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Introduction to Wastewater Treatment Mark O. Liner, P.E. Naturally Wallace Consulting.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Wastewater Treatment Mark O. Liner, P.E. Naturally Wallace Consulting."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Wastewater Treatment Mark O. Liner, P.E. Naturally Wallace Consulting

2 Wastewater Engineering

3 How to go from A to B to C? Treatment of Natural Gas Condensate

4 Reverse Engineering Glass of water and add: –Sand –Sugar –Salt –Oil How do you make this water clean?

5 Design Steps Decision: Wastewater Treatment is Needed Basis of Design Preliminary Design Process Selection Final Design

6 First Step: Basis of Design Most important step of the project !!! –Foundation for all decisions –Dictates project $$$s Changing the Basis of Design halfway thru the project is like changing ….

7 Basis of Design Data Flow Influent Characterization Effluent Requirements Miscellaneous Considerations

8 Flow – Measurement Weirs Flumes Meters

9 Flow - Domestic

10 Flow - Industrial

11 Flow - Equalization Hold and discharge Treat as it comes Equalization Treatment Equalization Treatment

12 Flow – Design Numbers Minimum and maximum hourly flow –For pipe/channel sizing Average daily flow –For mass balance, chemical usage, and sludge production

13 Characterization - Analytes Solids –Total (TS) –Dissolved (TDS) –Suspended (TSS) Organics –Biodegradable (BOD) –Chemically Oxidized (COD) –Volatile (VOC) –Oils (O&G, TPH) Nitrogen Phosphorus pH Alkalinity Metals Bacteria/Algae

14 Characterization - Table

15 Effluent Requirements Typically set by government Depends on disposal method –River –Groundwater –Land Moving target ???

16 Miscellaneous Site Constraints –Land Availability Climate Money –Capital Costs –Operating Costs Time –Start date –Project Life

17 Design Steps Decision: Wastewater Treatment is Needed Basis of Design Preliminary Design Process Selection Final Design

18 Second Step: Process Selection Given a Basis of Design, what is the best way to go from A to B to C??? Experience is crucial in this step Engineer/Vendor dance

19 Process Selection

20 BOD Removal - passive Nitrification / Anammox – FBA (aerated) Nitrification / Anammox - FBA (aerated) tu bh tu Blocks bh tu bh Collection header same as underdrain Distribution header same as underdrain tu Standpipe, unglued grease slip fit to elbow tu bh Pumped flow from leachate barrel, Masterflex peristaltic bh Graduated poly tank 55-gal with lid, AES T55 Inexpensive poly tank 44-gal, AES BT44 Inexpensive poly tank 44-gal, AES BT44 bh tu bh To drain Recirc Masterflex peristaltic Denitrification / metals removal Tank 1 Tank 2 Tank 3 Tank 4 Coffin Butte Landfill, Oregon Process Selection Proof of Concept

21 Process Selection – Pilot Plant

22 Process Selection – Primary Treatment The lowly septic tank – the “greenest” wastewater treatment technology

23 System Selection – Primary Treatment Solids removal –Screening –Grit Removal –Sedimentation Floatation –Dissolved Air Floatation –Oil/Water Separator

24 System Selection – Biological Treatment Soluble wastewater can not be removed as a solid So, we have bacteria eat it and remove them The trick is to create an environment for them to live and STAY

25 System Selection – Secondary Treatment

26 System Selection – Biological Treatment Design Considerations –Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria –Periodic sludge removal –Solids separation to keep bacteria from flowing downstream –Nutrient requirements (industrial Limits –30 mg/L Biochemical Oxygen Demand –30 mg/L Total Suspended Solids

27 System Selection – Tertiary Treatment Filtration –Membrane –Sand –Carbon Chemical Addition –pH Adjustment Disinfection –Ultraviolet –Chemical

28 Design Steps Decision: Wastewater Treatment is Needed Basis of Design Preliminary Design Process Selection Final Design

29 Preliminary Design Drawing set to build consensus –Process Schematic –Site Plan –Hydraulics

30 Process Schematic

31 Site Plan

32 Hydraulic Profile

33 Design Steps Decision: Wastewater Treatment is Needed Basis of Design Preliminary Design Process Selection Final Design

34 Selection and sizing of minor equipment –Pumps and piping –Tanks –Instrumentation –Aeration Equipment –Concrete –Electrical

35 Coordination of All Disciplines

36 Final Design Communicate what is to be built to contractor Basis of cost estimate for Owner and cost quote from contractor Represents details from all disciplines

37 Thank You

38 Lagoon Technology Mark O. Liner, P.E. Naturally Wallace Consulting

39 Lagoon ??? More lagoon systems in the USA than any other system Easy to build and maintain Very little is written about them –Not much to say!!!

40 Types of Lagoons Anaerobic Facultative Polishing Partial Mix Complete Mix High Performance Batch Reactor Equalization/Storage Evaporation/Cooling

41 Lagoon Applications Advanced Domestic Wastewater Mine Water Treatment Covered Agricultural Contaminated Stormwater

42 What is it??? Constructed basin Lined Water level control Sludge Lagoon in Slovenia

43 What are they good for? What are lagoons good for? –Solids Management Removal and Storage –Oxidation of Organics (BOD) Naturally Mechanically –Hydraulic Equalization Smooth out the peaks

44 How do you design??? Function related to design –Water depth –Surface area –Detention time Facultative Lagoon (1.5 meter deep) Anaerobic Lagoon (6.0 meter deep)

45 Solids Removal What are solids? –Organics (bacteria) –Inorganics (silt and sand) –Algae Sedimentation rate –Wind/Turbulence –Type of solids –Concentration of solids

46 Settling Time

47 Sludge Accumulation Settled solids undergo digestion and compaction over time Rule of Thumb: 0.5 m 3 /m 3 /d sludge accumulation for domestic wastewater

48 Sludge Accumulation Plot



51 Algae Employed in facultative lagoons Diurnal cycle cause fluctuations in –Dissolved oxygen –pH –Solids Measured by Chlorophyll Alpha test

52 Organics Removal Simplified model assumes steady state complete-mix reactor Equation:

53 Government Design



56 Advanced Design Current Advanced Design Methods –L. Rich –Grady and Daigger –Metcalf & Eddy Performance Modeling by Biomass Growth –not BOD removal Same Modeling Techniques That Are Used For Designing Conventional Sewage Plants Linvil Rich

57 Theoretical Relationship

58 Anaerobic Lagoons Deep > 3 meter deep Covered –Grease cap –Floating cover Loading –0.04 – 0.30 kg- BOD/m 3 /d Detention Time –1-50 Days

59 Aerobic Lagoons Taking oxygen in gas phase to water in liquid phase Passive = ambient transfer Active = mechanical –Floating Aerators –Blower and Diffusers

60 Aeration by Diffusers

61 How much oxygen? Calculate mass of oxygen required for bacterial degradation AND digestion Correct for field conditions

62 Mixing Lagoons have low solids Low energy/volume Large volumes!!! 1-2 W/m 3 = rule of thumb

63 Short Circuiting


65 Civil Design Site Soils and Water Seal

66 Soils Testing for Lagoons Minimum Requirements –Four borings per 0.5 acres –Depth to 10’ below design floor –One boring to 25’ –Borings located at deepest excavation –Borings at borrow pits for nature and consistency Vertical Separation –4’ between pond seal and maximum groundwater level –2’ separation permitted for synthetic liners

67 Lagoon Seals –Percolation less than 1/16” per day at 6’ water depth –Soil seals shall be clay or include bentonite Minimum thickness of 4” –Synthetic Seals Greater than 30 mil thickness Anchored at berm and vented –Empirical testing required to document compliance

68 Liner Systems Clay and Bentonite Soil Synthetic Clay Geomembrane Asphalt/Concrete

69 Installation of Synthetic Liner

70 Boot Installation Boot Installation

71 Seam Testing

72 Water Balance Testing Seepage rate must be less than 500 gallons per acre per day

73 Lagoon Equipment Aeration Covers Baffles Proprietary

74 Aeration Equipment Floating Mechanical Submerged Diffusers

75 Covers Covers –Conserve heat –Control odors –Prevent algae

76 Baffles

77 Proprietary Systems Parkson – BioLac EDI – ATLAS Lemna – BTP Nelson Environmental EDI’s ATLAS Internal Clarifier

78 Berm Failure


80 Berm Inspection

81 Floating Liner

82 Liner vent

83 Whale of a Liner

84 Thank You

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