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1Angela Lumpkin, University of Kansas Judy Favor, Baker University Comparing the Academic Performance of High School Athletes and Non-Athletes in Kansas inAngela Lumpkin, University of KansasJudy Favor, Baker University
2IntroductionThe National Federation of State High School Associations serves “…students by providing leadership for the administration of education-based interscholastic activities, which support academic achievement, good citizenship and equitable opportunities.”1The National Association of State Boards of Education claims that high school sports contribute to the overall education of students.1National Federation of State High School Associations, n.d.
3Academic Eligibility Standards Nearly all state athletic and activity associations recommend academic eligibility requirements for participation in extracurricular activities and high school sports.1Requirements include passing all courses, achieving a minimum GPA, enrolling in a minimum number of courses, allowing only a specified number of failing grades, and enforcing an attendance policy.1 21Bukowski, 2010; 2Callari, 2002
4Current Situation in Kansas In Kansas, students must pass 5 units of credit each semester to retain eligibility to participate in sports and extracurricular activities.The Kansas State High School Activities Association mission statement emphasizes that participation in HS activities promotes student academic achievement.No prior studies have compared the academic performance of HS athletes and non-athletes in Kansas.
5Research QuestionsAre there significant statistical differences in academic performance (GPA, graduation rates, number of dropouts, ACT scores, and state assessments) between HS athletes and non-athletes?Are there significant statistical differences in academic performance between HS athletes and non-athletes by gender?Are there significant statistical differences in academic performance between HS athletes and non-athletes by ethnicity?
7Participation in Extracurricular Activities1 Associated withHigher gradesHigher attendance ratesFewer disciplinary problemsLower dropout ratesIncreased student engagement and attachment to their schoolsA more well-rounded education1Burnett, 2000; Camp, 1990; Corbett, 2007; Holland & Andre,1987; Jansen, 1992; Kilrea, 1998; Klesse, 1994; National Federation of State High School Associations, 2008; Marsh, 1992; Matjasko, 2005; McCarthy, 2000; Neish, 1993; O’Brien & Rollefson, 1992; Streb, 2009; Sweet,1986; Zaff, Moore, Papillo, & Williams, 2003
8Participation in HS Sports and Academic Performance1 Early studies did not support a positive relationship between participation in HS sports and higher grades.1Several more recent studies support the link between participation in HS sports and higher grades and other areas of academic achievement, including fewer discipline problems and absences and higher state assessment scores and graduation rates.21Hanks & Eckland, 1976; Hauser & Lueptow, 1978; Lueptow & Kayser, 1973; Jefferson, 1999; 2Broh, 2002; Crosnoe, 2001; Fejgin, 1994; Feldman & Matjasko, 2005; JacAngelo, 2003; Kaufmann, 2002; Marsh & Kleitman, 2003; Overton, 2001; Silliker & Quirk, 1997; Stegman and Stephens, 2000; Whitley, 1995
9Participation in HS Sports and Dropping Out of School1 Athletes are less likely to drop out of school than are non-athletes.Possible contributing factors:1. Enhanced feeling of belonging through team involvement.2. Development of social networks among team members.1Davalos, Chavez, & Guardiola, 1999; Jansen, 1992; Mahoney, 2000; Mahoney & Cairns, 1997; McNeal; 1995; Whitley, 1995; Zaff et al., 2003
10MethodologyMatched data from the Kansas State High School Activities Association and the Kansas State Department of Education on athletes and non-athletes in grades 9-12 during the school year (N = 139,349).Analyzed self-reported GPAs, graduation rates, dropouts, ACT test scores, and state assessment scores.Some gender and ethnicity comparisons were made.
12Table 1 Non-Athletes and Athletes in Grades 9-12 in KS High Schools in 2008-2009 Non-Athletes%AthletesTotalGenderMale37,12951.8%34,56948.2%71,69851.5%Female39,92359%27,72841%67,65148.5%EthnicityWhite53,07351.3%50,42048.7%103,49374.3%Hispanic/Latino10,85371.9%4,24228.1%15,09510.8%Black/African American7,33063.2%4,26536.8%11,5958.3%Asian2,18670.8%90029.2%3,0862.2%American Indian1,16060%77340%1,9331.4%Multi-racial1,71058.6%1,21041.4%2,9202.1%Unknown74060.3%48739.7%1,2270.9%Grade in9th grade18,70350.2%18,51849.8%37,22126.7%10th grade19,03053.5%16,51846.5%35,54825.5%11th grade19,07056.5%14,67643.5%33,74624.2%12th grade20,24961.7%12,58538.3%32,83423.6%
13Table 2 Self-Reported Grade Point Averages from ACT Scores Non-AthletesAthletesNumber3.0 GPA or above3.5 GPA or aboveGenderMale3,67464%34%5,01774%43%Female5,54775%44%4,33087%62%EthnicityWhite5,31845%26%6,62656%37%Hispanic/Latino63860%39066%32%Black/African American61552%22%50354%20%Asian32979%51%13891%American Indian11024%9476%Multi-racial15313672%40%Unknown8468%46%5869%
14Table 3 Number and Percentage of 12th Grade Graduates in 2008-2009 Non-Athletes%AthletesGenderMale7,82386.4%7,01997.5%Female9,42689.4%5,19997.7%EthnicityWhite12,84990%10,15498%Hispanic/Latino1,85485%71695%Black/African American1,37579%76097%Asian48788%18291%American Indian24681%144Multi-racial28684%17896%Unknown15289%84Note. While 32,834 students were enrolled in 12th grade in , only 32,093 of these students had complete graduation data. Of the 17,249 non-athletes, 88.1% graduated. But, 2,323 failed to graduate. Of the 12,218 athletes, 97.6% graduated with 303 failing to graduate.
15Table 4 Number and Percentage Out of the Total Number of Students Who Dropped Out in 2008-2009 Non-Athletes%AthletesGenderMale37,1292.9%34,569.26%Female39,9232.2%27,728.13%EthnicityWhite53,0732.4%50,420.16%Hispanic/Latino10,8534,242.52%Black/African American7,3304,265.3%Asian2,1861.2%900.1%American Indian1,1603.2%773Multi-racial1,7102.7%1,210.25%Unknown7404870%Grade in9th grade18,7031.8%18,518.09%10th grade19,0302.6%16,518.17%11th grade19,0703.0%14,67612th grade20,24912,585.28%The number of students who dropped out of Kansas high schools in was 2,016 across grades 9-12; 94% of these dropouts were non-athletes.
17Athlete vs. Non-Athlete High school athletes in Kansas:Earned higher grades.Graduated at a higher rate.Dropped out of school less frequently.Scored higher on all state assessments than non-athletes.Significantly outperformed non-athletes on the mathematics and science tests of the ACT.
18Female vs. Male: Athletes Female athletes scored significantly higher than did male athletes on the ACT in English and reading.Male athletes scored significantly higher than female athletes on the ACT in mathematics and science.
19Female vs. Male: Non-Athletes Female non-athletes had higher GPAs than did male non-athletes.Female non-athletes graduated at a slightly higher percentage than did male non-athletes.
20Athletes vs. Non-Athletes: Males Only Male athletes earned higher grades and dropped out less frequently than did male non-athletes.Male athletes graduated at much higher rates than did male non-athletes.Male non-athletes scored significantly higher than did male athletes on ACT tests in English and reading and on the composite score (combination of all tests). No difference in math or science.
21Athletes vs. Non-Athletes: Females Only Female athletes outperformed female non-athletes across all academic performance measures.Female athletes graduated at much higher rates than did female non-athletes.Female athletes scored significantly higher than did female non-athletes on ACT tests in English, mathematics and science and on the composite score.
22Athletes vs. Non-Athletes: Ethnicity Across known ethnicities, athletes reported higher GPAs, were more likely to graduate, and less likely to drop out than were non-athletes.African-American, American Indian, and Hispanic/Latino athletes graduated at much higher rates (double-digit) than did non-athletes.ACT math and science - White athletes outperformed white non-athletes. No difference in minority athletes as a group.
24Higher Expectations Increase Performance Results suggest that eligibility requirement that Kansas students must pass 5 units of credit each semester to retain sports eligibility may help some athletes take their school work more seriously.Coaches and educators might argue that HS sports help teach and reinforce greater self-discipline, assisting students in managing their time and fulfilling academic responsibilities.Competitiveness in sports may contribute to a similar work effort focused on achieving higher academic goals.
25Sport Participation Retains Students Data suggest that participation in HS sports may positively affect persistence in school, though specific factors involved with a student’s decision to drop out of school were unknown.Given the importance of education to each student’s future, graduating from high school can enable students to pursue additional education and improve their future earning potential.
26Significance of this Study In Kansas, HS athletes in grades 9-12 earned higher grades, graduated at higher rates, dropped out of school less, and scored higher on state assessments than did non-athletes.Provides empirical evidence that participation in HS sports is associated with higher academic performance.School administrators, coaches, and other educators can use this evidence to defend the allocation of limited financial resources to support high school sports.
27Questions?Judy Favor Assistant Dean, School of Education School of Professional & Graduate Studies Baker University 8001 College Blvd. Ste. 100 Overland Park, KSAngela Lumpkin Department of Health, Sport, and Exercise Sciences University of Kansas 146B Robinson Lawrence, KS
28AcknowledgementsThis investigation was supported by an allocation from the University of Kansas School of Education Research Support Fund.The researchers would also like to express sincere appreciation to the Kansas State Department of Education and the Kansas State High School Activities Association for their cooperation with this study.
29ReferencesBroh, B. A. (2002). Linking extracurricular programming to academic achievement: Who benefits and why? Sociology of Education, 75,Bukowski, B. J. (2010). A comparison of academic athletic eligibility in interscholastic sports in American high schools. The Sport Journal, 13(2). Retrieved fromBurnett, M. A. (2000). “One strike and you're out”: An analysis of no pass/no play policies. High School Journal, 84(2), 1.Callari, M. (2002). Academics vs. athletics: Eligibility requirements for interscholastic athletic participation. Interscholastic Athletic Administration, 29(1), 4-7.Camp, W. G. (1990). Participation in student activities and achievement: A covariance structural analysis. Journal of Educational Research, 83,
30ReferencesCorbett, M. (2007). To participate or not participate: The relationship between school sponsored extracurricular activity participation and student outcomes (Doctoral dissertation, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.Crosnoe, R. (2001). The social world of male and female athletes in high school. Sociological Studies of Children and Youth, 8,Davalos, D. B., Chavez, E. L., & Guardiola, R. J. (1999). The effects of extracurricular activity, ethnic identification, and perception of school on student dropout rates. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 21,Feldman, A. F., & Matjasko, J. L. (2005). The role of school-based extracurricular activities in adolescent development: A comprehensive review and future directions. Review of Educational Research, 75,
31ReferencesFejgin, N. (1994). Participation in high school competitive sports: A subversion of school mission or contribution to academic goals? Sociology of Sport Journal, 11,Hanks, M. P., & Eckland, B. K. (1976). Athletics and social participation in the educational attainment process. Sociology of Education, 49,Hauser, W. J., & Lueptow, L. B. (1978). Participation in athletics and academic achievement: A replication and extension. Sociological Quarterly, 19,Holland, A., & Andre, T. (1987). Participation in extracurricular activities in secondary school: What is known, what needs to be known? Review of Educational Research, 57,JacAngelo, N. P. (2003). The relation of sports participation to academic performance of high school students (Doctoral dissertation, Florida International University). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.
32ReferencesJansen, P. (1992). High school sports: Making magic: Sports build leaders. Athletic Business, 16(3), 14.Jefferson, C. (1999). Educational performance of athletes and nonathletes in two Mississippi rural high schools (Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.Kaufmann, A. M. (2002). Interscholastic sports participation as a predictor of academic success for high school students (Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.Kilrea, T. B. (1998). A study of the relationship between extracurricular activity participation and the academic achievement of high school students (Doctoral dissertation, Illinois State University). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.
33ReferencesKlesse, E. J. (1994). The third curriculum II. Student activities. Reston, VA: National Association of Secondary School Principals.Lueptow, L. B., & Kayser, B. D. (1973). Athletic involvement, academic achievement, and aspiration. Sociological Focus, 7,Mahoney, J. L. (2000). School extracurricular activity participation as a moderator in the development of antisocial patterns. Child Development, 71,Mahoney, J. L., & Cairns, R. B. (1997). Do extracurricular activities protect against early school dropout? Developmental Psychology, 33,Marsh, H. W. (1992). Extracurricular activities: Beneficial extension of the traditional curriculum or subversion of academic goals? Journal of Educational Psychology, 84,
34ReferencesMarsh, H., & Kleitman, S. (2003). School athletic participation: Mostly gain with little pain. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 25,McCarthy, K. J. (2000). The effects of student activity participation, gender, ethnicity, and socio-economic level on high school student grade point averages and attendance. Retrieved fromMcNeal, R. B., Jr. (1995). Extracurricular activities and high school dropouts. Sociology of Education, 68,National Association of State Boards of Education. (2004). Athletics and achievement: The report of the NASBE Commission on high school athletics in an era of reform. Alexandria, VA: Author.National Federation of State High School Associations. (2008). The case for high school activities. Retrieved from
35ReferencesNational Federation of State High School Associations. (n.d.). Mission statement. Retrieved fromNeish, M. A. (1993). Student activities and academic achievement at Marysville High School. Reston, VA: National Association of Student Activity Advisers.O’Brien, E., & Rollefson, M. (1992). Extracurricular participation and student engagement. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.Overton, G. P. (2001). A quantitative analysis of the educational performance of athletes and non-athletes of 131 high schools in North Carolina (Doctoral dissertation, East Carolina University). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.
36ReferencesSilliker, S. A., & Quirk, J. T. (1997). The effect of extracurricular activity participation on the academic performance of male and female high school students. School Counselor, 44,Stegman, M., & Stephens, L. J. (2000). Athletics and academics: Are they compatible? High School Magazine, 7(6),Streb, A. G. (2009). A study of the association between high school participation in co-curricular activities and academic achievement (Doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri–St. Louis). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.Sweet, D. (1986). Extracurricular activities participants outperform other students. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement.
37ReferencesWhitley, R. L. (1995). A comparison of the educational performance of athletes and non-athletes in 133 North Carolina high schools (Doctoral dissertation, East Carolina University). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.Zaff, J. F., Moore, K. A., Papillo, A. R., & Williams, S. (2003). Implications of extracurricular activity participation during adolescence on positive outcomes. Journal of Adolescent Research, 18,