Presentation on theme: "PART 1 AND 2 History of Medicine. 8000 BC – Prehistoric Medicine Rudimentary – cave paintings suggest early humans believed in spirits Used rituals, prayers."— Presentation transcript:
PART 1 AND 2 History of Medicine
8000 BC – Prehistoric Medicine Rudimentary – cave paintings suggest early humans believed in spirits Used rituals, prayers and ceremonies to cure disease Spirit healers would cast spells to treat the sick Drinking the blood of a wild animal would give special powers to the shaman to treat sickness Trepanning Bored a hole in the skull to let out evil spirits Skulls show that these wounds would heal and that patients often survived
2000 BC – Egyptian Medicine First Pharmacists - used herbs and potions They used many preparations including cannabis, opium, linseed oid and senna Priests were doctors – used a combination of prayers and herbs Gods were responsible for the health of different parts of the body. Mummification of body Embalmers would carefully remove body organs which were preserved in jars and buried with the mummified body
450 BC – 300 AD – Romans and Greeks Age of Reason Galen – techniques in Surgery Greek physician Illegal to dissect human bodies so he dissected animals to find out how the body works. Hygiene Link between dirt and disease Built aqueducts to supply clean water and sewers to remove wastes Hippocrates Father of Modern Medicine Hippocratic Oath Four Humors – If a person was ill it was because they had an inbalance with their humors Blood Phlegm Black Bile Yellow Bile
AD – Middle Ages Determined by religion – cures were prayers, herbs and blood letting Plague Biggest medical challenge Started in Turkey 90% of the population was affected Anesthetics used for surgery Opiates disinfectants Priests were doctors Traditional cures using herbs and potions Prayer, repentance and sacrifice were cures
AD – Arabian Medicine First Medical Book Written By Ali al-Hysayn Abd Allah Ibn Sina (Laws of Medicine) Universal Healthcare Clinics Hospitals
Anatomical drawing from “Laws of Medicine”
1400 – 1700 The Renaissance New Lands brought new medicine and new diseases Hospitals were for the wealthy and they became the first medical schools Circulation was discovered by William Harvey in 1628 Medical Research Idea of the 4 humors prevailed Body was seen as the creation of God Da Vinci Dissected human bodies Made the first anatomical drawings
DaVinci’s Vitruvian Man
1700 – 1900 – 18 th and 19 th Centuries People’s understanding of the human body increased tremendously. Scientific knowledge spread rapidly because scientists began publishing their work Anton Van Leeuwenhoek invents microscope Louis Pasteur discovers germs and bacteria Microbiology is born Increased knowledge of pathogenic microbes leads to the development of new medicines The pharmaceutical industry is born
17 th -18 th century (cont.) Joseph Lister Discovered that septicemia was mostly caused by infections caught during surgery and led to death First to use antiseptic to clean wounds and surgical instruments His antiseptic techniques reduced deaths from infection from 60% to 4%. Florence Nightingale Most famous nurse Improved hygiene standards which reduced infections in hospitals Set the foundations of hospital nursing care that are still practiced today
Nursing’s Shining Star: Florence Nightingale
17 th – 18 th Century (cont.) 1796 – Vaccinations Edward Jenner developed the first vaccination He deliberately infected an 8 year old boy with cowpox Then he injected him with smallpox and the boy was protected by the earlier infection of cowpox Vaccination was made compulsory Smallpox was eradicated in 1977 when the last case of smallpox was reported. Smallpox vaccines are no longer given
Person infected with smallpox
Ring around the Rosies Ring around the rosies – praying on the rosary beads A pocket full of posies – using posies scent to mask the scent of the disease Ashes, Ashes – how the diseased people who had died were cremated and turned to ashes They all fall down! – they all die! Fun, cute little kids song…
17 th – 18 th Centuries (cont.) 1895 – X-Rays Discovered by Wilhelm Roentgen X-rays can pass through skin and muscle and are absorbed by dense tissue and bone creating an image on photographic film. CT scan Modern day xray machine that take simultaneous xrays from different angles.
CT (Computerized Tomography) Scan Machine
– The 20 th Century Vaccination is widely used for multiple childhood diseases. Fleming discovers penicillin Banting and Best discover that insulin can be used to treat diabetes New medicines are produced every day through pharmaceutical research laboratories Technology – MRI, bioengineering, artificial heart – first heart transplant performed by Dr. Christian Barnard in 1967, first test tube baby born on July 25, 1978 – Louise Brown, dialysis, cochlear implants and hearing aids DNA research – Cloning, genetic engineering, human genome project
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Machine
2000 and beyond - 21 st century medicine Human genome project - Finding the sequence of DNA for every single gene in a complete set of human chromosomes. Genetic therapies – being developed that aim to replace faulty genes and reverse the effects of inherited disorders Ethics and medicine Modern day outbreaks – Avian flu, H1N1, MERSA What are the challenges?
Human Genome Project
Review Questions What is trepanning? What health problems might have followed trepanning? Suggest why keeping medical records is an important part of developing new medical advances. What are the 4 humours? Suggest how outbreaks of infectious diseases are treated differently now, compared to the middle ages. What was the major contribution of Arabic medicine? How did explorers affect the development of medicine and also the new peoples that they visited?
Review Questions (cont.) What were two major improvements in surgery during the 18 th -19 th centuries? How did the smallpox vaccination work? Describe the difference between an Xray, CT scan and MRI. Suggest some medical developments which improve the quality of health and life, rather than being only life-saving. Which type of microbe is killed by penicillin? What are the ethical challenges in today’s medicine?