28000 BC – Prehistoric Medicine Rudimentary – cave paintings suggest early humans believed in spiritsUsed rituals, prayers and ceremonies to cure diseaseSpirit healers would cast spells to treat the sickDrinking the blood of a wild animal would give special powers to the shaman to treat sicknessTrepanningBored a hole in the skull to let out evil spiritsSkulls show that these wounds would heal and that patients often survived
42000 BC – Egyptian Medicine First Pharmacists - used herbs and potions They used many preparations including cannabis, opium, linseed oid and sennaPriests were doctors – used a combination of prayers and herbsGods were responsible for the health of different parts of the body.Mummification of bodyEmbalmers would carefully remove body organs which were preserved in jars and buried with the mummified body
6450 BC – 300 AD – Romans and Greeks Age of ReasonGalen – techniques in SurgeryGreek physicianIllegal to dissect human bodies so he dissected animals to find out how the body works.HygieneLink between dirt and diseaseBuilt aqueducts to supply clean water and sewers to remove wastesHippocratesFather of Modern MedicineHippocratic OathFour Humors – If a person was ill it was because they had an inbalance with their humorsBloodPhlegmBlack BileYellow Bile
8AD – Middle AgesDetermined by religion – cures were prayers, herbs and blood lettingPlagueBiggest medical challengeStarted in Turkey90% of the population was affectedAnesthetics used for surgeryOpiatesdisinfectantsPriests were doctorsTraditional cures using herbs and potionsPrayer, repentance and sacrifice were cures
121400 – 1700 The RenaissanceNew Lands brought new medicine and new diseasesHospitals were for the wealthy and they became the first medical schoolsCirculation was discovered by William Harvey in 1628Medical ResearchIdea of the 4 humors prevailedBody was seen as the creation of GodDa VinciDissected human bodiesMade the first anatomical drawings
141700 – 1900 – 18th and 19th CenturiesPeople’s understanding of the human body increased tremendously.Scientific knowledge spread rapidly because scientists began publishing their workAnton Van Leeuwenhoek invents microscopeLouis Pasteur discovers germs and bacteriaMicrobiology is bornIncreased knowledge of pathogenic microbes leads to the development of new medicinesThe pharmaceutical industry is born
1717th -18th century (cont.) Joseph Lister Florence Nightingale Discovered that septicemia was mostly caused by infections caught during surgery and led to deathFirst to use antiseptic to clean wounds and surgical instrumentsHis antiseptic techniques reduced deaths from infection from 60% to 4%.Florence NightingaleMost famous nurseImproved hygiene standards which reduced infections in hospitalsSet the foundations of hospital nursing care that are still practiced today
1917th – 18th Century (cont.) 1796 – Vaccinations Edward Jenner developed the first vaccinationHe deliberately infected an 8 year old boy with cowpoxThen he injected him with smallpox and the boy was protected by the earlier infection of cowpoxVaccination was made compulsorySmallpox was eradicated in 1977 when the last case of smallpox was reported.Smallpox vaccines are no longer given
21Ring around the RosiesRing around the rosies – praying on the rosary beadsA pocket full of posies – using posies scent to mask the scent of the diseaseAshes, Ashes – how the diseased people who had died were cremated and turned to ashesThey all fall down! – they all die!Fun, cute little kids song…
2217th – 18th Centuries (cont.) 1895 – X-RaysDiscovered by Wilhelm RoentgenX-rays can pass through skin and muscle and are absorbed by dense tissue and bone creating an image on photographic film.CT scanModern day xray machine that take simultaneous xrays from different angles.
25– The 20th CenturyVaccination is widely used for multiple childhood diseases.Fleming discovers penicillinBanting and Best discover that insulin can be used to treat diabetesNew medicines are produced every day through pharmaceutical research laboratoriesTechnology – MRI, bioengineering, artificial heart – first heart transplant performed by Dr. Christian Barnard in 1967, first test tube baby born on July 25, 1978 – Louise Brown, dialysis, cochlear implants and hearing aidsDNA research – Cloning, genetic engineering, human genome project
272000 and beyond - 21st century medicine Human genome project - Finding the sequence of DNA for every single gene in a complete set of human chromosomes.Genetic therapies – being developed that aim to replace faulty genes and reverse the effects of inherited disordersEthics and medicineModern day outbreaks – Avian flu, H1N1, MERSAWhat are the challenges?
29Review Questions What is trepanning? What health problems might have followed trepanning?Suggest why keeping medical records is an important part of developing new medical advances.What are the 4 humours?Suggest how outbreaks of infectious diseases are treated differently now, compared to the middle ages.What was the major contribution of Arabic medicine?How did explorers affect the development of medicine and also the new peoples that they visited?
30Review Questions (cont.) What were two major improvements in surgery during the 18th -19th centuries?How did the smallpox vaccination work?Describe the difference between an Xray, CT scan and MRI.Suggest some medical developments which improve the quality of health and life, rather than being only life-saving.Which type of microbe is killed by penicillin?What are the ethical challenges in today’s medicine?