Presentation on theme: "Remembrance Program H.M.C.Ships HURON, PROTECTEUR, CALGARY"— Presentation transcript:
1Remembrance Program H.M.C.Ships HURON, PROTECTEUR, CALGARY Museum of the Regiments and the Naval Museum of Albertain conjunction withThe Royal Canadian LegionRemembrance Program 5The Canadian NavyProgram Lay-outShow Video:Choose your favourite video to show.The best clip is.Give PresentationIncluding Reading of the Poems(13 Minutes)Talk About Personal Experiences(5 Minutes)Question and Answer Period(10 Minutes)This gives the children an opportunity to ask questions related to the navy and/or Remembrance Day itself.30 Minute Tour(30 minutes max!)With this unit, children will be given a 30 minute guided our through the museum by the host on duty. This is all they have time for. If there is more than 1 group, ensure that the groups are evenly split to avoid crowding30 Minute Hands-On or Free Time:With this section, if you have a volunteer giving a hands-on segment (up to Grade 6 level only), ensure that they have a space to work with and that they know the material. If an older crowd, offer them the opportunity to explore on their own and/or extend the tour portion.Please do not deviate from the program outline. Groups are sent booking confirmations and expect to complete the activities they have booked. Timings are essential for the success of this program.2. Program InstructionsThe powerpoint presentation/ verbal program is NOT to run more than 30 minutes.Ensure that you practise so that you do not run overtime.Please read your Scripts that are provided prior to coming to the programs. Your presentation will be given from the Key Notes that are provided. The Key Notes are based on the scripts. Adapt the presentations so that the message is given, but use your own preferences from the script for the talk.The program asks for Speakers in 3 areas: Day, Evening and School VisitsDay Shift: 9:30 - 3:00, with presentations being given at 10:00 and 1:00.Evening Shift: 6:30School Visits: one in the morning and one in the afternoon, unless more speakers commit for school visits ahead of time. Check times with forms.Once you sign up for a shift, you are responsible for being here. In the case of an emergency, please call the museum at or as soon as possible so that someone can cover your shift.H.M.C.Ships HURON, PROTECTEUR, CALGARYand two other FFH's 'Pacific Rendezvous'
2IntroductionThe Canadian Navy was established in 1910 and has contributed to every military conflict Canada has participated in.This is a reminder of the wartime experiences of Canadian Naval Personnel and Merchant Seamen.Discover how the Navy has grown, what the accomplishments have been and how we have come to remember it in the present day.Captain Walker in HMS Starling leading a U-boat attack WWII3. The Canadian Navy – ScriptMake sure that…Welcome to the Naval Museum of Alberta, and to the Remembrance program called The Canadian Navy. My name is _____________, and I am going to be looking after your group today. In this program we will be talking about the history of the Canadian Navy from World War I to the present day.Move into Formal ProgramRemembrance Day is a time to remember those who have served Canada during times of war and peace. Remembrance Day was originally called Armistice Day and was created to commemorate the end of World War I on November 11th, We mark Remembrance Day with many ceremonies and memorials as a way to pay tribute to those who have died while trying to fight for peace for all Canadians. As you will see, the Canadian Navy has played a tremendous role in this fight for peace throughout its history.
3Originally called Armistice Day. Remembrance DayOriginally called Armistice Day.Armistice Day was the anniversary of the day that WWI had ended, was chosen to be the National Day of Remembrance.HMCS SNOWBERRY Ship's Company Spring Halifax, NS - Jetty 5The Halifax MemorialOriginally, Remembrance Day was called Armistice Day and was started after the First World War. When the war ended on the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month, everyone was very happy that the soldiers could stop fighting and return to their homes. Thousands of Canadians came home sick or wounded. Some did not come home at all. In Canada, the soldiers, sailors and airmen that returned tried to get their lives back to normal. These people also believed that those who had died should not be forgotten. Armistice Day, the anniversary of the day that the war had ended, was chosen to be the National Day of Remembrance.Image: Department of Veterans Affairs information as follows:The monument is a great granite Cross of Sacrifice over 12 metres high, clearly visible to all ships approaching Halifax. The cross is mounted on a large podium bearing bronze panels upon, which are inscribed the names of 3,257 Canadian men and women who were buried at sea. The dedicatory inscription, in French and English, reads as follows:1914 1945IN THE HONOUR OF THE MEN AND WOMEN OF THE NAVY, ARMY AND MERCHANT NAVY OF CANADA WHOSE NAMES ARE INSCRIBED HERE THEIR GRAVES ARE UNKNOWN BUT THEIR MEMORY SHALL ENDUREWar ended on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month.Thousands of Canadians were wounded or killed.Soldiers, sailors and airmen who returned believed that those who had died should not be forgotten.
4Germany and Britain were competing for Naval Power. Canada Creates a NavyHMCS NiobeGermany and Britain were competing for Naval Power.Canada was relying on Britain’s Navy.In 1905, the first all-big gun ship called the HMS Dreadnought is invented.People worried about the Dreadnoughts. People thought that Canada should have its own navy by 1909.The seeds for World War I were sown as Britain and Germany competed for naval power. In 1905 the first all-big gun ship called the HMS Dreadnought. Britain and Germany each tried to build more Dreadnought type ships than the other. Canada did not have her own navy at this time but relied on Britain’s Navy. However, in 1909 a plan to form Canada’s own navy was put to the government, as people were worried about the threat of Dreadnoughts. Germany had more of them than Britain. Sir Wilfred Laurier approved the creation of a Canadian Navy when he passed The Naval Act on May 4th, 1910.Germany had more Dreadnoughts than Britain by this time and was thought to be a threat to the entire British Empire.Sir Wilfred Laurier passed The Naval Act on May 4th, to create the Canadian Navy.
5The Canadian Navy and World War One Britain declared war on Germany on August 4th, This meant Canada was at war too.Canada’s Navy only had two cruisers: HMCS Niobe on the East Coast and HMCS Rainbow on the West Coast.HMCS RainbowOfficers of the HMCS Rainbow 1910Britain declared war on Germany on August 4th, This brought the entire British Empire, including Canada, to war too. Canada’s navy only had two cruisers: HMCS Niobe and Rainbow. They would be facing a new threat, the U-boat. PictureBack row (left to right) FromGunner Ernest Jehan; Engineer Lt. Roland H.M. Bury; Lt.(N) Ronald H.C. Hallifax; Lt. Richard L. Edwards; Chief Art. Eng. Reginald H. Wood; Gunner Herbert Mock; Gunner(T) Cornelius W. King; Carpenter Joseph Poling. Gunner Jehan's involvement in the sinking of UB 4 may be found by clicking here.Front rowStaff Paymaster Robert A. Jinkin; Lt. Aubrey E.D. Moore; Commander James D.D. Stewart, CO; Eng. Cdr. Thomas J. Morgan; Lt. Reginald V. Holt; Eng. Sub-Lt. A.D.M. Curry, CNF.Photo by S. Thompson, Vancouver Copy courtesy MARCOM MuseumDonated by Michael Curry
6The German U-Boats were very effective. U-Boat Warfare: WWIThe German U-Boats were very effective.The U-Boats began sinking merchant ships in October 1914.Neutral ships were respected but would have to take their chances.In May, the Cunard luxury liner Lusitania sailed from New York and was sunk by a single torpedo.Control Room of a U-Boat WWIThe new German U-Boats turned out to be an effective weapon. The U-Boats began sinking merchant ships in October Allied ships were sunk without warning of any guarantee of safety for the crew. Neutral ships were respected but had to take their chances.Britain tried to combat U-Boats by using mines, decoy ships called Q ships and by ramming into them.Sinkings continued to increase. By the summer of 1915, nearly 100 ships sunk per month. In May, the Cunard luxury passenger liner Lusitania sailed from New York. It was hit by a single torpedo from a submerged U-Boat off the south coast of Irelend. The ship went down with a loss of 1,000 lives, including one Canadian woman.Kptlt. Walther Schwieger ( ) : The Man that sank the Luisitania
7Submarine Warfare gets Worse By the summer of 1915, nearly 100 ships were sunk per month.Britain tried to combat U-Boats by using mines, decoy ships called Q ships and ramming them.When Germany went to unrestricted warfare, in 3 months over 800 ships were sunk.To combat the sinkings, ships began sailing in convoys.Losses dropped immediately and convoys were quickly organized for all inbound ships.Halifax and Sydney became the assembly ports for many convoys.The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) escorted them eastbound.The Royal Navy served as ocean escorts, and destroyers and aircraft met them in the United Kingdom.These convoys successfully held off the U-boats.On February 1st, 1917 Germany went to unrestricted submarine warfare. This meant that no ships would be spared. In three months 800 ships and 8,000 seamen went to the bottom of the sea. 25% of merchant ships that sailed from British ports were being sunk and people thought the Merchant fleet would be destroyed by November.To combat sinkings, convoys of ships began. Losses dropped immediately and convoys were quickly organized for all inbound ships. Halifax and Sydney became the assembly ports for many convoys. The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) escorted them eastbound. The Royal Navy served as ocean escorts, and destroyers and aircraft met them in the United Kingdom. These convoys successfully held off the U-boats.
8The Most Successful U-Boat Commander : Kptlt. Arnauld de la Perriere. SM U 135 – a WWI submarineThe Most Successful U-Boat Commander : Kptlt. Arnauld de la Perriere.The German threat face to face.The Crew of SM U C 67: 29 November 1918: The War is Over!
9The Early Naval Air Service By 1913, the Royal Naval Air Service had some non-rigid airships and fifty-two short seaplanes, which could stay airborne for three hours and could fly of seventy-five miles. They were used for reconnaissance and gunfire spotting. During World War One, Sopwith Camels were flown for reconnaissance and submarine patrols. People thought about using them for submarine patrols, but they had to develop anti-submarine weapons.1913, the Royal Naval Air Service had non-rigid airships and 52 short seaplanes.When war broke out Sopwith Camels were built.Their job was reconnaissance and gunfire spotting.The potential for fighting against submarines was seen, but no one had any type of anti-submarine weapon.
10HMS Niobe raised the alarm. The Halifax ExplosionThe crew of the Mont Blanc abandoned ship and she drifted, blazing, out of control, down the harbour..HMS Niobe raised the alarm.20 minutes after the collision, the SS Mont Blanc exploded.It was the biggest man-made explosion until the atomic bomb landed in Hiroshima.This catastrophe not only hurt the people of Halifax, but it crippled the naval, shipping and transport operations at a crucial time.6 December, 1917 was a huge disaster.The SS Mont Blanc of France steamed into Halifax harbour to anchor and wait for the next convoy.She collided with the Norweigian ship SS IMO going through the entrance to the harbour.The SS Mont Blanc had an explosive cargo. In her hold were 2,700 tons of guncotton, picric acid, and TNT among other things.6 December, 1917 was a disaster for Canada. On December 6th, SS Mont Blanc of Frane “steamed into Halifax harbour to anchor and await her convoy”. While going through Bedford Basin, she collided with the SS IMO of Norway. On deck was a cargo of benzol (a type of fuel). Some drums ruptured and burst into flames. The crew of the Mont Blanc abandoned ship and she drifted, blazing, out of control, down the harbour. In her hold were 2,700 tons of guncotton, picric acid, and TNT. HMCS Niobe raised the alarm and went to try and help. 20 minutes after the collision, the SS Mont Blanc exploded.It was the biggest man-made explosion until the atomic bomb. The force of the explosion leveled a full square mile of Halifax. Sixteen hundred died that day; 9,000 were injured, including 200 blinded by flying glass; 6,000 people in a city of only 50,000 were homeless with winter setting in. Niobe was badly damaged and naval installations suffered heavily. The naval college had to be abandoned and when the ensuing fire threatened the naval magazine, the city was evacuated until the danger was over. This catastrophe not only hurt the people of Halifax, but it crippled the naval, shipping and transport operations at a crucial time. Russia was out of the war and the battle in France was raging.
11Map of the HarbourThe Aftermath of the ExplosionSurvivors of the Explosion
12World War I continued for nearly another year. The End of World War OneWorld War I continued for nearly another year.It ended November 11th, 1918.The Royal Canadian Navy had some 9,600 all ranks, over 100 ships, and a fledgling Naval Air Service.A National Merchant Marine was emerging.Modern shipbuilding had begun.World War I would continue for nearly another year. November 11th, 1918 would mark its end. By then, the Royal Canadian Navy had some 9,600 all ranks, over 100 ships, and a fledgling Naval Air Service. A National Merchant Marine was emerging and modern shipbuilding had begun.
13We began the war with only 1819 men and approximately 13 vessels. The Impact of World War TwoCorvettesWorld War II would see major developments in Canada’s Navy.The Royal Canadian Navy was the first into action and was one of Canada’s greatest contributions to the war effort.We began the war with only 1819 men and approximately 13 vessels.By the end of WWII, Canada had the 3rd largest navy in the world. World War II would see major developments in Canada’s Naval strength. The Royal Canadian Navy would be the first into action and would be one Canada’s greatest contributions to the war effort. We began the war with only 1819 men and approximately 13 vessels. We would become, for a short time, the third largest navy in the world by war’s end.HMCS Barrie and HMCS Nanaimo (above)
14Canada declared war on Sunday, September 10th, 1939. The Early Days of World War TwoRescued Merchant Seaman on HMCS ArvidaSS AtheniaCanada declared war on Sunday, September 10th, 1939.Newfoundland was already at war as a British Colony.When the SS Athenia was sunk on September 3rd, 1939 by U-30, convoys were ordered.Again, Halifax became an important port for assembling convoys.U-boats were more efficient than during World War I.In the first six months shipping losses reached 700,000 tons – over 20 ships per month (an “average” ship was 5,000 tons).Both independent ships and convoys suffered heavy losses.Canada formerly entered war on Sunday, September 10th, Newfoundland, still a British Colony, was already at war and was the scene of the first “act of hostility” in North America: where a German merchant ship was seized and 30 German prisoners taken. The YMCA in St. John’s was converted into a prison.With the sinking of another ocean liner called Athenia on September 3th, 1939, convoys were again ordered. Halifax became an important port during the war. U-boats were more efficient than during World War I. In the first six months shipping losses reached 700,000 tons – over 20 ships per month (an “average” ship was 5,000 tons). Both independent ships and convoys suffered heavy losses.
15The Battle of the Atlantic lasted from 1939 - 1945. Convoys went from Halifax to the UK. A larger armed escort was needed as sinkings were high.The escort force was mainly RN and RCN ships, based in Newfoundland, under Canadian Command.Aircraft were used against U-boats but at first, did not have the range to cover the central Atlantic Ocean.This was called the “Black Pit” and U-boats caused huge losses here.The Battle of the Atlantic began in Some convoys had been steaming with little or no anti-submarine escort from the time they left the Halifax escort until they were just west of Ireland. “This was the only battle of the Second World War that ran its full five and a half years”. The only answer to the U-boat danger was a complete transatlantic escort. The 1944/45 escort force would mainly be RCN ships, based on St. John’s Newfoundland, and under Canadian Command.However, the Atlantic was full of danger. Up to 1943, aircraft lacked the range to cover the central part of the Atlantic Ocean. This became known as the “Black Pit” because of the heavy losses U-boats were often able to inflict there.Kptlt. Kretschmer after patrol on U-99, the 2nd most successful U-boat.
16Torpedoes off Canadian Shores Flying Officer Bélanger (right) and crew made 3 near-miss attacks on U-517 in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.North America’s coast was a target for U-Boats for attacks.From January to July 1942, nearly 400 ships were sunk for only 7 U-boats.The Gulf of St. Lawrence was at risk.May 11-12th, 2 large freighters were torpedoed 8 miles off the Gaspé Peninsula.The RCN organized convoys and closed the gulf to overseas shipping.By early October, 7 U-boats had sunk 2 naval escorts and 19 merchant vessels in the gulf and river.On Oct.14, the old ferry Caribou was sunk just forty miles away from Newfoundland.As the war carried on, North America became very vulnerable to attacks along the coast. Pearl Harbor was hit on December 7th, 1941, which meant that many American warships were taken away from the North Atlantic, which weakened Atlantic anti-submarine defenses. From January to July 1942, nearly 400 ships were sunk for the loss of only seven U-boats.The Gulf of St. Lawrence was a very dangerous area for North America. On the night of May 11-12th, a 5,000-ton freighter was torpedoed eight miles off the Gaspé Peninsula. Within hours a second one was hit. The navy organized convoys and eventually closed the gulf to overseas shipping.By early October, seven U-boats had sunk two naval escorts and nineteen merchant vessels in the gulf and river. On October 14th, the old ferry Caribou was sunk just forty miles short of her Newfoundland destination. Of 257 passengers, 125 men, women, and children were killed. War was coming very close to home. However, German records later showed that the Canadian Air Force and Naval operations had discouraged U-boats and the attack on Caribou was a stroke of luck.Anti-submarine grenade launched by the corvette HMCS Pictou during submarine attack
17An Increase of Strength By Autumn, 1942 Germany had nearly 300 submarines available.They were concentrating their efforts on the Battle of the Atlantic.Canada’s navy also grew.By 1942 the RCN had 16,000 members serving in 188 warships.Women were recruited into the “Women’s Royal Canadian Naval Service” or ‘Wrens”. HMCS Brantford covered with ice, February 1944By the fall of 1942 Germany had nearly 300 submarines available. They were concentrating their efforts on the Battle of the Atlantic. However, Canada’s navy was also growing. By 1942 the RCN had 16,000 members serving in 188 warships. Women had even begun serving in the Navy under a new department called the “Women’s Royal Canadian Naval Service” or ‘Wrens”.The Torpedoed SS Fort Camsum
18The WRCNS branch was created to release men for service at sea. Women in the NavyThe WRCNS branch was created to release men for service at sea.They were trained for over 40 specialist ratings (jobs).Wrens went to the main naval schools.The navy eventually recruited 6500 women.Originally. They only wanted 20 women.By war’s end 244 service women had won decorations.1000 Wrens were posted abroad in places such as the United Kingdom, the United States and NewfoundlandThe WRCNS branch was created to release men for service at sea. Wrens went to the main naval schools to train for over forty specialist ratings (jobs). The navy eventually recruited This was significantly larger than the navy’s first thought of “a maximum of 20 women”. By war’s end 244 servicewomen had won decorations Wrens were posted abroad in places such as the United Kingdom, Newfoundland and the United States.Drill
19Many ships were lost, including the HMCS Athabaskan. She was one of Canada’s Tribal-class warships.She sank on the night of April 29th, 1944.Of the 261 crew members, 128 and the Captain were lost.86 survived the Prisoner of War camps.47 were returned to England.HMCS Athabaskan was the only Canadian ship sunk in a surface battle. Many ships were lost, including the Athabaskan, one of Canada’s Tribal-class warships, on the night of April 29th, Of the 261 crew members, 128 and the Captain were lost, 86 survived the Prisoner of War camps and 47 were returned to England. Athabaskan was the only Canadian ship sunk in a surface battle.
20Many sailors were “on loan” to the Royal Navy. Canadian sailors fought in every element of the war at sea – in battleships, cruisers, fleet destroyers, motor torpedo boats, landing craft, carriers and naval aircraft, minesweepers, and submarinesMany sailors were “on loan” to the Royal Navy.The majority served in Canadian ships.75% served in escorts of the Battle of the Atlantic.HMCS Esquimalt before she was sunk by U 190 who later surrendered in Canadian waters.During World War II, Canadian sailors fought in every theatre of the war at sea – in battleships, cruisers, fleet destroyers, motor torpedo boats, landing craft, carriers and naval aircraft, minesweepers, submarines – and in every theatre of war, many “on loan” to the Royal Navy. However, the majority served in Canadian ships and three-quarters served “in the battered, unglamorous little escorts that had such a vital role in winning the most crucial, long-drawn-out struggle of the war”. These escorts were called corvettes.
21The Canadian Achievement Ship designs improved.There was better air support by the RCAF (Royal Canadian Air Force)The “Black Pit” was slowly closed.During the last months before D-Day, the RCN assumed responsibility for all North Atlantic escort.25,343 merchant ship voyages were made from North America to British ports under RCN escort.Supermarine Spitfire XV Aka SeaFiresWith improved ship design and better air support by the RCAF (Royal Canadian Air Force) the “Black Pit” was slowly closed. During the last months before the Normandy invasion the RCN assumed responsibility for all North Atlantic escort. The most important achievement of the Atlantic war were the 25,343 merchant ship voyages made from North America to British ports under the escort of the Canadian forces. These ships delivered lots of cargo to help the United Kingdom and make the liberation of Europe possible.These ships delivered approximately 164,783,921 tonnes of cargo to the United Kingdom , which helped win the war.
22The Last Canadian Naval Sacrifice The last Canadian killed during World War II was Lieutenant Robert Hampton “Hammy” Gray.He belonged to the RCNVR (Royal Canadian Naval Volunteer Reserve).He flew as a fighter pilot from HMS Formidable.He won a VC as he led a strike against the heavily defended base at Onagawa Bay.He destroyed the Ocean Escort Amakusu before crashing into the sea with his plane on fire.The last Canadian killed during World War II was Lieutenant Robert Hampton “Hammy” Gray, a member of the RCNVR (Royal Canadian Naval Volunteer Reserve) who flew as a fighter pilot from HMS Formidable. He earned the Victoria Cross as he led a heroic strike against the heavily defended base at Onagawa Bay. He destroyed the Ocean Escort Amakusu before crashing into the sea.The Last Canadian Naval Sacrifice
23By the end of WWII, the RCN was the 3rd largest Navy. It had 373 fighting ships and over 100,000 members including 6,500 women in the WRCNS.We also had the wartime world’s fourth largest Merchant Navy.The End of World War TwoA VLR Liberator escorts convoyGermany finally surrendered on May 7th, The 8th of May became officially known as V-E Day (Victory in Europe Day); celebrations were held throughout the Allied world. However, Japan was still in the war. This would be a new war for the Canadians: submarine threat was minor and random. However, Canada would see very little of the war in the pacific. Though one ship, the HMCS Uganda, did go to the Pacific, they were there for less than a month before returning home.The RCN grew to become, for a brief time, the third largest of the Allied Navies. At war’s end the RCN was comprised of 373 fighting ships and over 100,000 members including 6,500 women in the WRCNS. Over the course of six years, the wartime world’s fourth largest Merchant Navy would emerge, almost all of it built in Canadian shipyards. The number of ships that poured from Canadian shipyards during the war was extraordinary.More than 2,000 RCN were killed by all causes in all theatres of war. The majority were killed in the Battle of the Atlantic. 752 members of the RCAF died in maritime operations as a result of enemy actions and flying accidents. The Book of Remembrance for the Merchant Navy lists by name nearly 1,600 Canadians and Newfoundlanders, or those who served on ships of Canadian or Newfoundland registry. Among them are eight women. Many other unknown Canadians lost their lives serving in Allied merchant navies. Canadian ships were almost all built in Canadian shipyards.2,000+ RCN were killed by all causes in all theatres of war.Most were killed in the Battle of the Atlantic.752 members of the RCAF died in maritime operations.The Book of Remembrance for the Merchant Navy lists by name nearly 1,600 Canadians and Newfoundlanders.
24The Navy and the Korean Conflict The Canadian Navy continued to work towards peace after the end of World War II.June 25th 1950, North Korean tanks and troops burst across the border into South Korea.This became the first UN action.The Canadian Navy was the first in action again.They helped provide supplies and men for the UN, as well as support land battles.The Canadian Navy continued to work towards peace after the end of World War II.June 25th 1950, North Korean tanks and troops burst across the border into South Korea.This became the first UN action.The Canadian Navy was the first in action again.They helped provide supplies and men for the UN, as well as support land battles.HMCS Sioux in ice off Korean CoastHMCS Cayuga
25The End of The Korean Conflict Memorial Truce talks began on 10 July 1951 at Kaesong.This continued on and off for another 2 years.Fighting ended with an armistice 27 July 1953.In Jan the Canadian army force was cut.The three naval destroyers worked steadily on. Sioux stayed until September, 1955.8 of the RCN’s eleven destroyers completed 21 tours of duty – Cayuga, Athabaskan, Sioux and Crusader from the Pacific Command and Haida, Huron, Iroquois and Nootka from the Atlantic.Over 2500 officers and men served in Korea at least once, 3 Canadians were killed and 2 severely wounded.Truce talks began on July 10th, 1951 at Kaesong and continued on and off for another two years. Fighting ended with an armistice on July 27th, In January 1954 the Canadian army force was cut but the three destroyers worked steadily on. Sioux stayed until September, 1955.Eight of the RCN’s eleven destroyers completed 21 tours of duty – Cayuga, Athabaskan, Sioux and Crusader from the Pacific Command and Haida, Huron, Iroquois and Nootka from the Atlantic. Over 2500 officers and men served there at least once and three Canadians were killed and two severely wounded.
26The Navy, NATO and the Cold War Canadian Submarines Objibwa, Onondaga and OkanaganFollowing the Korean war, the Canadian navy participated in both NATO (North American Treaty Organization) and UN missions. New Naval colleges were opened during the 1940s and 1950s. Soviet Nuclear submarines were a new threat which helped produce new innovations, such as the St Laurent class of destroyer escorts, and spearheaded such major inventions like variable depth sonar, the hydrofoil, and the helicopter carrying destroyer (DDH).The Navy helped NATO protect North America from possible Soviet attacks. They also helped with the creation of the DEW (Distant Early Warning) Line in the Arctic. The Naval Board also ensured that all ships, equipment and communications would be compatible with the USN. The Cold War would end with the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989.
27The Post War Roles of the Navy 1964, HMCS Bonaventure carried Canada’s contingent for the UN peacekeeping force to Cypress.The Navy also took part in Peace Support Operations (such as in Korea – , Vietnam 1954 and 1973, Central America – and Cambodia ).They helped with disaster relief and gave humanitarian assistanceExamples are the Red River Floods in Manitoba, earthquake relief in Chile in 1960, hurricane reconstruction in Florida in 1993, and the Swissair crash recovery in 1998.The Navy participates in a variety of training exercises and patrols (such as in the Arctic, fisheries patrols, and drug inceptions).In the winter of 1964, Bonaventure carried Canada’s contingent for the UN peacekeeping force to Cypress. The Navy also took part in Peace Support Operations (such as in Korea – , Vietnam 1954 and 1973, Central America – and Cambodia ). They helped with disaster relief and gave humanitarian assistance, such as during the Red River Floods in Manitoba, fire-fighting assistance, earthquake relief in Chile in 1960, hurricane reconstruction in Florida in 1993, and the Swissair crash recovery in Further, they participate in a variety of training exercises and sovereignty patrols (such as in the Arctic, fisheries patrols, and drug inceptions).
28HMCS Bonaventure: 1964Sikorsky’s flew from the Aircraft Carrier after 1967
29The Gulf War To Modern Day HMCS Fredericton with HMCS PreserverHMCS Ville de Quebec – Halifax Class Patrol FrigateThe Canadian Navy played a large role during the Gulf War 1990.The Canadian task group commander was put in charge of joint naval operations.The Navy assisted during the Bosnian conflict of , the Kosovo campaign of 1999 and with the US Drug Enforcement Agency in counter-narcotics operations in the Gulf of Mexico.At the outset of the 21st century, Canada had in its service arguably the best balanced and most capable navy in its history”.The Canadian Navy also played a large role during the Gulf War. Iraq invaded Kuwait in August Canada went to war and the navy once again led the response. Though they could not be on the front lines, “the unique combination of command and control equipment, personal leadership skills, and national reputation led to the Canadian task group commander being in charge of joint naval operations.Finally, the Navy also helped during the Bosnian conflict of ,the Kosovo campaign of 1999, plus helping the US Drug Enforcement Agency in counter-narcotics operations in the Gulf of Mexico. “At the outset of the 21st century, Canada had in its service arguably the best balanced and most capable navy in its history”.
30HMCS Ottawa, HMCS Preserver, HMCS Iroquois and HMCS Toronto HMCS Algonquin leaving Esquimalt for the Arabian SeaMaritime air has witnessed a change in focus, away from anti-submarine warfare and ocean area surveillance towards a wide range of new operations. The Aurora patrol aircraft and Sea King maritime helicopters support operations like: sanction enforcement; over-land surveillance; tactical lift; land support operations; peace support operations; counter-drug operations; monitoring of illegal immigration; pollution and environmental control; and Search and Rescue.The Canadian Navy has made (and continues to make) many contributions towards peacekeeping within Canada and throughout the world. Their accomplishments speak for themselves.
31THEIR GRAVES ARE UNKNOWN BUT THEIR MEMORY SHALL ENDURE. Remember them on Remembrance DayIN HONOUR OF THE MEN AND WOMEN OF THE NAVY, ARMY AND MERCHANT NAVY OF CANADA WHOSE NAMES ARE INSCRIBED HERETHEIR GRAVES ARE UNKNOWN BUT THEIR MEMORY SHALL ENDURE.