We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byJoanna Twilley
Modified about 1 year ago
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Appendages of the Skin Derivatives of the epidermis Sweat glands Oil glands Hairs and hair follicles Nails
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Sweat Glands Two main types of sweat (sudoriferous) glands 1.Eccrine (merocrine) sweat glands—abundant on palms, soles, and forehead Sweat: 99% water, NaCl, vitamin C, antibodies, dermcidin, metabolic wastes Ducts connect to pores Function in thermoregulation
Figure 5.5b (b) Photomicrograph of a sectioned eccrine gland (220x) Secretory cells Dermal connective tissue Duct Sebaceous gland Sweat pore Eccrine gland
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Sweat Glands 2.Apocrine sweat glands—confined to axillary and anogenital areas Sebum: sweat + fatty substances and proteins Ducts connect to hair follicles Functional from puberty onward (as sexual scent glands?) Specialized apocrine glands Ceruminous glands—in external ear canal; secrete cerumen Mammary glands
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Sebaceous (Oil) Glands Widely distributed Most develop from hair follicles Become active at puberty Sebum Oily holocrine secretion Bactericidal Softens hair and skin
Figure 5.5a (a) Photomicrograph of a sectioned sebaceous gland (220x) Sebaceous gland duct Hair in hair follicle Secretory cells Dermal connective tissue Sebaceous gland Sweat pore Eccrine gland
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hair Functions Alerting the body to presence of insects on the skin Guarding the scalp against physical trauma, heat loss, and sunlight Distribution Entire surface except palms, soles, lips, nipples, and portions of external genitalia
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hair Consists of dead keratinized cells Contains hard keratin; more durable than soft keratin of skin Hair pigments: melanins (yellow, rust brown, black) Gray/white hair: decreased melanin production, increased air bubbles in shaft
Figure 5.6a Hair shaft Arrector pili Sebaceous gland Hair root Hair bulb (a) Diagram of a cross section of a hair within its follicle Connective tissue root sheath Glassy membrane External epithelial root sheath Internal epithelial root sheath Follicle wall Cuticle Cortex Medulla Hair
(b) Photomicrograph of a cross section of a hair and hair follicle (250x) Connective tissue root sheath Follicle wall Cuticle Glassy membrane Cortex Medulla Internal epithelial root sheath External epithelial root sheath Hair Hair shaft Arrector pili Sebaceous gland Hair root Hair bulb Figure 5.6b
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hair Follicle Extends from the epidermal surface into dermis Two-layered wall: outer connective tissue root sheath, inner epithelial root sheath Hair bulb: expanded deep end
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hair Follicle Hair follicle receptor (root hair plexus) Sensory nerve endings around each hair bulb Stimulated by bending a hair Arrector pili Smooth muscle attached to follicle Responsible for “goose bumps”
Figure 5.6c Hair shaft Arrector pili Sebaceous gland Hair root Hair bulb (c)Diagram of a longitudinal view of the expanded hair bulb of the follicle, which encloses the matrix Internal epithelial root sheath External epithelial root sheath Connective tissue root sheath Follicle wall Hair matrix Melanocyte Hair papilla Subcutaneous adipose tissue Medulla Cortex Cuticle Glassy membrane Hair root
(d) Photomicrograph of longitudinal view of the hair bulb in the follicle (160x) Follicle wall Hair matrix Hair papilla Subcutaneous adipose tissue Hair root Connective tissue root sheath Glassy membrane External epithelial root sheath Internal epithelial root sheath Cuticle Cortex Medulla Hair shaft Arrector pili Sebaceous gland Hair root Hair bulb Figure 5.6d
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Hair Vellus—pale, fine body hair of children and adult females Terminal—coarse, long hair of eyebrows, scalp, axillary, and pubic regions (and face and neck of males)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Hair Hair Growth Growth phase (weeks to years) followed by regressive stage and resting phase (1–3 months) Growth phase varies (6–10 years in scalp, 3–4 months in eyebrows)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hair Thinning and Baldness Alopecia—hair thinning in both sexes after age 40 True (frank) baldness Genetically determined and sex-influenced condition Male pattern baldness is caused by follicular response to DHT
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Structure of a Nail Scalelike modification of the epidermis on the distal, dorsal surface of fingers and toes
Figure 5.7 Lateral nail fold Lunule Nail matrix Root of nail Proximal nail fold Hyponychium Nail bed Phalanx (bone of fingertip) Eponychium (cuticle) Body of nail Free edge of nail (a) (b)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Functions of the Integumentary System 1.Protection—three types of barriers Chemical Low pH secretions (acid mantle) and defensins retard bacterial activity
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Functions of the Integumentary System Physical/mechanical barriers Keratin and glycolipids block most water and water- soluble substances Limited penetration of skin by lipid-soluble substances, plant oleoresins (e.g., poison ivy), organic solvents, salts of heavy metals, some drugs Biological barriers Dendritic cells, macrophages, and DNA
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Functions of the Integumentary System 2.Body temperature regulation ~500 ml/day of routine insensible perspiration (at normal body temperature) At elevated temperature, dilation of dermal vessels and increased sweat gland activity (sensible perspirations) cool the body 3.Cutaneous sensations Temperature, touch, and pain
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Functions of the Integumentary System 4.Metabolic functions Synthesis of vitamin D precursor and collagenase Chemical conversion of carcinogens and some hormones 5.Blood reservoir—up to 5% of body’s blood volume 6.Excretion—nitrogenous wastes and salt in sweat
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Skin Cancer Most skin tumors are benign (do not metastasize) Risk factors Overexposure to UV radiation Frequent irritation of the skin Some skin lotions contain enzymes in liposomes that can fix damaged DNA
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Skin Cancer Three major types: Basal cell carcinoma Least malignant, most common Squamous cell carcinoma Second most common Melanoma Most dangerous
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Basal Cell Carcinoma Stratum basale cells proliferate and slowly invade dermis and hypodermis Cured by surgical excision in 99% of cases
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Involves keratinocytes of stratum spinosum Most common on scalp, ears, lower lip, and hands Good prognosis if treated by radiation therapy or removed surgically
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Melanoma Involves melanocytes Highly metastatic and resistant to chemotherapy Treated by wide surgical excision accompanied by immunotherapy
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Melanoma Characteristics (ABCD rule) A: Asymmetry; the two sides of the pigmented area do not match B: Border exhibits indentations C: Color is black, brown, tan, and sometimes red or blue D: Diameter is larger than 6 mm (size of a pencil eraser)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Burns Heat, electricity, radiation, certain chemicals Burn (tissue damage, denatured protein, cell death) Immediate threat: Dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, leading to renal shutdown and circulatory shock
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Partial-Thickness Burns First degree Epidermal damage only Localized redness, edema (swelling), and pain Second degree Epidermal and upper dermal damage Blisters appear
Figure 5.10a (a)Skin bearing partial thickness burn (1st and 2nd degree burns) 1st degree burn 2nd degree burn
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Full-Thickness Burns Third degree Entire thickness of skin damaged Gray-white, cherry red, or black No initial edema or pain (nerve endings destroyed) Skin grafting usually necessary
Figure 5.10b (b)Skin bearing full thickness burn (3rd degree burn) 3rd degree burn
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Severity of Burns Critical if: >25% of the body has second-degree burns >10% of the body has third-degree burns Face, hands, or feet bear third-degree burns
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Developmental Aspects: Fetal Ectoderm epidermis Mesoderm dermis and hypodermis Lanugo coat: covering of delicate hairs in 5th and 6th month Vernix caseosa: sebaceous gland secretion; protects skin of fetus
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Developmental Aspects: Adolescent to Adult Sebaceous gland activity increases Effects of cumulative environmental assaults show after age 30 Scaling and dermatitis become more common
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Developmental Aspects: Old Age Epidermal replacement slows, skin becomes thin, dry, and itchy Subcutaneous fat and elasticity decrease, leading to cold intolerance and wrinkles Increased risk of cancer due to decreased numbers of melanocytes and dendritic cells
A/P Ch 5 Flash cards. What are the major regions of the skin?
Integumentary System Accessories. Hair Hair Functions Helping to maintain warmth – Cold stimulates muscles (arrector pili) to erect hairs which traps.
PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings C h a p t e r 5 The Integumentary System PowerPoint® Lecture Slides prepared.
The Integumentary System Mr. West Anatomy and Physiology.
The Integumentary System. Overview of the Skin Largest organ of the body (15% of body weight) Two main layers epidermis stratified squamous epithelium.
The Integumentary System. Integumentary System Includes: Skin (cutaneous membrane) Subcutaneous tissue below the skin Accessory Structures Sweat glands.
Skin Appendages Cutaneous (relating to skin) glands Cutaneous (relating to skin) glands Sebaceous glands Sebaceous glands Sweat glands Sweat glands Hair.
THE SKIN B&S CHAPTER 6. Purpose of the skin Its the largest organ in the body Used for protection against drying (dehydration) and pathogens Regulates.
The Integumentary System Skin, Hair, Nails, and Glands.
3/28/20141 Chapter 6 (Integument). 3/28/20142 Introduction to the Integumentary System Integument = skin Integumentary system = skin and its appendages.
Integumentary System Protective Covering and First Line of Defense.
Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Tenth Edition Shier Butler Lewis Chapter 6 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for.
xxx xxxxxx xxx xxx.
CHAPTER ESSENTIALS OF A&P FOR EMERGENCY CARE Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce.
Body Membranes #1 In your opinion describe what is a membrane? In your opinion describe what is a membrane? In your opinion explain the purpose of a membrane?
Integumentary System HST III Objectives: After completing this unit each student should be able to: Compare the composition and function of.
Chapter # - Chapter Title $100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $100$100$100 $200 $300 $400 $500 Membraniac Your Epidermis is showing! Skin Layers Hair, sweat, and.
Chapter 4 Organization and Regulation of Body Systems.
The INTEGUMENTARY System Unit 2 Support Systems. Vocabulary Word parts 1.cutane/o-skin Subcutaneous (beneath the skin) 1.Dermat/o-skin Dermatologist (one.
Seven Functions of Skin Mechanical/Chemical damage – keratin toughens cells; fats cells cushion blows; and pressure receptors measure damage Mechanical/Chemical.
Seven Functions of Skin Mechanical/Chemical damage – keratin toughens cells; fats cells cushion blows; and pressure receptors to measure possible damage.
Skin Functions of Skin Mechanical/Chemical damage – keratin toughens cells; fats cells cushion blows; and pressure receptors to measure possible damage.
INTEGUMENTARY OBJECTIVES 1-11 Integumentary system is made up of: Integumentary system is made up of: Skin, accessory structures, and subcutaneous tissues.
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM. Skin – Did you know? The largest organ of the body - 21 square feet; 4 Kg/9 lbs – 15% of total body weight Varies in thickness from.
Non Prescription Drugs Course Instructor Pr. Dr Hanaa Elsaghir Course Instructor Pr. Dr Hanaa Elsaghir Text : Handbook of Nonprescription Drug latest edition.
1Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Chapter 50 Skin Disorders.
Animal Tissues and Organ Systems Chapter 33 AP Biology Spring 2011.
Self-Treatment of Acne, Dermatitis, and General Skin Care John Pedey-Braswell 2005 Pharm.D. Candidate University of Washington School of Pharmacy Pharmacy.
Skin (Integument) External body covering Functions Insulation Protects Prevents water loss Temperature regulator Vitamin D Senses Layers Epidermis,
© 2016 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.