6Pelvis Ligaments Sacrospinous ligament 骶棘韧带 Extend from the lateral border of the sacrum and coccyx to the spine of the ischiumSacrotuberous ligament 骶结节韧带Extend from the posterior aspect of the lower 3 sacral vertebrae to the ischial tuberosity
8Pelvis Pelvic divisions (iliopectineal line 髂耻线) False pelvis (pelvis major)Ture pelvis (pelvis minor)Bony birth canalthe Pelvic inlet, the pelvic out let and the pelvic cavityTure pelvis is located below the iliopectineal line, bounded anteriorly by the pubic bones, posteriorly by the sacrum and coccyx, laterally by the ischium and a small segment of the ilium.
12Pelvis The anthropoid type (类人猿型骨盆) long, narrow, oval inlet. extended and narrow anterior and posterior segment. wide sacrosciatic notch. long , narrow sacrum. Straight side walls.The android type (男型骨盆)
13Pelvic floorThe tissues closing down the pelvic outlet (muscles and fasciae)suspend and support the pelvic organs, such as uterus and bladder and rectumPosterior part (urogenital triangle)urethra and vagina pass throughAnterior part (anal triangle)rectum pass through
16Pelvic floor Inner layer (pelvic diaphragm 盆膈) the main support of the pelvic floorformed by the levator ani and coccygenus muscles and covering fasciae.Levator ani: pubococcygenus (耻尾肌), iliococcygenus (髂尾肌), puborectalis (坐尾肌)
17Pelvic floorPerineumgeneral conception: the tissues closing down the pelvic outletClinical conception: the tissues between vagina and anus.
19External genitalia Labia majora The venous drainage is extensive and forms a plexus with numerous anastomoses. Vulva hematomaVaginal vestibuleBordered by the labia minora laterally, by the frenulum labiorum pudendal (阴唇系带) posteriorly, by the urethra and clitoris anteriorly, by the hymenal ring inferiorly.
22Internal genitalia Vagina strong canal of muscle (7.5cm) extend from the uterus to the vestibule of the external genitalia. its long axis is almost parallel with that of the lower part of the sacrum. the anterior wall of the vagina is 1.5-2cm shorter than the posterior wall.vaginal fornixthe circular cul-de-sac formed around the cervix4 regions: the anterior fornix, the posterior fornix and 2 lateral fornices.
23Internal genitalia Wall structure mucosal layer (stratified squamous epithelium)muscular layer (3 layer)submucous area ( with a dense plexus of veins and lymphatics)
25Internal genitalia Uterus Pear-shaped,thick-walled, muscular organ Body and cervix:Babyhood 1:2, manhood 2:1Isthmus utericonnect the body to cervix, 1cm (non-pregnancy)
26Internal genitalia Layers of uterine wall The serous layer (perimetrium)Thin and firmly adherent over the fundous and most of the bodyUterovesical pouch of the peritoneumRectouterine pouch of the peritoneum (pouch of Douglas)The muscular layerOuter layer (longitudinal fibers)Inner layer (interlaced and various directions)
27Internal genitalia The mucous layer (endometrium) compact layer: response to hormone periodically, a single layer of ciliated columnar epitheliumspongy layer: response to hormone periodically. contains many tubular glandsfunous: non-response to hormone periodically
28Internal genitalia Cervix lower 1/3 of uterus. connects uterus to vagina via endocervical canalExternal os: opening of endocervical canal to ectocervixInternal os: indistinct upper limit of endocervical canal
36Internal genitalia Structure of ovary Covered by cuboid or low columnar epitheliumConsist of a cortex and a medullaCortex: oocytes in various stages of maturity.Medulla: fibers, smooth muscle cells, blood vessel, nerves.
37Vessel and nerve and lymph Blood vesselThe ovarian arteryOrginated as branches of the abdominal aorta, (left: left renal artery).Turn over the common iliac artery and ureter,descend into the pelvis. Enter into ovary through the mesovarium
39Vessel and nerve and lymph The uterine arterya terminal branch of the hypogastric arteryCross the ureter near the cervix (2cm)Ascend along the lateral border of the uterusuterine body branch and cervix-vagina branch
40Vessel and nerve and lymph Vaginal arteryInternal Pudendal artery
41Vessel and nerve and lymph External genitaliasuperfical inguinal gland (腹股沟浅淋巴结)deep inguinal gland (腹股沟深淋巴结)
42Vessel and nerve and lymph Pelvic lymphiliac lymphcommon iliac, internal iliac and external iliacAnterior Sacral lymphLumbar lymph: abdominal aorta
45Answer the questionsHow many types of pelvis are there? What are they?What is perineum?What is vaginal vestibule?How many ligaments of uterus are there? What are they?How many ligaments of ovary are there? What are they?What is uterine isthmus?