Presentation on theme: "Remembrance Day Program"— Presentation transcript:
1Remembrance Day Program Museum of the Regiments and the Naval Museum of Albertain conjunction withThe Royal Canadian LegionRemembrance Program 5The Canadian NavyProgram Lay-outShow Video:Choose your favourite video to show.The best clip is.Give PresentationIncluding Reading of the Poems(13 Minutes)Talk About Personal Experiences(5 Minutes)Question and Answer Period(10 Minutes)This gives the children an opportunity to ask questions related to the navy and/or Remembrance Day itself.30 Minute Tour(30 minutes max!)With this unit, children will be given a 30 minute guided our through the museum by the host on duty. This is all they have time for. If there is more than 1 group, ensure that the groups are evenly split to avoid crowding30 Minute Hands-On or Free Time:With this section, if you have a volunteer giving a hands-on segment (up to Grade 6 level only), ensure that they have a space to work with and that they know the material. If an older crowd, offer them the opportunity to explore on their own and/or extend the tour portion.Please do not deviate from the program outline. Groups are sent booking confirmations and expect to complete the activities they have booked. Timings are essential for the success of this program.2. Program InstructionsThe powerpoint presentation/ verbal program is NOT to run more than 30 minutes.Ensure that you practise so that you do not run overtime.Please read your Scripts that are provided prior to coming to the programs. Your presentation will be given from the Key Notes that are provided. The Key Notes are based on the scripts. Adapt the presentations so that the message is given, but use your own preferences from the script for the talk.The program asks for Speakers in 3 areas: Day, Evening and School VisitsDay Shift: 9:30 - 3:00, with presentations being given at 10:00 and 1:00.Evening Shift: 6:30School Visits: one in the morning and one in the afternoon, unless more speakers commit for school visits ahead of time. Check times with forms.Once you sign up for a shift, you are responsible for being here. In the case of an emergency, please call the museum at or as soon as possible so that someone can cover your shift.HMCS Calgary
2Remembrance Day is a time to remember those who have served Canada Why Remembrance Day?Remembrance Day is a time to remember those who have served Canadaduring times of war and peace.Remembrance Day was originally called Armistice Day.It was created to commemorate the end of World War I on November 11th,1918.We mark Remembrance Day with many ceremonies and memorials as a wayto pay tribute to those who have died for peace for all Canadians.As you will see, the Canadian Navy has played a tremendous role in this fightfor peace throughout its history.Make sure that…Welcome to the Naval Museum of Alberta, and to the Remembrance program called The Canadian Navy. My name is _____________, and I am going to be looking after your group today. In this program we will be talking about the history of the Canadian Navy from World War I to the present day.Move into Formal ProgramRemembrance Day is a time to remember those who have served Canada during times of war and peace. Remembrance Day was originally called Armistice Day and was created to commemorate the end of World War I on November 11th, We mark Remembrance Day with many ceremonies and memorials as a way to pay tribute to those who have died while trying to fight for peace for all Canadians. As you will see, the Canadian Navy has played a tremendous role in this fight for peace throughout its history.
3Why Canada Created a Navy Sir Wilfred Laurier (c. 1907) Germany and Britain were competing for Naval Power.1905 the first all-big gun ship called the HMSDreadnought is invented.Who could build the most Dreadnoughts?The Hague Peace Conference of 1907 tried to cool therace.Neither Germany nor Britain wanted to relinquish anypolitical power.Canada relied on Britain’s sea power.With the building of Dreadnoughts, Hon. George Fosterproposed that Canada have its own navy in 1909.By the time the proposal came to the attention of thegovernment, Germany was building more Dreadnoughtsthan Britain.This was a threat to the entire British Empire.Sir Wilfred Laurier turned the proposal into the beginningof the Canadian Navy.The Naval Act became law on May 4th, 1910.HMS DreadnoughtThe seeds for World War I were sown during an arms race between Britain and Germany. This race began in 1905 with the creation of the first all-big gun ship called the HMS Dreadnought. It was decided that whoever controlled the seas would be the most powerful (politically) and so began a race to build the most Dreadnoughts. Though the Hague Peace Conference of 1907 tried to cool the race, neither Germany nor Britain wanted to relinquish any political power.Canada did not have her own navy at this time but relied on Britain’s sea power. However, in 1909 a proposal to form her own navy was put forth by Hon. George Foster, a member of Robert Borden’s Conservative opposition. By the time the proposal came to the House of Commons, the alarm had been rung that Germany would have more Dreadnoughts than Britain and this was considered a mortal threat to the entire British Empire. Sir Wilfred Laurier turned the proposal into the beginning of the Canadian Navy. The Naval Act became law on May 4th, 1910.Sir Wilfred Laurier (c. 1907)
4The Canadian Navy and World War One Britain declared war on Germany on August 4th, 1914.This meant Canada was at war too.Canada’s Navy only had two cruisers: HMCS Niobe and Rainbow.Britain declared war on Germany on August 4th, This brought the entire British Empire, including Canada, to war too. Canada’s navy only had two cruisers: HMCS Niobe and Rainbow. They would be facing a new threat. In 1906, U-1, the first in the iron line of deadly Unterseebooten (or U-boats), completed a 600-mile cruise. By 1913 they had a 3000-mile range at eight knots and carried efficient periscopes and powerful wireless transmitters. HMCS NiobeHMCS Rainbow
5The Invention of U-Boats In 1906, U-1 was launched and completed a 600-mile cruise.It was the first in the iron line of deadly Unterseebooten (or U-boats).By 1913 they had a 3000-mile range and carried efficient periscopesand powerful wireless transmitters.People thought that submarines would not be used against shippingbecause of the Hague Conventions.The conventions called for the safe passage of all the crew, and of coursesubmarines could not carry that many people.People were going to be very wrong.It was believed that due to The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 that submarines would not be used against shipping. The conventions called for the safe passage of all the crew, and of course submarines could not carry that many people. Even Winston Churchill believed that the usage of submarines against shipping “would never be done by a civilized power”. This sentiment would definitely be challenged.SM U-86
6The Early Naval Air Force 1913, the Royal Naval Air Service had non-rigidairships and 52 short seaplanes.They could fly for 3 hours and travel 75 miles.Their job was reconnaissance and gunfire spotting.The potential for fighting against submarines wasseen, but no one had any type of anti-submarine weapon.By 1913 the Royal Naval Air Service had some non-rigid airships and fifty-two short seaplanes, which could stay airborne for three hours and had an operating radius of seventy-five miles. They were for reconnaissance and gunfire spotting. “The potential was clear enough against submarines, but no one had an air-dropped or even shipborne anti-submarine weapon. And no one had any notion of what the U-boat really had in store”.The Sopwith Pup
7The German U-Boats were very effective. U-Boat Warfare: WWIThe German U-Boats were very effective.The U-Boats began sinking merchant shipsin October.Then, in February 1915 Kaiser Wilhelm“declared the approaches to Britain awarzone”.Now, Allied ships could be sunk with nowarning and the safety of the crews wasleft to chance.Neutral ships were respected but wouldhave to take their chances.The LusitaniaThe German U-Boats turned out to be a “tremendously potent weapon of war”. The U-Boats began sinking merchant ships in October. At first they were scrupulous about the Rules of War, however by February 1915 Kaiser Wilhelm had “declared the approaches to Britain a warzone”. This meant that Allied ships could be sunk without warning of any guarantee of safety for the crew. Neutral ships would be respected but would have to take their chances.Sinkings increased dramatically. By the summer of 1915 there were nearly 100 ships sunk per month. In May, the Cunard luxury liner Lusitania sailed from New York. It was hit by a single torpedo from a submerged U-Boat off the south coast of Irelend. The ship went down with a loss of 1,000 lives, including 128 Americans. “The seeds were firmly planted for the United States to go to war two years later”.Sinkings increased dramatically.In May, the Cunard luxury linerLusitania sailed from New Yorkand was sunk by a single torpedo.By the summer of 1915, nearly100 ships were sunk per month.
8Submarine Warfare gets Worse Germany was afraid that the United States would declare war.To prevent this, Kaiser Wilhelm declared unrestricted submarine warfarein February 1917.No ships would be spared.In 3 months, 800 ships and 8,000 seamen were sunk. 1 out of 4 merchantships that sailed from British ports were sunk.To combat the sinkings, ships began sailing in convoys.Losses dropped immediately and convoys were quickly organized for allinbound ships.Halifax and Sydney became the assembly ports for many convoys.The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) escorted them eastbound.The Royal Navy and U.S. Navy Cruisers served as ocean escorts, anddestroyers and aircraft met them in the United Kingdom.These convoys successfully held off the U-boats.The war dragged on. With fears that the United States would soon enter the war, it was decided that ‘drowning’ Britain would help solve the problem. On February 1st, 1917 Kaiser Wilhelm declared unrestricted submarine warfare. No ships would be spared. In three months 800 ships and 8,000 seamen went to the bottom of the sea. Fully one quarter of merchant ships that sailed from British ports were being sunk and analysts began projecting the destruction of the Merchant fleet by November.To combat these losses convoys of ships began. Losses dropped immediately to one-quarter of one percent and convoys were quickly organized for all inbound ships. Halifax and Sydney became the assembly ports for many convoys. The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) escorted them eastbound. The Royal Navy and U.S. Navy Cruisers served as ocean escorts, and destroyers and aircraft met them in the United Kingdom. These convoys successfully held off the U-boats. With the United States entering the war by April 1917, North America became a possible target so that patrols began to ensure the safety of the continent.
96 December, 1917 marked a catastrophe for Canada. The Halifax Explosion6 December, 1917 marked a catastrophe for Canada.The SS Mont Blanc of France “steamed into Halifax harbour toanchor and await her convoy”.She collided with the Norwegian ship SS Imo going through theNarrows of Bedford Basin.The SS Mont Blanc had an explosive cargo. In her hold were 2,700tons of guncotton, picric acid, and TNT.The crew of the Mont Blanc abandoned ship and she drifted, blazing,out of control, down the harbour.HMCS Niobe raised the alarm.20 minutes after the collision, the SS Mont Blanc exploded.It was the biggest man-made explosion until Hiroshima.This catastrophe not only hurt the people of Halifax, but it crippledthe naval, shipping and transport operations at a crucial time.However, the beginning of December, 1917 marked a catastrophe for Canada. On December 6th, SS Mont Blanc of French “steamed into Halifax harbour to anchor and await her convoy”. While going through Bedford Basin, she collided with another ship. On deck was a cargo of benzol (a type of fuel). Some drums ruptured and burst into flames. The crew of the Mont Blanc abandoned ship and she drifted, blazing, out of control, down the harbour. In her hold were 2,700 tons of guncotton, picric acid, and TNT. Niobe raised the alarm and Warrant Officer Albert Mattison “was away in the ship’s pinnace with six men. They swarmed up Mont Blanc’s side aiming to scuttle (sink) her and at that moment she exploded. Mattison and his crew were gone in a flash”.
10The Halifax Herald front page, Friday, December 7, 1917. The Halifax ExplosionIt was the biggest man-made explosion until Hiroshima. Imagine the fear of the city. The force of the explosion leveled a full square mile of Halifax. Sixteen hundred died that day; 9,000 were injured, including 200 blinded by flying glass; 6,000 people in a city of only 50,000 were homeless with winter setting in. Niobe was badly damaged and naval installations suffered heavily. The naval college had to be abandoned and when the ensuing fire threatened the naval magazine, the city was evacuated until the danger was over. This catastrophe not only hurt the people of Halifax, but it crippled the naval, shipping and transport operations at a crucial time. Russia was out of the war and the battle in France was raging.Due to their proximity to the harbor Narrows, areas like this at Barrington and Young streets in Halifax's north end were completely leveled by the explosion.The Halifax Herald front page, Friday, December 7, 1917.
11World War I would continue for nearly another year. The End of World War OneWorld War I would continuefor nearly another year.It ended November 11th,1918.The Royal Canadian Navyhad some 9,600 all ranks,over 100 ships, and afledgling Naval Air Service.A National flag MerchantMarine was emerging.Modern shipbuilding hadbegun.World War I would continue for nearly another year. November 11th, 1918 would mark its end. By then, the Royal Canadian Navy had some 9,600 all ranks, over 100 ships, and a fledgling Naval Air Service. A National flag Merchant Marine was emerging and modern shipbuilding had begun.Jack White
12The Impact of World War Two Canadian sailors fought inevery theatre of the war atsea – in battleships, cruisers,fleet destroyers, motortorpedo boats, landing craft,carriers and naval aircraft,minesweepers, and submarinesMany sailors were “on loan” tothe Royal Navy.The majority served in Canadianships.75% served in escorts of theBattle of the Atlantic.During World War II, Canadian sailors fought in every theatre of the war at sea – in battleships, cruisers, fleet destroyers, motor torpedo boats, landing craft, carriers and naval aircraft, minesweepers, submarines – and in every theatre of war, many “on loan” to the Royal Navy. However, the majority served in Canadian ships and three-quarters served “in the battered, unglamorous little escorts that had such a vital role in winning the most crucial, long-drawn-out struggle of the war”.
13The Impact of World War Two World War II would see majordevelopments in Canada’s Navy.The Royal Canadian Navy wasthe first into action and was oneof Canada’s greatestcontributions to the war effort.We began the war with only 3000men including reservists and approximately 13 vessels.By the end of WWII, Canada hadthe third largest navy in the world. A CorvetteWorld War II would see major developments in Canada’s Naval strength. The Royal Canadian Navy would be the first into action and would be one Canada’s greatest contributions to the war effort. We began the war with only 3000 men including reservists and approximately 13 vessels. We would become, for a short time, the third largest navy in the world by war’s end.A Consolidated VLR Liberator providing air- cover for a transatlantic convoy.
14The Early Days of World War Two Canada declared war on Sunday,September 10th, 1939.Newfoundland was already atwar.The first “act of hostility” in NorthAmerica: a German merchant shipseized and thirty Germanprisoners taken happened inNewfoundland.The YMCA in St. John’s wasconverted into a prison. Canada formerly entered war on Sunday, September 10th, Newfoundland, still a British Colony, was already at war and was the scene of the first “act of hostility” in North America: a German merchant ship had been seized and thirty German prisoners taken. The YMCA in St. John’s was converted into a prison.
15The Early Days of World War Two When the Athenia was sunk on September 3rd, 1939.Convoys were again ordered.Halifax became an important port during the war.U-boats were more efficient than during World War I.In the first six months shipping losses reached 700,000 tons – over 20 ships per month (an “average” ship was 5,000 tons).Both independent ships and convoys suffered heavy losses.With the sinking of another ocean liner called Athenia on September 3rd, 1939, convoys were again ordered. Halifax became an important port during the war. U-boats were more efficient than during World War I. In the first six months shipping losses reached 700,000 tons – over 20 ships per month (an “average” ship was 5,000 tons). Both independent ships and convoys suffered heavy losses.SS Athenia
16The Battle of the Atlantic The Battle of the Atlantic began in 1939.Before 1941, convoys had beensteaming with few anti-submarine escorts from the time they left the Halifaxescort until they were just west ofIreland.This WWII battle ran until the end ofthe war.The only answer to the U-boat dangerwas a “complete transatlantic escort”.The new escort force would mainly beRCN ships, based on St. John’sNewfoundland, and under CanadianCommand. The Battle of the Atlantic began in Before 1941, convoys had been steaming with no anti-submarine escort from the time they left the Halifax escort until they were just west of Ireland. “This was the sole battle of the Second World War that ran its full five and a half years”. The only answer to the U-boat danger was a “complete transatlantic escort”. The new escort force would mainly be RCN ships, based on St. John’s Newfoundland, and under Canadian Command.However, the Atlantic was full of danger. At this time aircraft lacked the range to cover the central part of the Atlantic Ocean. This became known as the “Black Pit” because of the heavy losses U-boats were often able to inflict there.At the beginning, aircraftlacked the range to cover thecentral part of the Atlantic Ocean.This was called the “Black Pit”.U-boats caused heavy losseshere.
17Torpedoes off Canadian Shores S.S. Caribou (1925)North America was a target for U-Boats to attacks along the coast.From January to July 1942, nearly 400 ships were sunk for the loss of onlyseven U-boats. The Gulf of St. Lawrence was at risk.May 11-12th, a 5,000-ton freighter was torpedoed 8 miles off the GaspéPeninsula that night. Within hours a second one was hit.The RCN organized convoys and eventually closed the gulf to overseasshipping.By early October, 7 U-boats had sunk 2 naval escorts and 19 merchantvessels in the gulf and river.On October 14th, the old ferry Caribou was sunk just forty miles short of herNewfoundland destination.As the war carried on, North America became very vulnerable to attacks along the coast. Pearl Harbor was hit on December 7th, 1941, which meant that many American ships were withdrawn from the North Atlantic, weakening Atlantic anti-submarine defenses. From January to July 1942, nearly 400 ships were sunk for the loss of only seven U-boats.The Gulf of St. Lawrence was a very vulnerable area for North America. On the night of May 11-12th, a 5,000-ton freighter was torpedoed eight miles off the Gaspé Peninsula. Within hours a second one was hit. The navy organized convoys and eventually closed the gulf to overseas shipping.By early October, seven U-boats had sunk two naval escorts and nineteen merchant vessels in the gulf and river. On October 14th, the old ferry Caribou was sunk just forty miles short of her Newfoundland destination. Of 257 passengers, 125 men, women, and children were killed. War was coming very close to home. However, German records later showed that the Canadian Air Force and Naval operations had discouraged U-boats and the attack on Caribou was a stroke of luck.
18An Increase of Strength By Autumn, 1942 Germany had nearly 300 submarinesavailable.They were concentrating their efforts on the Battle of theAtlantic.Canada’s navy also grew.By 1942 the RCN had 16,000 members serving in 188warships.Women were recruited into the “Women’s RoyalCanadian Naval Service” or ‘Wrens”.By the fall of 1942 Germany had nearly 300 submarines available; nearly ten times as many at the outbreak of war. They were concentrating their efforts on the Battle of the Atlantic. However, Canada’s navy was also growing. By 1942 the RCN had 16,000 members serving in 188 warships. Women had even begun serving in the Navy under a new department called the “Women’s Royal Canadian Naval Service” or ‘Wrens”.U-100Wrens on Drill
19Wrens during an inspection Wren of the King’s NavyWomen in the NavyThe WRCNS branch was createdto release men for service at sea.They were trained for over 40specialist ratings (jobs).Wrens went to the main navalschools.Though they originally wantedonly 20 women, the navy eventually recruited 6500 women.By war’s end 244 servicewomen had won decorations.1000 Wrens were posted abroad in places such as the United Kingdom and the United States.The WRCNS branch was created to release men for service at sea. To learn some forty specialist ratings, Wrens went to the main naval schools. The navy eventually recruited This was significantly larger than the navy’s first thought of “a maximum of 20 women”. By war’s end 244 servicewomen had won decorations Wrens were posted abroad in places such as the United Kingdom and the United States.Wrens during an inspection
20Many ships were lost, including the HMCS Athabaskan. She was one of Canada’s Tribal-class warships.She sank on the night of April 29th, 1944.Of the 261 crew members, 128 and the Captain were lost.86 survived the Prisoner of War camps.47 were returned to England.HMCS Athabaskan was the only Canadian ship sunk in a surface battle. However, many ships were lost, including the Athabaskan, one of Canada’s Tribal-class warships, on the night of April 29th, Of the 261 crew members, 128 and the Captain were lost, 86 survived the Prisoner of War camps and 47 were returned to England. Athabaskan was the only Canadian ship sunk in a surface battle.
21The Canadian Achievement Ship designs improved.There was better air support by the RCAF(Royal Canadian Air Force).The “Black Pit” was slowly closed.During the last months before the Normandyinvasion the RCN assumed responsibility forall North Atlantic escort.25,343 merchant ship voyages were madefrom North America to British ports under theescort of the Canadian forces.These ships delivered approximately164,783,921 tonnes of cargo to the UnitedKingdom and make possible the liberation ofEurope.With improved ship design and better air support by the RCAF (Royal Canadian Air Force) the “Black Pit” was slowly closed. During the last months before the Normandy invasion the RCN assumed responsibility for all North Atlantic escort. The most important achievement of the Atlantic war were the 25,343 merchant ship voyages made from North America to British ports under the escort of the Canadian forces. These ships delivered approximately 164,783,921 tonnes of cargo to sustain the United Kingdom and make possible the liberation of Europe.Normandy Invasion: CanadianTroops Landing at Juno Beach
22The Last Canadian Naval Sacrifice The last Canadian killed during World War II was LieutenantRobert Hampton “Hammy” Gray.He belonged to the RCNVR (Royal Canadian Naval VolunteerReserve).He flew as a fighter pilot from HMSFormidable.He won a VC as he led a strike againstthe heavily defended base at OnagawaBay.He destroyed the Ocean EscortAmakusu before crashing into the seawith his plane on fire. The last Canadian killed during World War II was Lieutenant Robert Hampton “Hammy” Gray, a member of the RCNVR (Royal Canadian Naval Volunteer Reserve) who flew as a fighter pilot from HMS Formidable. He led a heroic strike against the heavily defended base at Onagawa Bay. He would destroy the Ocean Escort Amakusu before crashing into the sea.
23Germany surrendered on May 7th, 1945. The End of World War TwoGermany surrendered on May 7th, 1945.8 May became officially known as V-E Day (Victory in Europe Day).However, Japan was still a threat.The HMCS Uganda headed to the Pacific to fight. They remainedfor less than a month before returning home. Germany finally surrendered on May 7th, The 8th of May became officially known as V-E Day (Victory in Europe Day); celebrations were held throughout the Allied world. However, Japan was still in the war. This would be a new war for the Canadians: submarine threat was minor and random. However, Canada would see very little of the war in the pacific. Though one ship, the HMCS Uganda, did head to the pacific, they remained for less than a month before returning home.HMCS Uganda
24By the end of the Second World War, the RCN was the third The End of World War TwoBy the end of the Second World War, the RCN was the thirdlargest Navy in the world.It had 373 fighting ships and over 100,000 members including6,500 women in the WRCNS.We also had the wartime world’s fourth largest MerchantNavy.Canadian ships were almost all built in Canadian shipyards. 2,000+ RCN were killed by all causes in all theatres of war.Most were killed in the Battle of the Atlantic.752 members of the RCAF died in maritime operations.The Book of Remembrance for the Merchant Navy lists byname nearly 1,600 Canadians and Newfoundlanders.The RCN grew to become, for a brief time, the third largest of the Allied Navies. At war’s end the RCN was comprised of 373 fighting ships and over 100,000 members including 6,500 women in the WRCNS. Over the course of the next six years, the wartime world’s fourth largest Merchant Navy would emerge, almost all of it built in Canadian shipyards. The number of ships that poured from Canadian shipyards during the war was extraordinary.More than 2,000 RCN were killed by all causes in all theatres of war. The vast majority of these were killed in the Battle of the Atlantic. 752 members of the RCAF died in maritime operations as a result of enemy actions and flying accidents. The Book of Remembrance for the Merchant Navy lists by name nearly 1,600 Canadians and Newfoundlanders, or those who served on ships of Canadian or Newfoundland registry. Among them are eight women. Many other unknown Canadians lost their lives serving on Allied merchant navies.
25The Navy and the Korean Conflict The Canadian Navy continued to work towardspeace after the end of World War II.June 25th 1950, North Korean tanks and troopsburst across the border into South Korea.This became the first UN action.The Canadian Navy was the first inaction again.They helped provide supplies andmen for the UN, as well as supportland battles.The Canadian Navy continued to work with her allies to bring peace to various parts of the world following the end of World War II. By the end of the 1940s, North Korea was a communist nation while South Korea remained a democracy. Tensions between the two small states rose so that, on June 25th 1950, North Korean tanks and troops burst across the border. The United States asked the United Nations (UN) Security Council to “help the Republic of Korea repel the attack and restore peace and security”. British, Australian and New Zealand forces were turned over to the UN under General MacArthur.The Canadian Navy was again the first in action. They would help provide supplies and men for the UN, as well as help support land battles. By the end of 1950, Korea was in enemy hands. During the winter, the UN, including the Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry (PPCLI), attacked. They forced the enemy out of Seoul and by April all of South Korea was back in UN hands. The UN then took relief food and supplies to the destitute and suffering Koreans.HMCS Cayuga
26The End of The Korean Conflict Truce talks began on July 10th, 1951 at Kaesongand continued sporadically for another two years.Fighting ended with an armistice on July 27th,1953.In January 1954 the Canadian army force was cut.The three naval destroyers worked steadily on.Sioux stayed until September, 1955.Eight of the RCN’s eleven destroyers completed21 tours of duty – Cayuga, Athabaskan, Sioux andCrusader from the Pacific Command and Haida,Huron, Iroquois and Nootka from the Atlantic.Over 2500 officers and men served in Korea atleast once, three Canadians were killed and twoseverely wounded.Truce talks began on July 10th, 1951 at Kaesong and would continue sporadically for another two years. Fighting ended with an armistice on July 27th, In January 1954 the Canadian army force was cut but the three destroyers worked steadily on. Sioux stayed until September, 1955.Eight of the RCN’s eleven destroyers completed 21 tours of duty – Cayuga, Athabaskan, Sioux and Crusader from the Pacific Command and Haida, Huron, Iroquois and Nootka from the Atlantic. Over 2500 officers and men served there at least once and three Canadians were killed and two severely wounded.Sioux in icefield off Korean coast, February 1952.
27The Navy, NATO and the Cold War The Canadian navy participated in both NATO (North American TreatyOrganization) and UN missions.Nuclear submarines produced by the Soviets were a new threat.New innovations, such as the St Laurent class of destroyer escorts,variable depth sonar, the hydrofoil, and the helicopter carrying destroyer(DDH) were to combat this submarine.The Navy helped NATO protect North America from possible Sovietattacks.They also helped with the creation of the DEW (Distant Early Warning)Line in the Arctic.The Naval Board ensured that all ships, equipment and communicationswere compatible with the USN.The Cold War would end with the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989.Following the Korean war, the Canadian navy participated in both NATO (North American Treaty Organization) and UN missions. New Naval colleges were opened during the 1940s and 1950s. Nuclear submarines produced by the Soviets was a new threat which helped produce new innovations, such as the St Laurent class of destroyer escorts, and spearheaded such major maritime warfare innovations as variable depth sonar, the hydrofoil, and the helicopter carrying destroyer (DDH).The Navy helped NATO protect North America from possible Soviet attacks. They also helped with the creation of the DEW (Distant Early Warning) Line in the Arctic. The Naval Board also ensured that all ships, equipment and communications would be compatible with the USN. “These proved of immense value when the Atlantic fleet sortied during the Cuban Missile Crisis in October 1962”. This Cuban Missile Crisis put both North American navies on alert. Many submarines were spotted on radar near the USN Blockade. The Cold War would end with the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989.
28The Development of the Navy 1964, HMCS Bonaventure carried Canada’s contingent for the UN peacekeeping forceto Cypress.The Navy also took part in Peace Support Operations (such as in Korea – ,Vietnam 1954 and 1973, Central America – and Cambodia ).They helped with disaster relief and gave humanitarian assistance for example the RedRiver Floods in Manitoba and the Swissair crash recovery in 1998.The Navy participates in a variety of training exercises and sovereignty patrols (suchas in the Arctic, fisheries patrols, and drug inceptions) Lastly, they aid in Civil Powerunrests, like the Montréal Olympics in 1976.In the winter of 1964, Bonaventure carried Canada’s contingent for the UN peacekeeping force to Cypress. The Navy also took part in Peace Support Operations (such as in Korea – , Vietnam 1954 and 1973, Central America – and Cambodia ). They helped with disaster relief and gave humanitarian assistance, such as during the Red River Floods in Manitoba, fire-fighting assistance, earthquake relief in Chile in 1960, hurricane reconstruction in Florida in 1993, and the Swissair crash recovery in Further, they participate in a variety of training exercises and sovereignty patrols (such as in the Arctic, fisheries patrols, and drug inceptions) as well as aiding with Civil Power, such as during the Montréal Olympics in 1976.
29The Gulf War To Modern Day The Canadian Navy also played a large roleduring the Gulf War.Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990.The Canadian task group commander was putin charge of joint naval operations.The Navy also helped during the Bosnianconflict ofThe Kosovo campaign of 1999The US Drug Enforcement Agency in counter-narcotics operations in the Gulf of Mexico.At the outset of the 21st century, Canada hadin its service arguably the best balanced andmost capable navy in its history”. The Canadian Navy also played a large role during the Gulf War. Iraq invaded Kuwait in August Canada went to war and the navy once again led the response. Though they could not be on the front lines, “the unique combination of command and control equipment, personal leadership skills, and national reputation led to the Canadian task group commander exercising a major Coalition naval warfare responsibility, the only non-USN officer to do so”.Finally, the Navy also helped during the Bosnian conflict of and the Kosovo campaign of 1999, plus helping the US Drug Enforcement Agency in counter-narcotics operations in the Gulf of Mexico. “At the outset of the 21st century, Canada had in its service arguably the best balanced and most capable navy in its history”.Maritime air has witnessed a change in focus, away from anti-submarine warfare and ocean area surveillance towards a wide range of new operations. The Aurora patrol aircraft and Sea King maritime helicopters support national and coalition forces, as well as Other Government Departments. These operations include: sanction enforcement; over-land surveillance; tactical lift; land support operations; peace support operations; counter-drug operations; monitoring of illegal immigration; pollution and environmental control; and Search and Rescue.“Maintaining the Navy as a credible and useful force, and extending its reach into the Arctic Ocean, are the underlying objectives guiding the development of the Next Navy”. The Canadian Navy has made (and continues to make) many contributions towards peacekeeping within Canada and throughout the world. Their accomplishments speak for themselves.HMCS Toronto
301914 1939 1918 1945 Take a moment to remember them on Remembrance Day. IN HONOUR OF THE MEN AND WOMEN OF THE NAVY, ARMY AND MERCHANT NAVY OF CANADA WHOSE NAMES ARE INSCRIBED HERE THEIR GRAVES ARE UNKNOWN BUT THEIR MEMORY SHALL ENDURE.