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Reactive Materials in Mines and Demolitions Systems

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Presentation on theme: "Reactive Materials in Mines and Demolitions Systems"— Presentation transcript:

1 Reactive Materials in Mines and Demolitions Systems
Mark Cvetnic Technical Director of Advanced Programs ATK Missile Systems 4700 Nathan Lane North Plymouth, MN (763) Unclassified

2 Reactive Materials in Mines
Improved lethality – reactive materials improve performance against personnel and vehicles. “Dial-a-yield” effects – Tiered response - reactive materials in a blast weapon can tailor the blast effect to range from non-lethal (disorientation / discomfort / incapacitation) to lethal force. Unclassified

3 Reactive Material in Demolitions
Road Cratering– smaller binary shaped charge jets can create the same hole as the current two stage demolition system (shaped charge jet for hole drilling and C-4 for enlarging hole and upheaval of debris). Material Defeat – Shoulder fired systems that can defeat bunkers without penetrating. Increased target set and effectiveness of SLAM. Unclassified

4 Reactive Materials (RM)
What is a Reactive Material? – Any composition that is compatible with explosives, shock initiated, and has dependable release of energy (rate and amount). Intermetallics – SHS reactions – Metals + Al, C or B Primary Reaction: metal + metal = alloy + heat Secondary Reaction: alloy + oxygen = oxide + heat Thermites – Metal + Metal Oxide High reaction temperatures, no gas. Metal / Halogen – Al + Teflon reaction Key focus area of reactive fragments. Ultra Fine Aluminum Particles – nano-energetics Used with AP or KP to form rocket propellants. Metal Hydrides – AlH3 and TiH4. Use compounds with hydrogen to as energy carriers. Unclassified

5 Control of RM Reaction Rates.
Explosive energy – high pressure short duration Reactive A – stoichiometric mix with small particles designed to minimize total reaction time. Reactive B – stoichiometric mix with larger particles designed to increase total reaction time from Reactive A. Reactive C – fuel rich mix designed to maximize total reaction time. Why control the rate of oxidation? – To tailor the peak pressure and duration of the blast wave to maximize vulnerability of target. Unclassified

6 Generic Pressure – Impulse Curves for target
Blast wave interaction with target Diffraction Loading – differences of pressure occurs when blast wave passes. Function of overpressure. Coupling is optimum when blast wave duration is ¼ the natural frequency of target. Light weight targets are most susceptible. Drag Coupling – Targets damaged due to drag loading of rapid moving air. Drag load damage increases when duration (impulse) of blast increases. Harder targets more susceptible. Unclassified

7 Bowen PI Curves for Personnel
Data shown are human tolerance predictions for a 70-kg man in a free-stream blast wave (References 1 and 2). Gibson, Philip W., “Blast Overpressure and Survivability Calculations for Various Sizes of Explosive Charges,” United States Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts, Report Number Natick/TR (DTIC Accession Number AD-A286212), November 1994. White, C.S., et al., “The Biodynamics of Airblast,” Defense Nuclear Agency, Report Number DNA2738T, July 1971. Unclassified

8 RM in Blast / Fragmentation warheads
Reactive materials, used in conjunction with variable initiation schemes, can tailor the blast / fragmentation warhead effects: Lethal fragments patterns using reactive fragments. Lethal blast combining the blast from the explosives and the reactive fragments. Non-lethal blast – using the explosives and reactive fragments to create incapacitating blast wave. Non-lethal discomfort – high temperature impulse, with low pressure blast, create discomfort zone. Non-lethal disorientation – explosives and reactive materials to create high intensity light ATK’s goal is a single RM blast / fragmentation warhead that can be tailored to deliver a tiered response from disorientation to discomfort to incapacitation to lethal. Unclassified

9 Effects of RM in AP mines
Non-Lethal Blast Effects The energy release from reactive materials can be tailored to react and emit specific bands of light that cause temporary flash blindness The longer reaction rates of reactive materials can produce significant heat and sustained low pressures (large impulse) that can cause discomfort and disorientation “Dial-a-yield” effects – Tiered response - reactive materials in a blast weapon can tailor the blast effect to range from non-lethal incapacitation to lethal force. Non-Lethal Lethal Unclassified

10 Lethal Effects of RM in mines
RM Fragmentation Lethal Effects Equivalent Kinetic Energy as steel fragments - Current generation ATK Thiokol reactive materials have same density as steel, thus giving RM fragmentation weapons the same fragment kinetic energy. Additional Chemical Energy from RM event –reactive fragments can produce a large amount of chemical energy in the form of temperature, light and/or pressure. Blast Lethal Effects Thermobaric - reactive materials can enhance the blast wave of conventional explosives. Reactive fragment event in test chamber Thermobaric event in open Unclassified

11 RM in Explosively Formed Penetrators
Improved Performance Kinetic Energy Multiple Penetrators Chemical Energy Overpressure Temperature Impact of Reactive EFP on concrete wall Reactive EFP vs. Fuel Drum Unclassified

12 Reactive Material Shaped Charge Jet
                                                                                                                                                 Flamethrower & Fuel Air Explosive – same fuel and oxidizer, different methods of delivery. Unclassified

13 How to control energy release in a RM SCJ
Reaction rates in explosives are controlled by: Fuel type, size, and distribution Oxidizer type, size, and distribution Binder RM SCJ are dynamic and additional parameters must be examined: Fuel size and distribution are function of liner material and process used to create jet. Oxidizer size and distribution function of jet interaction Fuel Choice & SCJ Process Jet & Oxidizer Interaction Unclassified

14 Range of RM SCJ tested Unclassified Slow reaction rates
Maximum Penetration Minimal Overpressure Minor improvement over inert SCJ Medium reaction rates Maintain penetration Significant overpressure damage Best suited for bunker defeat Fast Reaction Rates Minimum Penetration Maximum Overpressure Best suited for cratering Unclassified

15 Thermobaric Reaction after Reactive SCJ penetrates concrete wall
RM SCJ Bunker Defeat Improved Effects Penetration Overpressure Impulse Heat / Temperature Thermobaric Reaction after Reactive SCJ penetrates concrete wall Unclassified

16 Binary Road Cratering System
Shaped Charge Jet Conical Diameter = 7.87 inches Explosive weight = lbs Oxidizer Entrainment system Target – Concrete Slab with rebar 8 ft wide +24 ft long 5 ½ inches thick with soil underneath. Unclassified

17 Crater formed by binary system
Damage to Target Crater Diameter > eight feet Crater Depth = 52 inches Depth of hole and upheaval of concrete demonstrates energy release of SCJ. Potential for Road Cratering demonstrated. Unclassified

18 Contributions to this effort
Aveka Inc ATK Ordnance and Ground Systems Battelle Lawrence Livermore National Labs. ARDEC – Picatinny Arsenal ATK Thiokol Propulsion General Science Inc NAVSEA - Dahlgren Aerospace Group Headquarters ATK Thiokol Propulsion ATK Composites U.S. map-locations 9_98.tif ATK Missile Systems ATK Ammunition and Powder NAVAIR - China Lake Los Alamos National Labs Sigma Labs Technanogy Mike Matthews Consultant AFRL HERD Unclassified

19 Technical Director of Advanced Programs
Questions? Mark Cvetnic Technical Director of Advanced Programs ATK Missile Systems 4700 Nathan Lane North Plymouth, MN (763) Unclassified

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