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Open Access: Maximizing the Impact of Research and Scholarship Heather Joseph Executive Director, SPARC Drew University September 10, 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Open Access: Maximizing the Impact of Research and Scholarship Heather Joseph Executive Director, SPARC Drew University September 10, 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Open Access: Maximizing the Impact of Research and Scholarship Heather Joseph Executive Director, SPARC Drew University September 10, 2012

2 Our Mission: Expand the distribution of the results of research and scholarship in a way that leverages digital networked technology, reduces financial pressures on libraries, and creates a more open system of scholarly communication.

3 Science and Scholarship

4 “If I as a researcher go through the work of designing and conducting an experiment, but don’t tell anyone the results, what what the point of me doing the work in the first place?” ----Dr. Keith Yamamoto, Executive Vice Dean, UCSF Medical School

5 “If you have an apple and I have an apple, and we exchange apples, then you and I will still each have one apple. But if you have an idea and I have an idea, and we exchange these ideas, each of us will have two ideas... “ - George Bernard Shaw

6 Price Barriers Source:

7 Library budgets journal prices

8 “ Scientific, technical, medical, legal and business journals – an $8.9 billion market - grew at 3% in 2010… ” STM Publishing News,


10 What Does this Mean for You?




14 What do You Do?

15 It isn’t Inter-Library Loan…

16 I ask the author for a copy.

17 I get it from a colleague at an institution with a subscription.


19 We’re used to workarounds.

20 But wait…there’s more.

21 20052006 2007 first quarter 2007 second quarter2007 third quarter 2007 fourth quarter 2008 first quarter A New Era in Medicine: Explosion in Scientific Discovery Second quarter 2008



24 We need to be able to apply computational tools to our scholarship

25 Access is only half the battle.

26 Copyright


28 We Don’t want a “Read-Only” World.

29 We Need a System that Takes Down the Barriers Pricing barriers Technical barriers (interoperability) Legal barriers (licensing rights)


31 31 “By open access, we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search or link to the full text of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software or use them for any other lawful purpose…” - The Budapest Open Access Initiative – February 14, 2002

32 So - Are we There Yet?

33 33 Opportunities to Advance OA Infrastructure Legal Constructs Policy Framework Culture Change

34 Infrastructure: Open Access Journals

35 35 More than 8,100 OA Journals


37 OA Papers Published 2000-2010 Some data courtesy of Mark Patterson (PLoS), from Patterson: ‘Open Access Publishers: Breaking even and growing fast, ‘ delivered at APE 2011: breaking-even-and-growing-fast/ breaking-even-and-growing-fast/

38 THE OPEN ACCESS CITATION ADVANTAGE Source: Swan, A. (2010) The Open Access citation advantage: Studies and results to date. Technical Report UNSPECIFIED, School of Electronics & Computer Science, University of Southampton



41 Article Level Metric Slide


43 Infrastructure: Open Access Repositories

44 44 Open Access Repositories FEDERATION …exist alongside traditional publishing

45 Open Data

46 OER

47 Copyright

48 48


50 Open Licenses

51 Progress Here is Slower, But…

52 …A “Strength in Numbers” Approach is Helping

53 53



56 56

57 Growth of Open Access Policies

58 And the Bar has been Raised Even Higher…

59 Access is National Policy Issue

60 “The Director of the National Institutes of Health shall require that all investigators funded by the NIH submit or have submitted for them to the National Library of Medicine's PubMed Central an electronic version of their final, peer-reviewed manuscripts upon acceptance for publication, to be made publicly available no later than 12 months after the official date of publication.” - U.S. Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2008

61 NIH Public Access Policy 4 Years In 2.4 million articles currently available in PubMed Central (PMC) More than 500,000 unique individual users hit PMC - daily. Less than 1/3 rd of all users come domains No publishers have been harmed in the making of this policy….


63 Ongoing Challenges Researcher awareness of OA not high enough Perceived barriers still in place: Disciplinary differences New forms of scholarship not yet trusted Uncertainty over sustainability Deep reliance on current impact measures

64 Strategies to Consider Consider OA issues at the beginning, not the end, of research process Faculty control the destiny of their scholarly output Library plays crucial role in providing/enabling infrastructure educational resources to amplify impact of faculty work

65 Strategies to Consider Incentive and reward structures need to be aligned with goal of open Must be a priority at highest level of administration Need to “model new behaviors” in evaluation, promotion and tenure process Need more mechanisms to encourage thinking beyond single impact factor


67 Thank you for listening Heather Dalterio Joseph (202) 296-2296 With grateful thanks to John Wilbanks, Melissa Hagemann, Cameron Neylon, Gary Ward, Carl Bergstrom, Michael Carroll, Elias Zerhouni, Keith Yamamato and many others for freely sharing their ideas and in some cases, slides, with me.

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