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PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING AND ITS INFLUENCE ON COLLEGE PREPARATION KNOWLEDGE, MOTIVATION, & SELF-EFFICACY IN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS by Dr. Marcelo F. Vazquez.

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Presentation on theme: "PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING AND ITS INFLUENCE ON COLLEGE PREPARATION KNOWLEDGE, MOTIVATION, & SELF-EFFICACY IN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS by Dr. Marcelo F. Vazquez."— Presentation transcript:

1 PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING AND ITS INFLUENCE ON COLLEGE PREPARATION KNOWLEDGE, MOTIVATION, & SELF-EFFICACY IN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS by Dr. Marcelo F. Vazquez Global Learn Asia Pacific 2010 Global Conference on Learning and Technology Penang, Malaysia, May 17-20, 2010.

2 A student who is able to maintain high aspirations for college attendance during the high school years will increase the likelihood of high educational achievement (Kao & Tienda, 1998). The intensity of preparing for college is not uniform, with interest lowest in the middle school and beginning high school years, then peaking during the senior year in high school (Cabrera & La Nasa, 2000). For young students, especially African-American and Latina/o, the transition from high school to college or work is dependent on varied internal and external factors, including prior educational experiences, family experiences, and perceptions of barriers to educational and occupational goals (Gloria & Hird, 1999). African-American and Latina/o students who do not view education as relevant to their future are more likely to become academically and socially disengaged from school (Worthington & Juntunen, 1997). One of the reasons for the low numbers of Latino, African American and Native American students in postsecondary education may be the lack of attention paid to what can be done to prepare students academically, socially and psychologically to enter and succeed in a college (Swail & Perna, 2002). The California ratio between high school counselor to student is one counselor for every 528 high school students. The recommended ratio is one to 250. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

3 Psychological research and theory proposes that students who learn through the experience of solving a problem or challenge can learn both content knowledge and thinking strategies (Hmelo-Silver, 2004). Problem-based learning (PBL) is learning process where students learn by finding solutions to problems/challenges and then reflecting on the learning experience (Barrows & Tamblyn, 1980). According to Maxwell, Mergendoller, and Bellisimo (2005), little research is available on the impact of PBL in the high school environment. PBL is a system that encourages students to become active learners by situating the learning within real-world problems and making students responsible for their learning (Hmelo-Silver, 2004). Small group discussions and debate in the PBL environment enhances a student’s problem solving skills, higher order thinking, and collaboration/ teamwork skills in solving problems (Blumenfeld, Marx, Soloway, & Krajcik, 1996). Little research has been done on PBL’s application to high school and little or no research has been conducted on PBL’s application to college preparation among high school students.

4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS Does a student’s self-efficacy towards college preparation increase through participation in a college preparation program that utilizes a pedagogical technique based on the principles of problem-based learning? Does a student’s knowledge of college preparation increase as a result of participation in a college preparation program that utilizes a pedagogical technique based on the principles of problem-based learning? Does a student’s motivation for preparing for college increase as result of participation in a college preparation program that utilizes a pedagogical technique based on the principles of problem-based learning?

5 TOOLS/INSTRUMENTATION Problem-based learning workshop. -Classroom in high school High school guidance counselor from Community Charter Early College High School -College Center and Information Materials College Outreach Representative from local community college. -College preparation materials Three guided journal assignments. Three administrations of the Motivated Strategies for learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Three administrations of the General Self-Efficacy (GSE) Scale

6 Data Sources This study was conducted at Community Charter High School in the Los Angeles area. The total number of ninth through 12th grade students at this high school in the Fall of 2007 was 363, with 95% of the student population being of Latino/Hispanic descent. Thirty-three of the 158 ninth graders participated in the study. The PBL Experimental Group was be comprised of 11 ninth grade high school students from Community Charter High School. The College Center Control Group was comprised of 11 ninth grade Community Charter high school students. The Outreach Control Group was comprised of 11 ninth grade high school students, also from Community Charter.

7 Data Sources II HIGH SCHOOL SITE Partnerships to Uplift Communities (PUC) Schools Community Charter Early College High School -Located in the San Fernando Valley (Van Nuys). -Founded in Grew from Community Charter Middle School. -95% Latina/o population students total. -Two full-time college counselors service the school. -Administrative culture is focused on college preparation.

8 How data was gathered.

9 PBL: EXPERIMENTAL GROUP SCHEDULE Meeting One: Introduction to the study and the problem to be solved (PBL). Students will be able to use all resources in high school College Center. The Guided Journal Assignment, MSLQ and GSE Scale were administered towards the end of the workshop (1 hour and 20 minutes). Meeting Two: College Preparation and PBL (50 minutes). Meeting Three: College Preparation and PBL (50 minutes). Meeting Four: College Preparation and PBL. The Guided Journal Assignment, MSLQ and GSE Scale were administered towards the end of the workshop (1 hour and 20 minutes). Meeting Five: College Preparation and PBL (50 minutes). Meeting Six: College Preparation and PBL (50 minutes). Meeting Seven: College Preparation and PBL. The Guided Journal Assignment, MSLQ and GSE Scale were administered towards the end of the workshop (1 hour and 20 minutes).

10 OUTREACH: CONTROL GROUP SCHEDULE Meeting One: Outreach Counselor will introduce himself to the students and provide a college preparation workshop. The students will be able to use all resources of the college center to answer their college preparation questions. The Guided Journal Assignment, MSLQ and GSE Scale were administered towards the end of the workshop (1 hour and 20 minutes). Meeting Two: College Preparation Presentation (50 minutes). Meeting Three: College Preparation Presentation (50 minutes). Meeting Four: College Preparation Presentation. Guided Journal Assignment, MSLQ and GSE Scale were administered towards the end of the workshop (1 hour and 20 minutes). Meeting Five: College Preparation Presentation (50 minutes). Meeting Six: College Preparation Presentation (50 minutes). Meeting Seven: College Preparation Presentation. Guided Journal Assignment, MSLQ and GSE Scale were administered towards the end of the workshop (1 hour and 20 minutes).

11 COLLEGE CENTER: CONTROL GROUP SCHEDULE Meeting One: Community Charter Early High School College Counselor will introduce himself to the students and explain how to use the college center to answer their college preparation needs. The Guided Journal Assignment, MSLQ and GSE Scale will be administered towards the end of the workshop (45 minutes). Meeting Two: College Counselor answered any questions they had about college preparation. The Guided Journal Assignment, MSLQ and GSE Scale were be administered towards the end of the workshop (45 minutes). Meeting Three: College Counselor answered any questions they had about college preparation. The Guided Journal Assignment, MSLQ and GSE Scale were be administered towards the end of the workshop (45 minutes).

12 Problem-Based Learning Flowchart College Preparation (CP) Problem/Challenge Presented Student discuss and analyze Problem (abilities and objectives) Identify knowledge gaps and information retrieval among group members (adjourn) (assemble) New information is analyzed to solve the problem/challenge. New knowledge gaps are identified. Facilitator can offer advice and guidance Accepted solutions to the CP problem/challenge are found Learning Reflection On Approaching the CP Problem/Challenge Repetition of these steps will occur during the seven weeks.

13 Findings: Does a student’s self-efficacy towards college preparation increase through participation in a college preparation program that utilizes a pedagogical technique based on the principles of problem-based learning? FIRST ADMINISTRATION: College Center, Outreach, and PBL groups displayed significant differences in means with GSE question #2; “If someone opposes me, I can find the means and ways to get what I want.” THIRD ADMINISTRATION: College Center, Outreach, and PBL groups displayed significant differences in means with GSE questions #2 and #3; “It is easy for me to stick to my aims and accomplish my goals.” Between 1 st and 3 rd GSE administrations: Self-Efficacy. –College Center Group: No difference. –Outreach Group: Difference with Question #1; “I can always manage to solve difficult problems if I try hard enough”. –PBL Group: Difference with Question #2.

14 Findings: Does a student’s knowledge of college preparation increase as a result of participation in a college preparation program that utilizes a pedagogical technique based on the principles of problem-based learning? The Grounded Theory qualitative method found five clusters of data with two being consolidated: Support/Influence, Confidence, Knowledge, and Comfort. “Support/Influence” was the cluster that influenced thr other three. More knowledge items were mentioned in the PBL group. Interestingly, there was a trend in the numbers of knowledge items among the three groups –Outreach had the least number of items –College Center had the second least –PBL had the most number of knowledge items

15 Findings: Does a student’s motivation for preparing for college increase as result of participation in a college preparation program that utilizes a pedagogical technique based on the principles of problem-based learning? The Domains of the MSLQ – Task Value: How important, interesting and useful a learning process is to the students, “What do I think of this task?” –Self-Efficacy for Learning and Performance: A student’s expectancy for success in their performance and his/her self-efficacy in the learning process and mastering a task –Intrinsic Goal Orientation: The degree to which a student perceives themselves as participating in tasks for reasons such as challenge, curiosity, and mastery. –Task Value: A student’s evaluation of how interesting, how important, and useful a task is.

16 Findings: Does a student’s motivation for preparing for college increase as result of participation in a college preparation program that utilizes a pedagogical technique based on the principles of problem-based learning? FIRST ADMINISTRATION: College Center, Outreach, and PBL groups displayed significant differences in means with the MSLQ questions on Task Value. THIRD ADMINISTRATION: The three groups differed significantly in means with MSLQ questions on Self-Efficacy for Learning and Performance. Between 1 st and 3 rd MSLQ administrations: Motivation. –College Center Group: No difference among dimensions –Outreach Group: Significantly higher 3 rd administration mean score in “Self-Efficacy for Learning and Performance” domain. –PBL Group: Significantly higher 3 rd administration mean score in “Self- Efficacy for Learning and Performance”, “Intrinsic Goal Orientation”, and “Task Value”.

17 Implications for Practice/Policy PBL is a learning method and critical thinking process that should be considered for implementation in college preparation practices with students and parents. PBL should be considered in the training of college preparation counselors. PBL should be considered for the leadership preparation of middle school and high school students; students being trained to be PBL facilitators.

18 Recommendations for Future Studies PBL’s influence on knowledge, self-efficacy, and motivation within a structured school environment rather than after-school. PBL and college preparation in the middle school environment. PBL and college preparation with parents of students in either middle school or high school. PBL and the 11 th grade and 12 th grade student as compared to earlier grades. PBL and the college preparation training of high school college counselors. The use of interviews rather than guided journals on the effects of PBL on middle school, high school and parent populations. Measuring PBL over a whole course-semester period or over a whole year period. PBL in college-prep focused schools and non-college-prep focused schools. PBL and its influence on the college preparation of different ethnic populations.

19 PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING AND ITS INFLUENCE ON COLLEGE PREPARATION KNOWLEDGE, MOTIVATION, & SELF-EFFICACY IN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS by Dr. Marcelo F. Vazquez Global Learn Asia Pacific 2010 Global Conference on Learning and Technology Penang, Malaysia, May 17-20, 2010.

20 References Barrows, H.S., & Tamblyn, R. (1980). Problem-based learning: An approach to medical education. New York: Springer. Blumenfeld, P.C., Marx, R.W., Soloway, E., & Krajcik, J.S. (1996). Learning with Peers: From small group cooperation to collaborative communities. Educational Researcher, 25(8), Cabrera, A.F., & La Nasa, S.M. (2000). Understanding the college-choice process. In A.F. Cabrera & S.M. La Nasa (Eds.), Understanding the College Choice of Disadvantaged Students (pp. 5-22). New Directions for Institutional Research, Number 107: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Gloria, A.M., & Hird, J.S. (1999). Influence of ethnic and nonethnic variables in career-decision-making self- efficacy of college students. Career Development Quarterly, 49, Hmelo-Silver, C.E. (2004, September), Problem-based learning: What and how do students learn? Educational Psychology Review, 16(3), Kao, G., & Tienda (1998). Educational aspirations of minority youth. American Journal of Education, 106(3), Maxwell, N.L., Mergendoller, J.R., & Bellisimo, Y. (2005, Fall). Problem-based learning and high school macroeconomics: A comparative study of instructional methods. Journal of Economic Education, 36(4), McDonough, P.M., & Antonio, A.L. (1996, April). Ethnic and racial differences in selectivity of college choice. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York, NY. Outcalt, C.L., Tobolowsky, B., & McDonough, P.M. (2000, Summer). African-American and Latino conceptualizations of the role and value of community colleges: Results from a study of high school students and counselors. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 4.2, Tierney, W.G. (2005). The changing landscape of higher education: The future of college admission. State of College Admission (National Association for College Admission Counseling – NACAC, March 2005). Alexandria, VA: NACAC. Swail, W.S., & Perna, L.W. (2002). Pre-college outreach programs. In W.G. Tierney & L.S. Hagedorn (Eds.), Increasing access to college: Extending possibilities for all students. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. Worthington, R.L., & Juntunen, D.L. (1997). The vocational development of non-college bound youth: Counseling psychology and the school-to-work transition movement. The Counseling Psychologist, 25,


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