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Approved for Public Release (03-S-1859) Unclassified Reactive Materials in Mines and Demolitions Systems Mark Cvetnic Technical Director of Advanced Programs.

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Presentation on theme: "Approved for Public Release (03-S-1859) Unclassified Reactive Materials in Mines and Demolitions Systems Mark Cvetnic Technical Director of Advanced Programs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Approved for Public Release (03-S-1859) Unclassified Reactive Materials in Mines and Demolitions Systems Mark Cvetnic Technical Director of Advanced Programs ATK Missile Systems 4700 Nathan Lane North Plymouth, MN 55442-2512 (763) 744-5184 Mark.Cvetnic@ATK.COM

2 Approved for Public Release (03-S-1859) Unclassified Reactive Materials in Mines “Dial-a-yield” effects – Tiered response - reactive materials in a blast weapon can tailor the blast effect to range from non-lethal (disorientation / discomfort / incapacitation) to lethal force. Improved lethality – reactive materials improve performance against personnel and vehicles.

3 Approved for Public Release (03-S-1859) Unclassified Reactive Material in Demolitions Material Defeat – Shoulder fired systems that can defeat bunkers without penetrating. Increased target set and effectiveness of SLAM. Road Cratering– smaller binary shaped charge jets can create the same hole as the current two stage demolition system (shaped charge jet for hole drilling and C-4 for enlarging hole and upheaval of debris).

4 Approved for Public Release (03-S-1859) Unclassified Reactive Materials (RM) What is a Reactive Material? – Any composition that is compatible with explosives, shock initiated, and has dependable release of energy (rate and amount). Intermetallics – SHS reactions – Metals + Al, C or B –Primary Reaction: metal + metal = alloy + heat –Secondary Reaction: alloy + oxygen = oxide + heat Thermites – Metal + Metal Oxide –High reaction temperatures, no gas. Metal / Halogen – Al + Teflon reaction –Key focus area of reactive fragments. Ultra Fine Aluminum Particles – nano-energetics –Used with AP or KP to form rocket propellants. Metal Hydrides – AlH 3 and TiH 4. –Use compounds with hydrogen to as energy carriers.

5 Approved for Public Release (03-S-1859) Unclassified Control of RM Reaction Rates. Explosive energy – high pressure short duration Reactive A – stoichiometric mix with small particles designed to minimize total reaction time. Reactive B – stoichiometric mix with larger particles designed to increase total reaction time from Reactive A. Reactive C – fuel rich mix designed to maximize total reaction time. Why control the rate of oxidation? – To tailor the peak pressure and duration of the blast wave to maximize vulnerability of target.

6 Approved for Public Release (03-S-1859) Unclassified Generic Pressure – Impulse Curves for target Blast wave interaction with target Diffraction Loading – differences of pressure occurs when blast wave passes. Function of overpressure. Coupling is optimum when blast wave duration is ¼ the natural frequency of target. Light weight targets are most susceptible. Drag Coupling – Targets damaged due to drag loading of rapid moving air. Drag load damage increases when duration (impulse) of blast increases. Harder targets more susceptible.

7 Approved for Public Release (03-S-1859) Unclassified Bowen PI Curves for Personnel Data shown are human tolerance predictions for a 70-kg man in a free-stream blast wave (References 1 and 2). 1Gibson, Philip W., “Blast Overpressure and Survivability Calculations for Various Sizes of Explosive Charges,” United States Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, Report Number Natick/TR-95-003 (DTIC Accession Number AD-A286212), November 1994. White, C.S., et al., “The Biodynamics of Airblast,” Defense Nuclear Agency, Report Number DNA2738T, July 1971.

8 Approved for Public Release (03-S-1859) Unclassified RM in Blast / Fragmentation warheads Reactive materials, used in conjunction with variable initiation schemes, can tailor the blast / fragmentation warhead effects: Lethal fragments patterns using reactive fragments. Lethal blast combining the blast from the explosives and the reactive fragments. Non-lethal blast – using the explosives and reactive fragments to create incapacitating blast wave. Non-lethal discomfort – high temperature impulse, with low pressure blast, create discomfort zone. Non-lethal disorientation – explosives and reactive materials to create high intensity light ATK’s goal is a single RM blast / fragmentation warhead that can be tailored to deliver a tiered response from disorientation to discomfort to incapacitation to lethal.

9 Approved for Public Release (03-S-1859) Unclassified Effects of RM in AP mines Non-Lethal Blast Effects The energy release from reactive materials can be tailored to react and emit specific bands of light that cause temporary flash blindness The longer reaction rates of reactive materials can produce significant heat and sustained low pressures (large impulse) that can cause discomfort and disorientation “Dial-a-yield” effects – Tiered response - reactive materials in a blast weapon can tailor the blast effect to range from non-lethal incapacitation to lethal force. Lethal Non- Lethal

10 Approved for Public Release (03-S-1859) Unclassified Lethal Effects of RM in mines RM Fragmentation Lethal Effects Equivalent Kinetic Energy as steel fragments - Current generation ATK Thiokol reactive materials have same density as steel, thus giving RM fragmentation weapons the same fragment kinetic energy. Additional Chemical Energy from RM event –reactive fragments can produce a large amount of chemical energy in the form of temperature, light and/or pressure. Blast Lethal Effects Thermobaric - reactive materials can enhance the blast wave of conventional explosives. Reactive fragment event in test chamber Thermobaric event in open

11 Approved for Public Release (03-S-1859) Unclassified RM in Explosively Formed Penetrators Improved Performance –Kinetic Energy Multiple Penetrators –Chemical Energy Overpressure Temperature Impact of Reactive EFP on concrete wallReactive EFP vs. Fuel Drum

12 Approved for Public Release (03-S-1859) Unclassified Reactive Material Shaped Charge Jet Flamethrower & Fuel Air Explosive – same fuel and oxidizer, different methods of delivery.

13 Approved for Public Release (03-S-1859) Unclassified How to control energy release in a RM SCJ Reaction rates in explosives are controlled by: Fuel type, size, and distribution Oxidizer type, size, and distribution Binder RM SCJ are dynamic and additional parameters must be examined: Fuel size and distribution are function of liner material and process used to create jet. Oxidizer size and distribution function of jet interaction Fuel Choice & SCJ Process Jet & Oxidizer Interaction

14 Approved for Public Release (03-S-1859) Unclassified Range of RM SCJ tested Slow reaction rates Medium reaction rates Fast Reaction Rates Maximum Penetration Minimal Overpressure Minor improvement over inert SCJ Minimum Penetration Maximum Overpressure Best suited for cratering Maintain penetration Significant overpressure damage Best suited for bunker defeat

15 Approved for Public Release (03-S-1859) Unclassified RM SCJ Bunker Defeat Improved Effects –Penetration –Overpressure –Impulse –Heat / Temperature Thermobaric Reaction after Reactive SCJ penetrates concrete wall

16 Approved for Public Release (03-S-1859) Unclassified Binary Road Cratering System Target – Concrete Slab with rebar 8 ft wide +24 ft long 5 ½ inches thick with soil underneath. Shaped Charge Jet Conical Diameter = 7.87 inches Explosive weight = 11.65 lbs Oxidizer Entrainment system

17 Approved for Public Release (03-S-1859) Unclassified Crater formed by binary system Damage to Target Crater Diameter > eight feet Crater Depth = 52 inches Depth of hole and upheaval of concrete demonstrates energy release of SCJ. Potential for Road Cratering demonstrated.

18 Approved for Public Release (03-S-1859) Unclassified Contributions to this effort ATK Ordnance and Ground Systems ATK Thiokol Propulsion Mike Matthews Consultant Sigma Labs AFRL HERD ATK Ammunition and Powder ARDEC – Picatinny Arsenal Aerospace Group Headquarters ATK Thiokol Propulsion ATK Composites NAVSEA - Dahlgren Lawrence Livermore National Labs. General Science Inc ATK Missile Systems Los Alamos National Labs Aveka Inc Technanogy Battelle NAVAIR - China Lake

19 Approved for Public Release (03-S-1859) Unclassified Questions? Mark Cvetnic Technical Director of Advanced Programs ATK Missile Systems 4700 Nathan Lane North Plymouth, MN 55442-2512 (763) 744-5184 Mark.Cvetnic@ATK.COM


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