Presentation on theme: "Intelligence: Theories EDU 330: Educational Psychology Daniel Moos."— Presentation transcript:
Intelligence: Theories EDU 330: Educational Psychology Daniel Moos
Intelligence: Introduction (I) What comes to mind when you hear “diversity”?
Intelligence: Introduction (II) How is intelligence studied? Factor Analysis: Statistical analysis used to measure a latent variable (i.e. can’t directly measure the variable) Results identify underlying manifest variables (i.e. variables that can be directly measured)
Intelligence: Introduction (III) Example of Factor Analysis: How is athletic ability measured at NHL tryouts? Athletic Ability StrengthSpeedAgility
Intelligence: Factor Models (I) Charles Spearman (1927) Two factors (1) g factor domain-general and homogeneous (i.e. intellectual functioning relatively homogenous across a number of different tasks) (2) Specific factor Specific factors that are pertinent to specific task (but…g factor is what most interested Spearman) g factor
Linguistic Interpersonal Logical Musical Kinesthetic Spatial Intrapersonal Naturalistic Dimension Description Example GARDNER’S THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE Ability to use language Reasoning, numbers, symbols Sensitivity to pitch, tone perceive the visual-spatial world accurately Ability to use body coordinated movements Understanding of social interactions Understanding of self Recognize similarities/diff in physical world
Linguistic Interpersonal Logical Musical Kinesthetic Spatial Intrapersonal Naturalistic GARDNER’S THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE, APPLICATION TO REAL-LIFE CONTEXT Ability to use language Reasoning, numbers, symbols Sensitivity to pitch, tone Perceive words accurately Ability to use body coordinated movements Understanding of social interactions Understanding of self Recognize similarities/diff in physical world Identify THREE specific examples of how you might address different “intelligences” within your class? In other words, how might you design activities/lessons, etc to meet the needs of students with diverse set of intelligences?
STERNBERG’S TRIARCHIC THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE Intelligence Analytical (componential) Creative (experiential) Practical (contextual) *Prior knowledge For: solving problems, learn new information, making judgments, evaluating, problem solving *Novelty problems Unique situations *Automation Apply learned material to novel situation *Adaptation Adapt to environment *Shaping Change environment *Selection Select new environment
Intelligence: Thought Question Parents at an elementary school back-to-school night want to know why their child is not ability grouped in every content area. They feel that their child is being held back. How would you answer their question? On separate (but possibly related to note), to what extent do you believe intelligence is “nature” or “nurture”? (1: Nature… 10: Nurture)
Intelligence: Nature or Nurture? Foster parent-child.20 The relationship between intelligence scores for a child and foster parent is mildly positive Parent-child.50 Siblings reared together.49 Fraternal twins (two eggs).53 Identical twins (one egg splitting) reared apart:.75 Identical twins reared together.87 Note: Data from 1963
Intelligence: IQ Tests (I) Mental Age: Represents number passed by average child of same age Example: If a child passed a number of items equal to the number passed by the average 15-year old, that child would have a mental age of 15 (regardless of the child’s chronological age) Intelligence Quotient: (mental age ÷ chronological age) x 100 Example: A 10 year-old with a mental age of 10 = (10/10) x 100 = 100 Example: A 21 year-old with a mental age of 21 = (21/21) x 100 = 100 Example: A 10 year-old with a mental age of 9 = (9/10) x 100 = 90 Example: A 10 year-old with a mental age of 11 = (11/10) x 100 = 110
Intelligence: IQ Tests (II) Issues with IQ Tests (1) Does mental age = intelligence? (1) Example: 7-year old and 10-year old have same mental age; comparable intelligence? (2) Example: Two children with IQ of 120 (1) 5 year-old (mental age of 6) (2) 10 year-old (mental age of 12) (2) IQ tests are standardized (1) May not accurately measure intelligence among minority children, ELL (test administration may bias results)
Intelligence: Ability grouping (I) Ability grouping: Placing students of similar abilities into groups, and attempting to match instruction to needs of the groups (Lou, Abrami, & Spence, 2000) Elementary: Between-class grouping: Divides students at a certain grade into levels (e.g., high, average, low) Within-class grouping: Divides students in a class into subgroups based on reading or math scores Joplin plan: Regroups across grade levels MS, HS: Tracking: Places students in different classes or curricula on basis of achievement
Intelligence: Ability grouping (II) What are some pros and cons of ability grouping/tracking? Pros: Teachers can adjust methods, instructional pace and materials to better meet needs of learner Cons: Logistical problems, improper placement, stigmatization, negative effects of homogeneous groups (as opposed to heterogeneous groups)
Intelligence: Socioeconomic status (I) Socioeconomic status (SES): Combination of parents’ income, occupation, and level of education that describes relative standing in society Powerful predictor in student achievement, particularly test scores, grades, suspension rate, and dropout rates (Macionis, 2006) Why do think that SES is such a powerful predictor?
Intelligence: Socioeconomic status (II) SES influences learning in at 3 ways Note: The below describes group differences; individuals within a group vary widely High SES (>160,000)Low SES (<25,000) Basic needs & experiences - Well nourished, stable homes -Access to ed. activities outside home -Sometimes lack proper nourishment -Homelessness, lack access to learning experiences outside of school Parental involvement-Highly involved, involvement in extracurricular activities -Low involvement in extracurricular activities Attitudes & values-Parents value/emphasize autonomy -High expectations -Parents value conformity -Lower expectations