Presentation on theme: "This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No: HRD-0827526. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations."— Presentation transcript:
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No: HRD-0827526. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Parent Engagement with Freshman & Older High School Students Lee Shumow & Jennifer A. Schmidt Northern Illinois University
Background Parental engagement (PE) during high school is understudied. Few studies compare PE between grade levels. PE probably differs by grade level. Prior work shows PE differs by subject area for adolescents, and matters in science. 9 th Grade is a critical juncture. Many students struggle with the HS transition.
Purposes of Study Compares three different dimensions of school engagement between parents of freshman and parents of older high school students. Investigates predictors of PE with freshman and with older high school students. Tests whether PE contributes to motivation and academic adjustment differently for freshman than older high school students.
Context Comprehensive high school (grades 9-12). Diverse community on fringe of a large metropolitan area. Enrollment of approximately 3,300 in 2009. Graduation rate 74%. Students from 3 general science, 3 biology, 3 chemistry, and 3 physics classrooms (N = 244; n=12 did not complete the year). Oversampled students in the 9 th grade 43 %: 9 th grade, 21%:10 th grade, 34 %: 11 th grade, and 2%: 12 th grade. 53% male and 47% female. 42% White, 37% Latino, 12% African American, 2% Asian, 1% Native American, and 6% multi-racial. 43% of students in the sample were eligible for free/reduced lunch.
Procedure Student surveys: student characteristics (grade, age, gender, ethnicity); family background; students’ future academic aspirations; homework completion; and parental engagement. ESM Experience sampling method: 2 waves of data collection (5 consecutive days each); participants wore a pager, which was used to signal them using a remote transmitter at 2 randomly selected time points during each day’s science class. In response, students recorded their activities and various dimensions of their subjective experience in the Experience Sampling Form. School Records: school organization and curriculum, students’ grades, and “free lunch” status.
Description of Parent Involvement Four factors: PE at-home, PE at-school, PE with educational planning, parent child discussion about science. This study: PE at-home: check hw, help with hw, find help with hw, limit tv & video games (.77); PE at-school: knows teacher, talks to teacher, attends school events, watches students perform at school (.75); PE ed planning: talk re courses & career (.65). Generally low PE in all types.
Comparing PE by Grade Ninth Grade At Home: 1.07 (.82) At School: 0.40 (.37) Ed Planning: 1.15 (.60) Older Grades t 0.85 (.75) -2.1* 0.49 (.39) 1.8* 1.21 (.59) ns
Predicting PE At-home Ninth Grade Older Grades.11 -.12.19.29* -.01 -.03.14 ns Parent Ed White Immigrant Academic Expect Science Interest Science Difficult 1 st Quarter Grades R2R2.03.09.14.19^.35**.02 -.27*.21** Parent Ed White Immigrant Academic Expect Science Interest Science Difficult 1 st Quarter Grades R2R2
Predicting PE At-School Ninth Grade Older Grades.20.11 -.36**.30.16 -.13.08.36*** Parent Ed White Immigrant Academic Expect Science Interest Science Difficult 1 st Quarter Grades R2R2.34**.27* -.05.19*.15 -.02 -.15.35*** Parent Ed White Immigrant Academic Expect Science Interest Science Difficult 1 st Quarter Grades R2R2
Predicting PE Ed Planning Ninth Grade Older Grades.09.10 -.13.17.41**.10.19.23* Parent Ed White Immigrant Academic Expect Science Interest Science Difficult 1 st Quarter Grades R2R2.01.22*.04.30***.08.02 -.06.15* Parent Ed White Immigrant Academic Expect Science Interest Science Difficult 1 st Quarter Grades R2R2
Does PE contribute to HS outcomes similarly across grades? Overall: PE at-home was associated positively w/ students engagement (perception class interesting and important) but negatively w/ GPA; PE at-school was associated positively w/ sense of skill and GPA but negatively w/ time spent doing homework; PE Ed plan not associated w/ outcomes.
Interactions: Impact of PE on some outcomes differed by grade More PE at home related to: – 9 th graders reporting being more skilled (efficacious) in class (but not older students). – Older students (but not 9 th graders) thinking what they were doing in class was valuable. – Older students lower GPA, ns 9 th graders. More PE at school related to: – 9 th graders (but not older students) thinking what they were doing in class was valuable. – 9 th graders (but not older students) reporting higher self esteem during class.
Summary PE at-school less for parents of 9 th than older but PE at home more for 9 th graders. Parents from traditionally marginalized groups were involved at home much to same extent as were parents who were white, native born, and relatively more affluent and educated at both grade levels. HOWEVER, at school was less. Although not extensive, PE at-home and school predicted outcomes. Some differences by grade.
Conclusions and Implications Results support the observation that parents are critical partners during ninth grade (Herlihy, 2007). Schools need to reach out to all parents of freshman, but especially immigrants, to invite and encourage them to participate in school events. Parents of older students who get low grades during the first quarter could be provided support for helping their children at home. High schools also could engage and support considerably more parent engagement in educational planning