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Shahin Bastaninejad, MD Assistant Prof. of ORL-HNS TUMS Amir’Alam Hospital.

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Presentation on theme: "Shahin Bastaninejad, MD Assistant Prof. of ORL-HNS TUMS Amir’Alam Hospital."— Presentation transcript:

1 Shahin Bastaninejad, MD Assistant Prof. of ORL-HNS TUMS Amir’Alam Hospital

2 Outline Definition Anatomy Patient evaluation FESS Concepts of Surgery


4 Functional Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery Replaced old practice of obliterating sinuses and removing mucosa. Concept of irreversibly diseased mucosa refuted. Functional aspect refers to: Preserving normal structures Removing only obstruction Preserving mucosa Attempt to restore function


6 Ethmoid anatomy is complex: Labyrinth Lamellae 1st - Uncinate 2nd - Ethmoid bulla 3rd - Basal lamella of middle turbinate 4th - Superior turbinate Ethmoid anatomy

7 Drainage Frontal, anterior ethmoid & maxillary – OMC Posterior Ethmoids – Superior meatus Sphenoid sinus – Sphenoid-ethmoidal recess

8 Middle Turbinate Three components First – Anterior, oriented in a sagittal plane and attached to skull base Second – Middle, oriented in a Vertical plane and attached to lamina papyracea (basal lamella and separates ant from post ethmoids) Third – Posterior, oriented in a horizontal plane and attaches to perpendicular plate of palate (forms roof of middle meatus, anterior to sphenopalatine foramen)

9 Middle Turbinate

10 Ostiomeatal Complex (OMC) Common drainage for frontal, maxillary and anterior ethmoid sinuses.

11 OMC

12 Infundibulum Infundibulum – funnel shaped area whereby the maxillary, ant ethmoid and frontal sinuses drains Uncinate process Uncinate process– Sickle shaped bony ethmoidal structure Hiatus Semilunaris Hiatus Semilunaris – Half-moon shape opening of infundibulum

13 Uncinate Process Attaches to the following structures: 1. Inf & far post. – To ethmoid process of inf. Turb

14 Uncinate Process 2. Ant & far sup. – To lamina papyracea, skull base or mid turb

15 3. Laterally – Lamina papyracea and fontanelle area

16 Uncinate Process 52%


18 Bulla Ethmoidalis The greatest anterior ethmoid air cell, attached to lamina papyrcea and usually open into lateral sinus


20 Sinus Lateralis = Suprabullar recess and retrobullar recess

21 SBR RBR Sinus Lateralis Middle turbinate: Horizontal and vertical basal lamella

22 Sphenoid Ostium Medial to posterior sup. turbinate Located between nasal septum and inferior aspect of sup. turbinate Located at the same level as the roof of the maxillary sinus Located 4 microdebrider/suction tip breaths above the choanae Located 7cm from nasal crest at 30°

23 Sphenoid Ostium

24 Sphenoid Sinus Relationships of important structures: Optic nerve – superior-lateral Carotid artery/cav sinus – mid-lateral Vidian nerve and maxillary nerve – inferior-lateral

25 Square – ant clinoid process, Circles – optic canals, triangle – vidian nerve Asterisk – pneumatization of pterygoid process

26 Sphenoid Classification

27 Sellar Presellar ConchalPost sellar

28 Onodi Cells or Sphenoethmoid cells

29 Optic Canal in Onodi Cells

30 anatomic keyhole in SBS


32 Keros classification Cribriform plate 1-3mm 3-7mm 7-16mm

33 Keros Classification Type I 1-3mm Type II 3-7mm Type III 7-16mm

34 Fovea and Ethmoidal arteries

35 Lens 70 degree – End of surgery

36 Frontal Cells Kuhn Cells

37 Frontal Recess Anatomic Boundries: Ant – unicate process & agger nasi Post – bulla ethmoidalis and suprabullar lamella Lateral – lamina papyracea Medially – hiatus semilunaris or middle turb Inf – Ethmoid infundibulum Sup – Fovea ethmoidalis, supraorbital air cell, anterior ethmoid artery and frontal ostium

38 Draf I Draf IIA

39 Draf Draf III

40 Frontal Sinus – Mucociliary Pattern  Save Mucosal Layer in Lateral part while performing Draf III opertation


42 Pre-op CT Evaluation CLOSE Technique C – Cribriform L – Lamina Papyracea O – Orbits, onodi cell, Optic Nerve S – Sphenoid, Skull Base E – Ethmoid Arteries

43 C - Cribriform Assess the Keros type Look for assymetry


45 L – Lamina Papyracea Check for dehiscence or pathologic fractures

46 O – Orbit, Optic Nerve, Onodi Cells Check for dehiscence Assess for onodi cells (superior-lateral to sphenoid) Orbital slope

47 S – Sphenoid, Skull base Assess for Carotid dehiscence and aeration patterns Conchal, Pre-sellar, & Sellar (thickness of clivus)

48 Skull base Assess slope of skull base Assess if roof of sphenoid is level with skull base

49 E – Ethmoid Artery

50 Concepts of surgery

51 Role of surgery Should be considered as adjunctive to medical therapy CRS is an inflammatory and multifactorial disease Institute medical therapy first prior to surgery unless impending complications Continued medical therapy is required following surgery to avoid recurrence

52 Defined surgical substeps are defined according to specific pathophysiologic obstruction that exist based on microanatomy

53 Antrostomy Some speculate nitric oxide produced in maxillary sinus has bacteriostatic properties, therefore better to keep antrostomy small Uncinate must be completely removed, source of recurrence. Mucociliary clearance remains to natural os Antrostomy must include the natural osium and accessory osium if present

54 Recirculation

55 Frontal Sinusotomy Question on to perform or not Do as little as possible but as much as necessary Some advocate ethmoid dissection and monitor Graduated approach to frontal sinuses Should evaluate with sagittal reconstruction Evaluate A-P and Mediolateral dimensions, asses neo- osteogenesis and pneumatization

56 Ethmoidectomy & Sphenoidotomy Anteroposteriorly Continue operation Anteroposteriorly toward the Sphenoid sinus, then open it Posteroanterior cutting forceps Now it is time to go on with Posteroanterior approach with a 30 degree lens and cutting forceps

57 References 1. Dr Quinn online Text book 2. Diseases of the Sinuses: Diagnosis and Management. Kennedy. Chapters 1, 2, 3, 15, and 16 3. Head and Neck – Otolaryngology. Bailey. Chapters 21, 25, 26. 4. Endoscopic Sinus Surgery Dissection Manual With Cdrom. Casiano 5. Endoscopic Anatomy of the lateral nasal wall, ostiomeatal complex and anterior skull base, a step-by-step guide. Reda Kamel 6. Endoscopic diagnosis and surgery of the paranasal sinuses and the anterior skull base. Heinz Stammberger 7. Rhinology and Sinus Disease, a problem-oriented approach. Steven D. Schaefer 8. Nasal and Sinus Surgery. Steven Marks. Sections 1, 2, and 3. 9. Surgical anatomy and physiology for the skull base surgeon. Ameet Singh, et al. Operative Techniques in Otolaryngology (2011) 22, 184-193 10. FRONTAL SINUS SURGERY 2004: UPDATE OF CLINICAL ANATOMY AND SURGICAL TECHNIQUES. MICHAEL FRIEDMAN, et al. OPERATIVE TECHNIQUES IN OTOLARYNGOLOGY—HEAD AND NECK SURGERY, VOL 15, NO 1 (MAR), 2004: PP 23-31


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