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The Social Goals of Schooling Chapter 2 ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin
2-2 Social Goals: Historical Horace Mann: the key to a good society is "best expressed in these few and simple words: 'Train up a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he will not depart from it.'" Believed public schooling could reduce crime through moral instruction. Also believed common schools could help reduce tension between rich and poor. ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
2-3 Social Goals: Historical 1880s-1920s: Under the slogan "the whole child goes to school," public schools assumed responsibility for students' recreation, health, and diet. John Dewey felt the school must become a community center. ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
2-4 Social Goals of Schooling Regulating sexuality through sex education courses Reducing crime through moral instruction and character education Improving children's health with school nurses, doctors and dentists, regulating students' cleanliness and health instruction Improving the nutrition of students with school cafeterias and home economics instruction Creating a sense of community through after-school programs, extracurricular activities, and building school spirit ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
2-5 Social Control & Secular Values Edward Ross, in the 1890s, referred to education as a key means for social control--how society maintained order and controlled crime and rebellion. In modern society, family and church have been increasingly replaced by the school as the most important institution for instilling values. Ross advocated teaching secular values not associated with any religion. ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
2-6 Religion in Schools & the Courts Until the 1960s, most moral education in public schools was based on Christian values. Engel v. Vitale (1962) ruled that public schools could not conduct prayer in school building during regular hours. Abington School District v. Schempp ruled that the Bible could not be read in public schools as part of a religious exercise. No Child Left Behind (2002) gave the U.S. Dept. of Education an active role in ensuring that school districts allow for school prayer within the law. ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
2-7 Moral Values & Sex Education Sex education was originally a means of combating the decline of the family and regulating sexual impulses for the good of society. High school youth culture created ritualized dating patterns. By the 1930s, the senior prom was the pinnacle of the high school dating experience. The term "teenager" was coined in the 1940s; the creation of teenagers as a separate age group heightened concerns about adolescent sexuality. ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
2-8 Moral Values & Sex Education The Sex Respect program (1983) takes as its goal "to enable each individual to progressively develop responsible behavior, positive self-esteem, and respect for others as he/she makes decisions involving the use of his/her sexual freedom." Title V of the 1996 Welfare Reform Act established abstinence-only programs as the national sex education standard. ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
2-9 Results of Abstinence Education While teen pregnancy rates have declined following the adoption of abstinence-only programs, the increasing use of condoms by sexually active teenagers may also be responsible. However, abstinence-only programs may have decreased the rate of sexual activity among teenagers. Sexually transmitted diseases remain a major problem among teenagers. ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
2-10 Gay and Lesbian Youth Harassment in school of gay and lesbian youth is a major problem. New York City's 1992 attempt to adopt the "Children of the Rainbow" Curriculum requiring elementary schools to teach tolerance toward gays and lesbians led to protests. In 2010, a Mississippi school district canceled its high school prom when a lesbian student, Constance McMillen, asked to attend with her girlfriend and wear a tuxedo. ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
2-11 Character Education NCLB recommends secular character education in schools, including these elements: o Caring o Civic virtue and citizenship o Justice and fairness o Respect o Responsibility o Trustworthiness o Giving However, these terms are vague and difficult to implement. ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
2-12 Public Schools and Crime As public school attendance has increased, crime rates have risen rather than fallen. However, studies show that persons with higher educational attainment are less likely to be in prison. Many other factors such as neighborhood conditions, peer groups, family wealth, and employment opportunities affect crime rates. ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
2-13 School Crime Student violence, including gun violence, has risen drastically in American schools. Between July 2007 & June 2008, there were 43 school-associated violent deaths including 21 homicides and 5 suicides. Bullying and cyber-bullying is also becoming a major problem. Several high-profile cases like that of Phoebe Prince in January 2010 have drawn awareness to the issue. ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
2-14 National Crime Prevention Council Safety Tips Enforce zero-tolerance policies toward the presence of weapons, alcohol, and illegal drugs Engage students in maintaining a good learning environment by establishing a teen court Develop protocols between law enforcement & the school about ways to share information on at-risk youth Develop resource lists that provide referral services for students who are depressed or under stress Involve teens in designing and running programs such as mediation, mentoring, peer assistance, School Crime Watch, graffiti removal Develop and enforce dress codes that ban gang-related and gang-style clothing Establish a policy of positive identification such as ID badges Deny students permission to leave school for non-school-related activities during school hours ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
2-15 Nutrition Education Home economics courses were designed to train women to be scientific housekeepers who would free themselves from kitchen drudgery by relying on packaged and processed foods. Courses taught cooking, household budgeting, sewing, and scientific methods of cleaning. Concern about rising childhood obesity rates has led schools to promote healthy diets ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
2-16 Drug & Alcohol Education Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) conducts police-officer-led classroom lessons to teach kids from kindergarten through 12th grade to resist peer pressure and live drug- and violence-free lives. In 1998, the Tecumseh, OK school district's mandatory drug testing for students participating in extracurriculars led to a lawsuit on Fourth Amendment grounds. However, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the school's case. While studies show that teen drug use has declined slightly, children who took the D.A.R.E. program used drugs and alcohol at the same rate as students who did not. ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
2-17 Drug & Alcohol Education Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) conducts police-officer-led classroom lessons to teach kids from kindergarten through 12th grade to resist peer pressure and live drug- and violence-free lives. In 1998, the Tecumseh, OK school district's mandatory drug testing for students participating in extracurriculars led to a lawsuit on Fourth Amendment grounds. However, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the school's case. While studies show that teen drug use has declined slightly, children who took the D.A.R.E. program used drugs and alcohol at the same rate as students who did not. ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
2-18 Building Community In the 20th century, the high school became the major public institution for the socialization of youth. However, extracurricular activities have declined since the 1990s. ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
2-19 Questions Regarding Social Issues in Education What are legitimate areas of social concern for public schools? Should public schools attempt to solve social problems, such as the AIDS epidemic, the destructive use of drugs and alcohol, teenage pregnancy, and rising crime rates? What government agency, organization, or group of individuals should decide the moral values to be taught in public schools? ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
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