Presentation on theme: "Reconstruction: A Failed Revolution"— Presentation transcript:
1 Reconstruction: A Failed Revolution Thesis StatementDuring Reconstruction, the federal government missed a unique opportunity to radically restructure southern society along more egalitarian lines. While conditions for African- Americans began to improve during Reconstruction, many of their gains were quickly erased during the “Jim Crow” period that followed.
2 Presidential Reconstruction JohnsonNo loyalty oath requiredOpposed helping former slavesLincoln10% Plan… 90% could refuse loyalty oathBothWanted to go easy on the South… heal the wounds of the war as fast as possible.Supported the 13th Amendment… Ended slavery everywhereLiberally issued pardons to former ConfederatesBelieved Southern states had NOT actually left the Union… therefore Reconstruction was primarily a military endeavor, and should be under the control of the executive branch.
3 Radical Reconstruction Harsh, punishing philosophy toward the SouthWanted more help for former slaves50% Loyalty OathWanted to strictly exclude former Confederates from political officeMilitary Reconstruction Act of 1867 (5 Military Districts)Believed that southern states had committed “state suicide” and had to re-apply for statehood (therefore Reconstruction should be in the hands of the legislative branch).Thaddeus StevensCharles Sumner
4 Help for FreedmenFreedmen’s Bureau... Help w/ schools, labor contracts, etc.Civil Rights Act of 1866… Granted African-Americans citizenship & all rights of citizens14th Amendment... Citizenship for African-Americans, “Equal Treatment under the Law15th Amendment: Right to vote can't be denied by raceKlan Acts (Force Acts) of 1870 & 1871… Gave military authority to target the KKK… forced it to be more secretiveBUT… No land redistribution
5 Republican Governments in the South Freedmen: Freed slaves“Carpetbaggers:” Northern migrants who moved South to help freedmen, or exploit economic & political opportunities“Scalawags:” White southern RepublicansHow well did they do?... Probably no better or worse than Democratic governments.Racist Political Cartoon Depicted Republican Governments in the South
6 SharecroppingSharecropping: Landowner provided land, seeds, tools, and lent $ for expenses in exchange for a portion of the cropTenant Farming: Renting landDebt Peonage: Both systems usually trapped poor farmers (white & black)
10 A Steel Manufacturer in Birmingham, Alabama The “New South”Some industrialization begins to take place in southern cities like Birmingham, ALMuch of the economic growth was financed by investors & entrepreneurs from the North (a.k.a. “carpetbaggers”)A Steel Manufacturer in Birmingham, Alabama
15 The Ku Klux Klan Founded in Tennessee in 1866 Terrorized southern blacks, and whites who sympathized with themLargely (but temporarily) eradicated after the anti- Klan Acts of 1870 & 1871It re-emerges after the Union army pulls out in 1877