of Burgundy Fritillary Allegedly very slow to colonise new areas Southeast Woodlands Project – : –Three sites Denge Woods nr Canterbury, Kent Rother Woods nr Rye, East Sussex Tytherley Woods on Hampshire/Wiltshire border Results (annual transect) from Denge Woods Before


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