Presentation on theme: "Long RAnge Navigation version C"— Presentation transcript:
1Long RAnge Navigation version C LORAN CLong RAnge Navigation version COriginally a marine navigation system Became feasible for aircraft navigation with the introduction of microprocessorsFrequency of Operation: 100kHz (all stations)
2LORAN C A HYPERBOLIC SYSTEM i.e. lines of position are hyperbolas This results from the fact that the lines of position are determined by measuring the DIFFERENCE in distance from two points.
3LORAN COne station is referred to as the Master and the others as Slaves
4LORAN CAt least two lines of position are required for a position fix thus more than one slave is required
5LORAN CA useful property of the hyperbola is that its tangent at any point bisects the angle subtended by the line joining the two fociExercise: Use this property to determine where the best geometry occurs (LOP at 90º)
6LORAN C How do we determine the time difference? Each station, starting with the Master, transmits a series of pulses with the following shape:This pulse has a bandwidth of about 20kHz
7LORAN C Each station transmits a series of eight of these pulses Pulse separation is 1000μs (1ms)Note: In most chains the master transmits a ninth pulse after 2000μs. This can be used to indicate the status or integrity of the chain’s signals
8How do we identify the pulses from each station? LORAN CHow do we identify the pulses from each station?The stations transmit their signals in sequence. The delay between signals from each station is such that the signal from the previous transmission is out of the coverage area before the next is sent.Thus they always appear in the same order
9LORAN C ChainsA group consisting of a Master and up to four slaves is called a chainEach chain is identified by a Group Repetition Rate (GRI) which is the time between transmissions from the master.
10LORAN C ChainsEach slave transmits its pulse train at a specified interval after the master has transmitted.This is called the emission delay (ED) and is made up of the master-slave time (MS) and a coding delay (CD)
11LORAN C TransmittersDue to the long distances covered by each LORAN C chain, the power transmitted must be high (0.5 to 4 MW)Propagation is by ground wave and thus has to be vertically polarizedAntenna therefore is a vertical mast (ideally a quarter wavelength long (3km) (10,000 ft.)Not very practical!!
12LORAN C Antennas Antennas are typically about 400m high To improve the current flow, many are “top loaded”They are still not very efficient (~10%)
13LORAN C Antennas“Top loaded” antenna with ground plane
14LORAN C Receivers Receivers require a data base which provides the location (Lat/Lon) of the Master and Slave stationsthe GRI of the chains to be usedthe Time Delays for the individual stationsThe LORAN C signal travels both by ground wave and sky waveground wave gives stable, reliable timingsky wave does not due to the variable nature of the ionosphereground wave is attenuated more and hence is weaker and can be contaminated by the sky wave
15LORAN C ReceiversSince sky wave is always delayed by a minimum of 30μs, the positive-going zero crossover of the third cycle of the ground wave is used for timing
16LORAN C Receivers Problems to be solved by receiver Signals strength may vary by 120dBLarge dynamic range requiredNoise at LF can be very high due to long range propagation of interference (e.g. lightning in tropics)Signal to noise ratio can be – 20 dB
17LORAN C Receivers Receiver Operation: Searches for Master pulses using known GRIPLL locks on to carrier to generate master clockLocks on to slave pulsesMeasures Master/slave time interval and subtracts the Emission Delay (ED)Calculates the distances and position
19LORAN C Accuracy Error Sources Variation in propagation speed (land vs water, type of terrain)Changes in signal strengthAbsolute Accuracy depends on geometry0.1 to 0.25NMRepeatability20 to 100m
20LORAN CIntegrityMonitors are installed throughout the LORAN C coverage areaThese monitors adjust the transmitter timing to compensate for changing propagation conditionsIf excessive errors are detected, the master transmitter is commanded to “blink” the ninth pulse off and on to indicate which station is unreliableFor airborne use, this can be done within 10 seconds of detection