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Introduction to Wastewater Treatment

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Wastewater Treatment"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Wastewater Treatment
Mark O. Liner, P.E. Naturally Wallace Consulting

2 Wastewater Engineering
If I gave you a jar of this and said ….get it clean. What would you do?

3 How to go from A to B to C? Treatment of Natural Gas Condensate

4 Reverse Engineering Glass of water and add:
Sand Sugar Salt Oil How do you make this water clean?

5 Design Steps Decision: Wastewater Treatment is Needed Basis of Design
Process Selection Preliminary Design Final Design

6 First Step: Basis of Design
Most important step of the project !!! Foundation for all decisions Dictates project $$$s Changing the Basis of Design halfway thru the project is like changing ….

7 Basis of Design Data Flow Influent Characterization
Effluent Requirements Miscellaneous Considerations

8 Flow – Measurement Weirs Flumes Meters Beware of chunks

9 Flow - Domestic Usually predictable

10 Flow - Industrial Usually unpredictable Engineers want predictable

11 Flow - Equalization Hold and discharge Treat as it comes Treatment
Equalization best money spent Gets you to steady state Treatment Equalization Treat as it comes Equalization Treatment

12 Flow – Design Numbers Minimum and maximum hourly flow
For pipe/channel sizing Average daily flow For mass balance, chemical usage, and sludge production

13 Characterization - Analytes
Nitrogen Phosphorus pH Alkalinity Metals Bacteria/Algae Solids Total (TS) Dissolved (TDS) Suspended (TSS) Organics Biodegradable (BOD) Chemically Oxidized (COD) Volatile (VOC) Oils (O&G, TPH)

14 Characterization - Table
Average plus one standard deviattion

15 Effluent Requirements
Typically set by government Depends on disposal method River Groundwater Land Moving target ??? It pays to discuss and negotiate

16 Miscellaneous Site Constraints Climate Money Time Land Availability
Capital Costs Operating Costs Time Start date Project Life

17 Design Steps Decision: Wastewater Treatment is Needed Basis of Design
Process Selection Preliminary Design Final Design

18 Second Step: Process Selection
Given a Basis of Design, what is the best way to go from A to B to C??? Experience is crucial in this step Engineer/Vendor dance

19 Process Selection

20 Process Selection Proof of Concept
Coffin Butte Landfill, Oregon Pumped flow from leachate barrel, Masterflex peristaltic Standpipe, unglued grease slip fit to elbow Collection header same as underdrain Distribution header same as underdrain Inexpensive poly tank 44-gal, AES BT44 Recirc Inexpensive poly tank 44-gal, AES BT44 bh Masterflex peristaltic Tank 1 bh Tank 2 tu tu Tank 3 To drain tu bh Tank 4 bh tu tu tu tu tu bh bh tu tu bh Blocks tu tu tu tu BOD Removal - passive Nitrification / Anammox – FBA (aerated) Nitrification / Anammox - FBA (aerated) Graduated poly tank 55-gal with lid, AES T55 Denitrification / metals removal

21 Process Selection – Pilot Plant

22 Process Selection – Primary Treatment
The lowly septic tank – the “greenest” wastewater treatment technology No electricity…

23 System Selection – Primary Treatment
Solids removal Screening Grit Removal Sedimentation Floatation Dissolved Air Floatation Oil/Water Separator Removing sand

24 System Selection – Biological Treatment
Soluble wastewater can not be removed as a solid So, we have bacteria eat it and remove them The trick is to create an environment for them to live and STAY

25 System Selection – Secondary Treatment

26 System Selection – Biological Treatment
Design Considerations Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria Periodic sludge removal Solids separation to keep bacteria from flowing downstream Nutrient requirements (industrial Limits 30 mg/L Biochemical Oxygen Demand 30 mg/L Total Suspended Solids

27 System Selection – Tertiary Treatment
Filtration Membrane Sand Carbon Chemical Addition pH Adjustment Disinfection Ultraviolet Chemical

28 Design Steps Decision: Wastewater Treatment is Needed Basis of Design
Process Selection Preliminary Design Final Design

29 Preliminary Design Drawing set to build consensus Process Schematic
Site Plan Hydraulics

30 Process Schematic

31 Site Plan

32 Hydraulic Profile

33 Design Steps Decision: Wastewater Treatment is Needed Basis of Design
Process Selection Preliminary Design Final Design

34 Final Design Selection and sizing of minor equipment Pumps and piping
Tanks Instrumentation Aeration Equipment Concrete Electrical

35 Coordination of All Disciplines

36 Final Design Communicate what is to be built to contractor
Basis of cost estimate for Owner and cost quote from contractor Represents details from all disciplines

37 Thank You

38 Mark O. Liner, P.E. Naturally Wallace Consulting
Lagoon Technology Mark O. Liner, P.E. Naturally Wallace Consulting

39 Lagoon ??? More lagoon systems in the USA than any other system
Easy to build and maintain Very little is written about them Not much to say!!!

40 Types of Lagoons Anaerobic Facultative Polishing Partial Mix
Complete Mix High Performance Batch Reactor Equalization/Storage Evaporation/Cooling

41 Lagoon Applications Covered Agricultural Contaminated Stormwater
Lagoons are everywhere. Small towns, pig farms, paper mills, airports. Seems like everyone has one. Call it a pit, a pond, Contaminated Stormwater Mine Water Treatment Advanced Domestic Wastewater

42 What is it??? Constructed basin Lined Water level control
Sludge Lagoon in Slovenia

43 What are they good for? What are lagoons good for? Solids Management
Removal and Storage Oxidation of Organics (BOD) Naturally Mechanically Hydraulic Equalization Smooth out the peaks

44 How do you design??? Function related to design Water depth
Surface area Detention time Anaerobic Lagoon (6.0 meter deep) Facultative Lagoon (1.5 meter deep)

45 Solids Removal What are solids? Sedimentation rate Organics (bacteria)
Inorganics (silt and sand) Algae Sedimentation rate Wind/Turbulence Type of solids Concentration of solids

46 Settling Time

47 Sludge Accumulation Settled solids undergo digestion and compaction over time Rule of Thumb: 0.5 m3/m3/d sludge accumulation for domestic wastewater

48 Sludge Accumulation Plot



51 Algae Employed in facultative lagoons
Diurnal cycle cause fluctuations in Dissolved oxygen pH Solids Measured by Chlorophyll Alpha test

52 Organics Removal Simplified model assumes steady state complete-mix reactor Equation:

53 Government Design



56 Advanced Design Linvil Rich Current Advanced Design Methods L. Rich
Grady and Daigger Metcalf & Eddy Performance Modeling by Biomass Growth not BOD removal Same Modeling Techniques That Are Used For Designing Conventional Sewage Plants Linvil Rich

57 Theoretical Relationship

58 Anaerobic Lagoons Deep > 3 meter deep Covered Loading
Grease cap Floating cover Loading 0.04 – 0.30 kg-BOD/m3/d Detention Time 1-50 Days

59 Aerobic Lagoons Taking oxygen in gas phase to water in liquid phase
Passive = ambient transfer Active = mechanical Floating Aerators Blower and Diffusers

60 Aeration by Diffusers

61 How much oxygen? Calculate mass of oxygen required for bacterial degradation AND digestion Correct for field conditions

62 Mixing Lagoons have low solids Low energy/volume Large volumes!!!
1-2 W/m3 = rule of thumb

63 Short Circuiting

64 Short Circuiting

65 Civil Design Site Soils and Water Seal

66 Soils Testing for Lagoons
Minimum Requirements Four borings per 0.5 acres Depth to 10’ below design floor One boring to 25’ Borings located at deepest excavation Borings at borrow pits for nature and consistency Vertical Separation 4’ between pond seal and maximum groundwater level 2’ separation permitted for synthetic liners

67 Lagoon Seals Percolation less than 1/16” per day at 6’ water depth
Soil seals shall be clay or include bentonite Minimum thickness of 4” Synthetic Seals Greater than 30 mil thickness Anchored at berm and vented Empirical testing required to document compliance

68 Liner Systems Clay and Bentonite Soil Synthetic Clay Geomembrane

69 Installation of Synthetic Liner

70 Boot Installation

71 Seam Testing

72 Water Balance Testing Seepage rate must be less than 500 gallons per acre per day

73 Lagoon Equipment Aeration Covers Baffles Proprietary

74 Aeration Equipment Floating Mechanical Submerged Diffusers

75 Covers Covers Conserve heat Control odors Prevent algae

76 Baffles

77 Proprietary Systems Parkson – BioLac EDI – ATLAS Lemna – BTP
Nelson Environmental EDI’s ATLAS Internal Clarifier

78 Berm Failure

79 Berm Failure

80 Berm Inspection

81 Floating Liner

82 Liner vent

83 Whale of a Liner

84 Thank You

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