1Genshu Lu, Wenjing Hu,Zhengxia Peng, Hui KangInstitute of Higher EducationXi’an Jiaotong UniversityThe Influence of Undergraduate Students' Academic Involvement and Learning Environment on Learning Outcomes此演示文稿演示 PowerPoint 的新功能，最好在“幻灯片放映”中查看。设计这些幻灯片，是为了让您在 PowerPoint 2010 中制作演示文稿时获得一些启发!有关其他样本模板，请单击“文件”选项卡，然后在“新建”选项卡上，单击“样本模板”。
2Main content 1 Introduction 2 Literature review 3 Research design 4 Results4Conclusions and suggestions5Genshu Lu, XJTU2017/4/11
3IntroductionInfluence of students’ Individual factor, educational environment factor and their interactions on students’ learning and development is a key issue focused by many researchers.Many researches discussed the impact of student individual factor, such as individual background, involvement and academic engagement and so forth on their learning and development (Pike,1991； Thompson et al. ,2006; Lu et al., 2013).Some other researchers explored the impact of educational environment on students’ learning and development (Kember & Gow, 1994;Trigwell & Prosser, 1991;Majeed, Fraser, & Aldridge, 2002;Pascarella & Blimling, 1996;Lu et al., 2010)1.发展速度快；2.规模全球最大。2017/4/11Genshu Lu, XJTU
4IntroductionThough some researchers stated individual factor, educational environment factor and their interactions impacted on students’ learning and development, in China mainland, for the lack of data, this influence is rarely verified empirically.Hence, this study, applying the data of Xi’an Jiaotong University Undergraduate Experience Survey attempts to empirically discuss the impact of campus climate, classroom learning environment and the individual factors like students’ academic involvement/engagement on students learning outcomes (like intellectual skill development, GPA).1.发展速度快；2.规模全球最大。2017/4/11Genshu Lu, XJTU
5Introduction This study is mainly around the following questions: a) How to measure learning environment?b) How to measure students’ academic involvement/ engagement?c) What is the relationship between students’ learning environment, academic involvement/engagement and students’ learning outcomes?Methodologically, structural equation model is applied to explore the relationship between learning environment, academic involvement/engagement and students learning outcomes and the connection of these factors more accurately and completely.1.发展速度快；2.规模全球最大。2017/4/11Genshu Lu, XJTU
6Literature ReviewThe relationship between learning environment and learning outcomesThe influence of learning environment on learning outcomes is the key issue focused by many researchersThey discussed the influence of learning environment at different levels, including classroom level, faculty level and university level, on learning outcomes.2017/4/11Genshu Lu, XJTU
7Literature ReviewThe relationship between learning environment and learning outcomesAs the indicators adopted to describe learning outcomes differ a lot, such as students’ cognitive development, the freshman retention, GPA, the pursuit of graduate education, employment outcome or emotional development and so forth, the exploration of the relationship between learning environment and learning outcomes involves in many aspects (Lu & Yang, 2008).2017/4/11Genshu Lu, XJTU
8Literature ReviewThe relationship between learning environment and learning outcomesThe connections between learning environment and academic achievement are mainly focused by researchers.These researches applied different research methods and samples (like students in different countries, different types of universities and classes).These researches indicated that students’ perception of environment exerted significant influence on their academic achievements (Goh, Young, & Fraser, 1995).2017/4/11Genshu Lu, XJTU
9The relationship between learning environment and learning outcomes Literature ReviewThe relationship between learning environment and learning outcomesSome research found that student perceived classroom environment influenced students’ academic achievements through its influence on students’ learning styles (Lizzio, Wilson, & Simons, 2002).Some researchers explored the influence of various learning environment on students’ intellectual skills.Kuh’s (2006) study indicates that students who entered the selective colleges of arts performed better at participation level, self reported achievements and intellectual and skill development than those from other types of universities.2017/4/11Genshu Lu, XJTU
10The relationship between learning environment and learning outcomes Literature ReviewThe relationship between learning environment and learning outcomesSome researchers focused on the relationship between learning environment and students’ emotional development.Wolf & Fraser’s (2008) research presented that learning environment was significantly predictable to students’ attitude which was related to science.2017/4/11Genshu Lu, XJTU
11Literature ReviewThe relationship between learning environment and learning involvement/academic engagementStudy results indicated that, in general, learning environment had significant impact on students’ academic involvement/ engagement. (Umbach & Wawrzynski，2005；Wu & Huang，2007)2017/4/11Genshu Lu, XJTU
12Literature ReviewThe relationship between learning engagement and learning outcomesSome researches argued that academic involvement/ engagement played crucial role in promoting the development of cognitive skills and getting better achievements.2017/4/11Genshu Lu, XJTU
13Literature ReviewThe relationship between learning environment, academic involvement/engagement and learning outcomesSome researches comprehensively explored the influence of learning environment, academic involvement/ engagement on learning outcomes, finding the close connection between them.2017/4/11Genshu Lu, XJTU
14Research design Sample This research data is collected through the survey of 14,759 undergraduate (except those whose four year system were extended and international students) on April 6, 2012 by means of network questionnaire.5,188 questionnaires are collected, accounting for 35.15%, among which 3,946 are valid, accounting for 76.06%.Genshu Lu, XJTU2011/4/15
15Research design Survey instrument Xi‘an Jiaotong University Undergraduate Experience SurveyModule A：Part 1: Academic engagementPart 2 : Student life and targetPart 3 : Background and individual characteristicsModule B：Option 1: the use of techniques,Option 2: global skills and cognitionModule C：General educationClassroom learning environment
16The result of factor analysis and reliability analysis Research designThe result of factor analysis and reliability analysison student perceived classroom learning environment
17Research design Factor Item No. Items Eigen- value Explained variance（%）Relia-bilityFactor110I found my studies intellectuallyStimulating6.25310.420.924Factor27Teacher considered our self-esteem5.7859.6420.921Factor3Worked with classmate for completing assignment4.8448.0730.882Factor4I found a course very difficult4.3237.2050.890Factor58The course content was organized in a systematic way3.7866.3090.873Factor64Studied by our own pace and rate3.2045.3410.839Factor7Faculty awarded critical thinking or achievement3.1655.2750.871Factor83Frequency talked with faculty member or advisor2.5914.3180.867Factor9Classmates compete intensely2.4714.1180.779
18Research designStudent perceived classroom learning environment can be measured by 9 factors including:intellectual motivation(factor 1)teacher-student relationship (factor 2),cooperation (factor 3)learning difficulty (factor 4),course organization (factor 5),autonomous selection (factor 6),teaching innovation (factor 7),encouraging student (factor 8),peer competition (factor9).The reliability coefficients of 9 factors range from toGenshu Lu, XJTU2011/4/15
19Research design The result of factor analysis and reliability analysis on student perceived campus climate2011/4/15Genshu Lu, XJTU
20Research design Factor Item No. Items Eigen- value Explained variance（%）Relia-bilityFactor15This institution valuesstudents' opinions3.26736.300.803Factor22Attending a researchuniversity is important to me1.24113.790.535Factor3The emphasis on research detracts from the quality of teaching on this campus1.02311.370.5062011/4/15Genshu Lu, XJTU
21Research designStudent perceived campus climate can be measured by three factors includingstudent concerning (factor 1)social network(factor 2),teaching drifting (factor 3).The reliability coefficients of 3 factors range from to2011/4/15Genshu Lu, XJTU
22Research design The result of factor analysis and reliability analysis on academic involvement/engagement2011/4/15Genshu Lu, XJTU
23Research design Factor Item No. Items Eigen-value Explained variance（%）Relia-bilityFactor16Communicated with a faculty member by or in person3.58810.550.843Factor2Examined how others gathered andinterpreted data and assessed the soundness of their conclusions3.56710.490.849Factor35Asked an insightful question in class2.8118.270.767Factor4Raised your standard for acceptable effort due to the high standards of a faculty Member2.4217.120.769Factor54Gone to class without completing assigned reading2.3596.990.750Factor63Explain methods, ideas, or concepts and use them to solve problems2.2406.590.766Factor7Turned in a paper of 20 or more than 20 pages2.0185.940.702Factor82Turned in a paper less than 3 pages1.5134.450.6202011/4/15Genshu Lu, XJTU
24Research designAcademic involvement/engagement can be measured by 8 factors includingteacher-faculty interaction (factor 1)critical thinking(factor 2)academic challenge(factor3)extracurricular engagement (factor 4)lack of engagement (factor 5)understanding and analysis(factor 6)heavier learning load (factor 7)lighter learning load (factor 8).The reliability coefficients of 8 factors range from toGenshu Lu,XJTU2011/4/15
25Research design The result of factor analysis and reliability analysis on student intellectual skills developmentGenshu Lu, XJTU2011/4/15
26Research design Factor Item No. Items Eigen- value Explained variance（%）Relia-bilityFactor18Ability to be clear and effective when writing3.79518.970.853Factor26Library research skills3.75118.760.844Factor3Ability to appreciate cultural and global diversity3.58917.940.852Genshu Lu, XJTU2011/4/15
27Research designIntellectual skills can be measured by core skill (factor 1), research skill(factor 2), self cognition and social communication(factor 3). The reliability coefficients of 3 factors range from toThe added-value of students’ intellectual skills is constructed by using students’ current intellectual development status score minus the scores of that when they just entered university.Genshu Lu, XJTU2011/4/15
28Research designThe result of factor analysis and reliability analysis onstudent perceived satisfaction of learning experienceGenshu Lu, XJTU2011/4/15
29Research design Factor Item No. Items Eigen- value Explained variance（%）Relia-bilityFactor17Satisfaction-subsidy3.19617.750.811Factor25Satisfaction-courses3.18317.680.847Factor34Satisfaction-overall academic experience2.48613.810.780Factor42I feel that I belong at this campus1.7769.870.746Genshu Lu, XJTU2011/4/15
30Research designStudent perceived satisfaction of learning experience can be measured by environmental support(factor 1), quality of course (factor 2), campus life(factor 3), sense of belonging (factor 4). The reliability coefficients of 4 factors range from toGenshu Lu, XJTU2011/4/15
31Research design Analysis method Structural equation model is applied in this study to simultaneously and holistically discuss the influence of learning environment and academic involvement/ engagement on learning outcomes.Genshu Lu, XJTU2011/4/15
32ResultsThe basic characteristics of student perceived classroom learning environmentIn general, students are satisfied with perceived classroom learning environment
33Results Dimension N Mean SD Intellectual motivation 3946 4.22 0.54 Teacher-student relationship4.49Cooperation4.460.41Learning difficulty3.440.60Course organization3.790.51Autonomous selection3.530.85Teaching Innovation3.750.69Encouraging Student3.720.90Peer competition4.020.59
34ResultsAnalysis on basic characteristics of student perceived campus climateDimensionNMeanSDStudent concerning39464.080.62Social network4.450.58Teaching drifting2.730.68Students have positive experience of campus climate and fairly agree university’s concerning about students. Meanwhile, they also value the social network provided by university and disagree or fairly disagree the phenomenon of teaching drifting
35ResultsAnalysis on basic characteristics of student academic involvement/engagementDimensionNMeanSDTeacher-faculty interaction39462.760.74Critical thinking3.400.71Academic challenge3.070.58Extracurricular Engagement3.63Lack of engagement2.440.57Understanding and analysis3.640.80Heavy learning load2.750.95Light learning load3.571.39
36ResultsStudents have better experience in the dimensions of critical thinking, extracurricular engagement and understanding and analysis.Student experience in student faculty interaction, academic challenge, heavier load fluctuates around “sometimes”
37ResultsThe basic characteristics of student self-reported intellectual developmentIntellectual skillsStartedCurrentValue AddedMeanSDCore skills3.130.443.690.420.560.46Research skills2.540.433.720.451.170.51Self cognition and social communication3.254.040.480.80After accepting university education, student intellectual skills developed greatly, especially in research skills and self cognition and social communication
38ResultsAnalysis on basic characteristics of student perceived satisfaction of university learning experienceSatisfaction of learning experienceNMeanSDEnvironmental support39464.090.48Quality of course3.870.56Campus life3.620.64Sense of belonging1.20Students are relatively satisfied with their learning experience
39ResultsThe impact of learning environment, academic engagement on learning outcomes: SEM
40ResultsStudent perceived learning environment, level of academic involvement/engagement, their intellectual skill development and satisfaction of university learning experience are correlated. That is, student who perceived the better learning environment reported higher levels of academic involvement/engagement, better intellectual skill development and more satisfied with university learning experience.Student perceived classroom learning environment and campus climate are positively correlated.
41ResultsWhile comparing the influence of students perceived classroom learning environment with that of student perceived campus climate, we can see that students perceived classroom learning environment has direct and greater impact on the level of their academic involvement/engagement, intellectual skill development and satisfaction with university learning experience.
42ResultsThe level of students’ academic involvement/engagement is positively correlated to their intellectual skill development whereas negatively related to student perceived satisfaction of university learning experience, which indicates more academic involvement/engagement would do good to students’ intellectual skill development but may raise their expectations and requirements to university education. Thereby, more engaged student might report lower level of satisfaction of university learning experience.4/11/2017Genshu Lu, XJTU
43ResultsUndergraduate intellectual skill development is positively associated with their perceived satisfaction of university learning experience. That means student who performed better in intellectual skill development reported a higher level of satisfaction with university learning experience.4/11/2017Genshu Lu, XJTU
44Conclusions and Suggestions Students perceive good classroom learning environment and campus climate. In their perception of all aspects of classroom learning environment, factors like teacher student relationship, cooperation and intellectual motivation are the best. Factors including peer competition, course organization, teaching innovation, encouraging student are better whereas factors like autonomous selection and learning difficulty are to be improved. Hence, the classroom learning environment is to be further optimized.
45Conclusions and Suggestions The level of undergraduates’ academic involvement/ engagement is high. Students engage themselves frequently into extracurricular activities as well as understanding and analysis activities. They sometimes take on heavy-loaded learning tasks and they perform a certain level of engagement in teacher student relationship, critical thinking and academic challenge. There hardly exists the phenomenon of “lack of engagement”. Therefore, student faculty interaction should be strengthened and academic challenge should be raised to promote student academic involvement/engagement.
46Conclusions and Suggestions Students intellectual skills are well developed. Seen from value-added, research skills developed best, then followed self-cognition and social communication while the least developing in core skills. This means the core skill training should be enforced to make the better development of student intellectual skills.Undergraduates are fairly satisfied with their university learning experience, of which students are best satisfied with environmental support and sense of belonging, then with course quality, whereas the factor of campus life should be enhanced.
47Conclusions and Suggestions Learning environment and the level of student academic involvement/engagement have positive effect on undergraduates’ learning outcomes, which means by optimizing learning environment, especially the classroom learning environment and raising student academic involvement/engagement, students’ learning outcomes could be improved. This provides a brand new perspectives for improving learning quality.
48Thank you ！ Genshu Lu, Wenjing Hu, Zhengxia Peng, Hui Kang Institute of Higher EducationXi’an Jiaotong UniversityThank you ！