Presentation on theme: "Comparing the Academic Performance of High School Athletes and Non-Athletes in Kansas in 2008-2009 Angela Lumpkin, University of Kansas Judy Favor, Baker."— Presentation transcript:
Comparing the Academic Performance of High School Athletes and Non-Athletes in Kansas in Angela Lumpkin, University of Kansas Judy Favor, Baker University
Introduction The National Federation of State High School Associations serves “…students by providing leadership for the administration of education- based interscholastic activities, which support academic achievement, good citizenship and equitable opportunities.” 1 The National Association of State Boards of Education claims that high school sports contribute to the overall education of students. 1 National Federation of State High School Associations, n.d.
Academic Eligibility Standards Nearly all state athletic and activity associations recommend academic eligibility requirements for participation in extracurricular activities and high school sports. 1 Requirements include passing all courses, achieving a minimum GPA, enrolling in a minimum number of courses, allowing only a specified number of failing grades, and enforcing an attendance policy Bukowski, 2010; 2 Callari, 2002
Current Situation in Kansas In Kansas, students must pass 5 units of credit each semester to retain eligibility to participate in sports and extracurricular activities. The Kansas State High School Activities Association mission statement emphasizes that participation in HS activities promotes student academic achievement. No prior studies have compared the academic performance of HS athletes and non-athletes in Kansas.
Research Questions Are there significant statistical differences in academic performance (GPA, graduation rates, number of dropouts, ACT scores, and state assessments) between HS athletes and non- athletes? Are there significant statistical differences in academic performance between HS athletes and non-athletes by gender? Are there significant statistical differences in academic performance between HS athletes and non-athletes by ethnicity?
Review of the Literature
Participation in Extracurricular Activities 1 Associated with Higher grades Higher attendance rates Fewer disciplinary problems Lower dropout rates Increased student engagement and attachment to their schools A more well-rounded education 1 Burnett, 2000; Camp, 1990; Corbett, 2007; Holland & Andre,1987; Jansen, 1992; Kilrea, 1998; Klesse, 1994; National Federation of State High School Associations, 2008; Marsh, 1992; Matjasko, 2005; McCarthy, 2000; Neish, 1993; O’Brien & Rollefson, 1992; Streb, 2009; Sweet,1986; Zaff, Moore, Papillo, & Williams, 2003
Participation in HS Sports and Academic Performance 1 Early studies did not support a positive relationship between participation in HS sports and higher grades. 1 Several more recent studies support the link between participation in HS sports and higher grades and other areas of academic achievement, including fewer discipline problems and absences and higher state assessment scores and graduation rates. 2 1 Hanks & Eckland, 1976; Hauser & Lueptow, 1978; Lueptow & Kayser, 1973; Jefferson, 1999; 2 Broh, 2002; Crosnoe, 2001; Fejgin, 1994; Feldman & Matjasko, 2005; JacAngelo, 2003; Kaufmann, 2002; Marsh & Kleitman, 2003; Overton, 2001; Silliker & Quirk, 1997; Stegman and Stephens, 2000; Whitley, 1995
Participation in HS Sports and Dropping Out of School 1 Athletes are less likely to drop out of school than are non-athletes. Possible contributing factors: 1. Enhanced feeling of belonging through team involvement. 2. Development of social networks among team members. 1 Davalos, Chavez, & Guardiola, 1999; Jansen, 1992; Mahoney, 2000; Mahoney & Cairns, 1997; McNeal; 1995; Whitley, 1995; Zaff et al., 2003
Methodology Matched data from the Kansas State High School Activities Association and the Kansas State Department of Education on athletes and non-athletes in grades 9-12 during the school year (N = 139,349). Analyzed self-reported GPAs, graduation rates, dropouts, ACT test scores, and state assessment scores. Some gender and ethnicity comparisons were made.
Non-Athletes Athletes Number 3.0 GPA or above 3.5 GPA or above Number 3.0 GPA or above 3.5 GPA or above Gender Male3,67464%34%5,01774%43% Female5,54775%44%4,33087%62% Ethnicity White5,31845%26%6,62656%37% Hispanic/Latino 63860%26% 39066%32% Black/African American 61552%22% 50354%20% Asian 32979%51% 13891%60% American Indian 11060%24% 9476%45% Multi-racial 15364%34% 13672%40% Unknown 8468%46% 5869%37% Table 2 Self-Reported Grade Point Averages from ACT Scores
Non-Athletes %Athletes % Gender Male 7, %7, % Female 9, %5, % Ethnicity White12,84990%10,15498% Hispanic/Latino 1,85485% 71695% Black/African American 1,37579% 76097% Asian 48788% 18291% American Indian 24681% 14498% Multi-racial 28684% 17896% Unknown 15289% 8495% Table 3 Number and Percentage of 12 th Grade Graduates in Note. While 32,834 students were enrolled in 12 th grade in , only 32,093 of these students had complete graduation data. Of the 17,249 non-athletes, 88.1% graduated. But, 2,323 failed to graduate. Of the 12,218 athletes, 97.6% graduated with 303 failing to graduate.
Non-Athletes%Athletes% Gender Male37,1292.9%34,569.26% Female39,9232.2%27,728.13% Ethnicity White53,0732.4%50,420.16% Hispanic/Latino10,8532.9%4,242.52% Black/African American7,3302.9%4,265.3% Asian2,1861.2%900.1% American Indian1,1603.2%773.26% Multi-racial1,7102.7%1,210.25% Unknown7402.4%4870% Grade in th grade18,7031.8%18,518.09% 10 th grade19,0302.6%16,518.17% 11 th grade19,0703.0%14,676.3% 12 th grade20,2492.6%12,585.28% Table 4 Number and Percentage Out of the Total Number of Students Who Dropped Out in The number of students who dropped out of Kansas high schools in was 2,016 across grades 9-12; 94% of these dropouts were non-athletes.
Athlete vs. Non-Athlete High school athletes in Kansas: Earned higher grades. Graduated at a higher rate. Dropped out of school less frequently. Scored higher on all state assessments than non-athletes. Significantly outperformed non-athletes on the mathematics and science tests of the ACT.
Female vs. Male: Athletes Female athletes scored significantly higher than did male athletes on the ACT in English and reading. Male athletes scored significantly higher than female athletes on the ACT in mathematics and science.
Female vs. Male: Non-Athletes Female non-athletes had higher GPAs than did male non-athletes. Female non-athletes graduated at a slightly higher percentage than did male non-athletes.
Athletes vs. Non-Athletes: Males Only Male athletes earned higher grades and dropped out less frequently than did male non- athletes. Male athletes graduated at much higher rates than did male non-athletes. Male non-athletes scored significantly higher than did male athletes on ACT tests in English and reading and on the composite score (combination of all tests). No difference in math or science.
Athletes vs. Non-Athletes: Females Only Female athletes outperformed female non- athletes across all academic performance measures. Female athletes graduated at much higher rates than did female non-athletes. Female athletes scored significantly higher than did female non-athletes on ACT tests in English, mathematics and science and on the composite score.
Athletes vs. Non-Athletes: Ethnicity Across known ethnicities, athletes reported higher GPAs, were more likely to graduate, and less likely to drop out than were non- athletes. African-American, American Indian, and Hispanic/Latino athletes graduated at much higher rates (double-digit) than did non- athletes. ACT math and science - White athletes outperformed white non-athletes. No difference in minority athletes as a group.
Higher Expectations Increase Performance Results suggest that eligibility requirement that Kansas students must pass 5 units of credit each semester to retain sports eligibility may help some athletes take their school work more seriously. Coaches and educators might argue that HS sports help teach and reinforce greater self- discipline, assisting students in managing their time and fulfilling academic responsibilities. Competitiveness in sports may contribute to a similar work effort focused on achieving higher academic goals.
Sport Participation Retains Students Data suggest that participation in HS sports may positively affect persistence in school, though specific factors involved with a student’s decision to drop out of school were unknown. Given the importance of education to each student’s future, graduating from high school can enable students to pursue additional education and improve their future earning potential.
Significance of this Study In Kansas, HS athletes in grades 9-12 earned higher grades, graduated at higher rates, dropped out of school less, and scored higher on state assessments than did non-athletes. Provides empirical evidence that participation in HS sports is associated with higher academic performance. School administrators, coaches, and other educators can use this evidence to defend the allocation of limited financial resources to support high school sports.
Questions? Angela Lumpkin Department of Health, Sport, and Exercise Sciences University of Kansas 146B Robinson Lawrence, KS Judy Favor Assistant Dean, School of Education School of Professional & Graduate Studies Baker University 8001 College Blvd. Ste. 100 Overland Park, KS
Acknowledgements This investigation was supported by an allocation from the University of Kansas School of Education Research Support Fund. The researchers would also like to express sincere appreciation to the Kansas State Department of Education and the Kansas State High School Activities Association for their cooperation with this study.
References Broh, B. A. (2002). Linking extracurricular programming to academic achievement: Who benefits and why? Sociology of Education, 75, Bukowski, B. J. (2010). A comparison of academic athletic eligibility in interscholastic sports in American high schools. The Sport Journal, 13(2). Retrieved from athletic-eligibility-interscholastic-sports-american-high-schools Burnett, M. A. (2000). “One strike and you're out”: An analysis of no pass/no play policies. High School Journal, 84(2), 1. Callari, M. (2002). Academics vs. athletics: Eligibility requirements for interscholastic athletic participation. Interscholastic Athletic Administration, 29(1), 4-7. Camp, W. G. (1990). Participation in student activities and achievement: A covariance structural analysis. Journal of Educational Research, 83,
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