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Anatomy of female reproductive system Zhao Aimin.

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1 Anatomy of female reproductive system Zhao Aimin

2 Bony pelvis Sacrum( 骶骨) Coccyx (尾骨) Coxae (髋骨)  Ilium (髂骨)  Ischium (坐骨)  Pubis (耻骨 )

3 Pelvis Falase pelvis (major) True pelvis (minor) To surport the pregnancy Bounded by lumbar vertebrae posteriorly, iliac fossa bilaterally abdominal wall anteriorly Sacrum and coccyx posteriorly Ischium and pubis bilaterally and anteriorly

4 The pelvis plane Four planes  The pelvic inlet: the greatest  The midplane:the least  The pelvic outlet(two planes)

5 Pelvic inlet  Posteriorly by promontory of sacrum  Bilaterally by linea of iliac-pubis  Anteriorly by superior surface of pubis

6 midplane  Anteriorly by the lower border of pubis  Bilaterally by ischial spines is very important clinically because arrest of fetal descent occurs most frequently

7 outlet Irregular Consisting of two triangles It is bounded by  Posteriorly: the tip of sacrum  Laterally : ischial tuberosities sacrotuberous ligaments  Anteriorly:the lower border of pubis symphysis

8 Type of female pelvis  Gyecoid type %  Platypelloid type %  Anthropoid type %  Android type 1-3.7%

9 External genital organs  mons pubis: fatty tissue  labia majora  labia minora which lie inside the labia majora  clitoris: is located anterior to the labia minora

10 Vestibule( 前庭)  Lies between the labia minora  Is bounded Anteriorly by clitoris Posteriorly by perineum  Urethra and vaginal orifice open to the midline of the vestibule  Bartholin’s glands also empty into the vestibule

11 Internal genital organs Vagina( 阴道)  an organ for coitus  a drainage of menstrual flow  a passage for childbirth  posterior wall 10cm,anterior wall 7.5cm

12  Fornix : the area arounded the cervix (anterior,posterior,l ateral)  the posterior fornix is important pouch which allows access to the peritoneal cavity from vagina

13  The vagial wall is consisted of Mucouse membrance: is lined by squamous  Beneath this is a submucosal layer of connective tissue which contains a rich of veins and lymphatics  The muscular wall has three layers of smooth muscle.

14 Uterus( 子宫)  Lies between rectum and bladder  Volume: 7*5*3cm  Weight: 50g  Divided into two portions by isthmus The body  Cornu:where the fallopians enter  Fundus:the part of the body above the cornu


16 The uterus is surported by the following ligaments Round ligament Broad ligament Cardinal ligament Utero-sacral ligament

17 Histology of uterus There are three layers of the body The inner is endometrium which is consisted of the simple columnar epithelium Beneath the mucosa is the muscular layer,covered by peritoneal serosa

18 Fallopian tubes Length: 8-14cm The tube is divided four portions  Interstitial:  isthmun  Ampulla:the centre portion  Infundibulum :surround the ovary and help to collect the oocyte at the time of ovulation

19 The innner layer is covered by ciliate columnar epitheliun The cilia beat toward the uterus assisting in oocyte transport

20 ovaries  Be located on either side of the uterus  Volume:4*3*1cm  Weight:5-6g  be almond-shaped  Is divided two portion: cortex(outer portion): contains amount of follicles medulla(central portion): blood vessels, nerve fibres, lymphatics

21 Arterial system  Ovarian artery: from abdominal aorta (left may be from kedney artery  Uterine artery  Vaginal artery  Internal pudendal artery from internal iliac artery

22 Arterial system Ovarian arteries: from abdominal aorta (left may be from kedney artery Uterine

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