Presentation on theme: "Scientific Revolution How our view of the universe changed."— Presentation transcript:
Scientific Revolution How our view of the universe changed
Background Up until the mid-1500’s, most scientists did not make any observations of their own, but instead, studied the observations made by ancient authorities such as Aristotle. (300’s BC). In the mid to late 1500’s, some humanists who studied both Latin and greek were able to interepret works that had been recently discovered by scientists like Ptolemy, Archimedes, and Plato. Showed disagreement with Aristotle. Invention of Telescope and Microscope made observations more reliable during this time. Math became a key element during this time. Many scientists thought it was the key to the secrets of the universe.
Astronomy GEOCENTRIC UNIVERSE- the idea that the Earth was at the center of the universe and all planets and stars revolve around it. Ptolemy (2 nd century A.D.) believed that there were spheres which held all the planets and made them revolve around the earth. HELIOCENTRIC UNIVERSE- the idea that the Sun was at the center of the universe and all planets revolved around it. Copernicus- Polish Astronomer who introduced this idea. Kepler- German mathematician who said the planets were in an egg- shaped orbit.
Astronomy Galileo- Italian mathematician and scientist who used a telescope to make several discoveries about the universe. He discovered that other planets and moons seemed to be made up of material substance, just like Earth, which went against what the church had been teaching. Newton- Laws of gravity help to explain why planets stay in an orbit around the sun, and why moons orbit planets. Newton’s laws of gravity allowed the universe to be seen as a machine instead of as a heavenly place.
Medicine and Chemistry Advances by Vesalius and Harvey changed the way we looked at the human body. Vesalius began to dissect human beings to be able to understand the body better. He was able to see how organs worked within the body. Harvey discovered that the heart was where blood was pumped from, not the liver as previously thought. Robert Boyle conducted controlled experiments with chemicals and gasses. Antoine Lavoisier named chemical elements. He is known as the founder of modern Chemistry.
Women as Scientists Margaret Cavendish- a scientist who wrote several papers on the universe. Most well known for her thought that humans were NOT the masters of nature as we have no control over major natural events. German Astronomers- Most women who made contributions to science during this time were astronomers from Germany. They would be taught by fathers, or husbands how to use telescopes so they could be helpers in family observatories. Maria Winkelmann- Discovered a comet while working with her husband. Applied to me a member of the Berlin Academy but was denied because she was a woman.
Reason and the Scientific Method Rene Descartes- French Philosopher whose work was centered around reason and doubt. “I Think, therefore I am” RATIONALISM- system of thought based on the belief that reason is the chief source of knowledge. Rationalism led to a new way of thinking about Science. Francis Bacon- a philosopher who believed that instead of listening to ancient authorities, scientists should discover for themselves. SCIENTIFIC METHOD- a systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence