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Emerging Open Data Policies in the U.S. – An Overview Heather Joseph Executive Director, SPARC JISC/CNI Meeting Edinburgh, Scotland July 2, 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Emerging Open Data Policies in the U.S. – An Overview Heather Joseph Executive Director, SPARC JISC/CNI Meeting Edinburgh, Scotland July 2, 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Emerging Open Data Policies in the U.S. – An Overview Heather Joseph Executive Director, SPARC JISC/CNI Meeting Edinburgh, Scotland July 2, 2010

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3 3 By open access, we mean its immediate, free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search or link to the full text of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software or use them for any other lawful purpose… - The Budapest Open Access Initiative – February 14, 2002

4 Sources of U.S. Information Policy Copyright Act (17 U.S.C. 105) Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552) Paperwork Reduction Act ( 44 U.S.C. Chapter 35) Electronic FOIA Amendments of Government Paperwork Elimination Act of Office of Management and Budget Circular No. A- 130, Management of Federal Information Resources, (61 FR 6425, February 20, 1996)

5 OMB Circular A-130 …government information is a valuable national resource, and… the economic benefits to society are maximized when government information is available in a timely and equitable manner to all. - From OMB Circular No. A-130, Open and unrestricted access to public information at no more than the cost of dissemination

6 Government Funded Research….

7 …is Taxpayer Funded Research

8 Goals of U.S. Public Access Policies Expand access to results of taxpayer funded research results Accelerate pace of discovery and innovation Create permanently accessible archive for public use Enhance accountability and transparency of federal agency

9 The Director of the National Institutes of Health shall require that all investigators funded by the NIH submit…to the National Library of Medicine's PubMed Central an electronic version of their final, peer- reviewed manuscripts upon acceptance for publication, to be made publicly available no later than 12 months after the official date of publication. - U.S. Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2008

10 Open Data

11 Important Drivers Articles Grassroots scientific community Intermediaries - libraries Activists – open government, patients advocates Key Leaders (NIH Director, congress Mandates (congress) Data Grassroots –scientific community General public (re-mixers, app developers ) Agencies Top level political leaders Mandates (Executive Branch/WH)

12 The Three-Tiered Approach It has to start at the top, it has to start in the middle, and it has to start at the bottom -Tim Berners Lee – Open Data Study Commissioned by the Transparency and Accountability Initiative, May 2010

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16 Open Government Directive TRANSPARENCY PARTICIPATION COLLABORATION

17 Courtesy Cameron Neylon

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28 Emerging Approaches/Themes Recognize that maximizing access maximize benefits Sets the default to Open Shades of Open - Recognizes that exceptions will be the rule – Issues of confidentiality and privacy acknowledged. Community driven approach to development/implementation

29 Emerging Approaches/Themes Explicitly recognize need for partnerships (public/private and beyond) Culture change – incentivize sharing data Intellectual property rights must be respected Good Practices that will evolve into Best Practices

30 Its about the hope and the faith and the possibilities that are created by working in a networked digital environment when we connect networks of knowledge to institutions and their static procedures, and blow open these procedures to let people get at information in new ways in order to solve problems better - Beth Noveck, U.S. Deputy Chief Technology Officer at the World Bank May 22, 2010


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