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**Chapter 3 Data and Signals**

Data Communications Chapter 3 Data and Signals

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**Terminology (1) Transmitter Receiver Medium Guided medium**

e.g. twisted pair, optical fiber Unguided medium e.g. air, water, vacuum

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**Terminology (2) Direct link Point-to-point Multi-point**

No intermediate devices Point-to-point Only 2 devices share link Multi-point More than two devices share the link

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**Terminology (3) Simplex Half duplex Full duplex One direction**

e.g. Television Half duplex Either direction, but only one way at a time e.g. police radio Full duplex Both directions at the same time e.g. telephone

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**Frequency, Spectrum and Bandwidth**

Time domain concepts Continuous signal Infinite number of points at any given time Discrete signal Finite number of points at any given time; maintains a constant level then changes to another constant level Periodic signal Pattern repeated over time Aperiodic signal Pattern not repeated over time

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**Continuous & Discrete Signals**

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Periodic Signals

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**Sine Wave Peak Amplitude (A) Frequency (f) Phase ()**

Maximum strength of signal Typically volts Frequency (f) Rate of change of signal Hertz (Hz) or cycles per second Period = time for one repetition (T) T = 1/f Phase () Relative position in time

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Varying Sine Waves

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**Frequency Domain Concepts**

Signal usually made up of many frequencies Components are sine waves Can be shown (Fourier analysis) that any signal is made up of component sine waves Can plot frequency domain functions

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**Addition of Frequency Components**

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Frequency Domain

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**Spectrum & Bandwidth Spectrum Absolute bandwidth Effective bandwidth**

range of frequencies contained in signal Absolute bandwidth width of spectrum Effective bandwidth Often just bandwidth Narrow band of frequencies containing most of the energy DC component Component of zero frequency

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**Signal with DC Component**

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**Analog and Digital Data Transmission**

Entities that convey meaning Signals Electric or electromagnetic representations of data Transmission Communication of data by propagation and processing of signals

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**Data Analog Digital Continuous values within some interval**

e.g. sound, video Digital Discrete values e.g. text, integers

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**Signals Means by which data are propagated Analog Digital**

Continuously variable Various media wire, fiber optic, space Speech bandwidth 100Hz to 7kHz Telephone bandwidth 300Hz to 3400Hz Video bandwidth 4MHz Digital Uses two (or more) DC components

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Data and Signals Usually use digital signals for digital data and analog signals for analog data Can use analog signal to carry digital data Modem Can use digital signal to carry analog data Compact Disc audio

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**Analog Signals Carrying Analog and Digital Data**

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**Digital Signals Carrying Analog and Digital Data**

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Analog Transmission Analog signal transmitted without regard to content May be analog or digital data Attenuated over distance Use amplifiers to boost signal Also amplifies noise

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**Digital Transmission Concerned with content**

Integrity endangered by noise, attenuation etc. Repeaters used Repeater receives signal Extracts bit pattern Retransmits Attenuation is overcome Noise is not amplified

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**Advantages of Digital Transmission**

Digital technology Low cost LSI/VLSI technology Data integrity Longer distances over lower quality lines Capacity utilization High bandwidth links economical High degree of multiplexing easier with digital techniques Security & Privacy Encryption

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**Transmission Impairments**

Signal received may differ from signal transmitted Analog - degradation of signal quality Digital - bit errors Caused by Attenuation and attenuation distortion Delay distortion Noise

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**Attenuation Signal strength falls off with distance Depends on medium**

Received signal strength: must be enough to be detected must be sufficiently higher than noise to be received without error Attenuation is an increasing function of frequency

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**Attenuation Signal strength is measured in decibels (dB)**

dB is a relative measure of loss (or gain) NdB = 10 log10 (P2 / P1) P2 = ending power level in watts P1 = beginning power level in watts Example: P1 = 10 watts, P2 = 5 watts Even easier – remember ½ rule Losses and gains are additive

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Attenuation Signal to noise ratio shows the ratio of signal power to noise power S/NdB = 10 log10 (signal power/noise power) Example 1: Signal power = 1000 watts, noise power = 20 mw Example 2: Signal power = 100 w, noise power = w

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**Delay Distortion Only in guided media**

Propagation velocity varies with frequency

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**Noise (1) Additional signals inserted between transmitter and receiver**

Thermal Due to thermal agitation of electrons Uniformly distributed White noise Intermodulation Signals that are the sum and difference of original frequencies sharing a medium

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**Noise (2) Crosstalk Impulse**

A signal from one line is picked up by another Impulse Irregular pulses or spikes e.g. External electromagnetic interference Short duration High amplitude

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**Data Rate and Bandwidth**

Any transmission system has a limited band of frequencies This limits the data rate that can be carried The faster the frequency, the faster the data rate

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**Channel Capacity Data rate Bandwidth Baud rate In bits per second**

Rate at which data can be communicated Bandwidth In cycles per second of Hertz Constrained by transmitter and medium Baud rate Frequency with which the components change

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BPS vs. Baud Data rate rarely the same as baud rate Examples:

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**Channel Capacity Nyquist Maximum data rate of a noiseless channel =**

2 H log2 V bps Where H = frequency V = the number of discrete levels Example: H = 4000 Hz, V = 2

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**Channel Capacity Shannon (which includes noise)**

Maximum data rate (in bps) = H log2 (1 + S/N) H = frequency S = signal power in watts N = noise power in watts Example: H = 3400 Hz, S = 0.2 w, N = w Max data rate = 3400 log2 (1+1000) = 3400 x 9.97 = bps

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Review Questions List the advantages and disadvantages of analog and digital What is the difference between data and signals? List the three components of a signal What is a composite signal? How do you calculate a dB?

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**Review Questions How do you use the Nyquist formula?**

4000 Hz, 8 signal levels, data rate? 50,000 bps data rate, 4000 Hz, how many signal levels? How do you use the Shannon formula? 8000 Hz, signal power = 20w, noise power = 0.002w, what is the data rate? 5000 Hz, signal power = 50w, data rate = 20000bps, what is the possible noise power?

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